Social Explorer; Eurostat: Technical Documentation
Eurostat statistics on mortality are based on the annual demographic data collection in the field of demography carried out by Eurostat. The completeness of information depends on the availability of data reported by the National Statistical Institutes.
The first demographic data collection of each year (T), named Rapid, is carried out in April-May (deadline 15 May of year T); during this data collection the first results on the main demographic developments in the previous year (T-1) and the population on 1 January of the current year (T) are collected from the National Statistical Institutes.
The Joint demographic data collection is carried out in cooperation with United Nation Statistical Division (UNSD) in the summer of each year, having the deadline 15 September. During this data collection Eurostat collects from the National Statistical Institutes detailed data by sex, age and other characteristics for the demographic events (births, deaths, marriages and divorces) of the previous year and the population on 1 January of the current and previous years.
The Nowcast demographic data collection is carried out in October-November (deadline 15 November of year T). The monthly time series on births, deaths, immigrants and emigrants available from the beginning of current year (T) are collected, with the purpose of producing a forecast on 1 January population of the following year (T+1).
More specifically, during year T the following data are collected and disseminated on mortality field:
- Total number of deaths in year (T-1)
- Infant mortality by age and sex (T-1)
- Late foetal deaths by mother's age (T-1)
- Deaths by age, year of birth and sex (T-1)
- Deaths by month, year (T) and (T-1)
The most recent (aggregated) data on the number of deaths includes also the most recent Eurostat now casts on the main demographic indicators (population, births, deaths and net migration including statistical adjustment). In principle, the table containing the main demographic indicators is updated three times per year, after each of the national data collections.
Detailed information on mortality (by age, sex, etc.) are updated towards the end of each year based on information collected during the Joint data collection.
Moreover, any update sent by the countries in-between data collections are validated, processed and uploaded into Eurostat's demographic database and in Eurostat's free dissemination online database as soon as possible. The geographical aggregates are recalculated accordingly.
The data transmitted by the National Statistical Institutes are validated by Eurostat, processed and uploaded into Eurostat's Demographic Database and in Eurostat's free dissemination online database. The data are also disseminated in several thematic and horizontal Eurostat's publications.
'Death' means the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after life birth has taken place (postnatal cessation of vital functions without capability of resuscitation).
'Infant death' means the death of a live-born infant who has not yet completed 1 year of life.
'Foetal death' means the death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, the death being indicated by the fact that after such separation the foetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord or definite movement of voluntary muscles.
'Late foetal death' means foetal deaths of 28 weeks or more of completed weeks of gestation.
'Stillbirth' means the expulsion or extraction from the mother of a dead foetus after the time at which it would normally be presumed capable of independent extra uterine existence (commonly taken to be after 24 or 28 weeks of gestation). Infants who are born alive but die shortly after birth are excluded from this category.
Crude deaths rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths during the year to the average population in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 inhabitants.
Infant mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under one year of age during the year to the number of live births in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 live births.
Early neonatal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under one week during the year to the number of live births in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 live births.
Late foetal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of still births during the year to the number of total births (live births + still births) in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 births.
Neonatal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under 28 days during the year to the number of live births in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 live births
Perinatal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under one week and the stillbirths during the year, to the number of births in that year (including stillbirths). The value is expressed per 1000 births.
Life expectancy at certain ages represents the mean number of years still to be lived by a person who has reached a certain exact age, if subjected throughout the rest of his or her life to the current mortality conditions (age-specific probabilities of dying).
Life table is one of the most important and most widely used devices in demography, summarizing various aspects of the variation of mortality with age and showing, for each age, the probability that a person of that age will die before their next birthday. One column of the table is "age" followed by columns that tabulate age-related functions pertaining to mortality: the numbers of survivors to various ages, deaths in particular age intervals, age specific death rates, probabilities of death in various age intervals, and life expectancy at given exact age.
The methodology for the calculation of Life table can be consulted in "Annex" at the bottom of the page.
Most National Statistical Institutes of the EU Member States provide data on deaths by both dimensions: age and year of birth. Two tables are compiled and disseminated based on the data collected: deaths by age at last birthday (also referred as age completed) and deaths by age reached during the year. The availability of data on deaths by the two age concepts among the countries starts at different moment of time series. Currently, all EU27 Member States provide data on deaths by the two concepts, with the exception of Ireland and Malta which measure mortality by age completed only.
Eurostat uses the concept of age completed for the calculation of the mortality indicators by age.
Absolute basic data received from the National Statistical Institutes are validated by Eurostat before being dissemination in Eurostat's free dissemination online database.
Basic validations are carried out to check if the totals provided by the countries are consistent with the breakdown by sex, by year of birth and by other characteristics.
Cross validations are carried out to check consistency between the different tables of one domain (e.g., the totals of deaths must be equal to the sum of deaths by months).
Time series analysis by country can be done to check if outliers appear.
When demographic indicators are calculated, any error detected in the time series by country is investigated with the national statistical institutes and data are corrected.