Summary Tape File 1
Appendix A. Area Classifications
These definitions are for all geographic entities and concepts that the Census Bureau will include in its standard 1990 census data products. Not all entities and concepts are shown in any one 1990 census data product. For a description of geographic areas included in each data product, see appendix F.
American Indian and Alaska Native Area
Alaska Native Regional Corporation
Alaska Native Regional Corporations (ANRC's) are corporate entities established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972, Public Law 92-203, as amended by Public Law 94-204, to conduct both business and nonprofit affairs of Alaska Natives. Alaska is divided into 12 ANRC's that cover the entire State, except for the Annette Islands Reserve. The boundaries of the 12 ANRC's were established by the Department of the Interior, in cooperation with Alaska Natives. Each ANRC was designed to include, as far as practicable, Alaska Natives with a common heritage and common interests. The ANRC boundaries for the 1990 census were identified by the Bureau of Land Management. A 13th region was established for Alaska Natives who are not permanent residents and who chose not to enroll in one of the 12 ANRC's; no census products are prepared for the 13th region. ANRC's were first identified for the 1980 census.
Each ANRC is assigned a two-digit census code ranging from 07 through 84. These census codes are assigned in alphabetical order of the ANRC's.
Alaska Native Village Statistical Area
Alaska Native villages (ANV's) constitute tribes, bands, clans, groups, villages, communities, or associations in Alaska that are recognized pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972, Public Law 92-203. Because ANV's do not have legally designated boundaries, the Census Bureau has established Alaska Native village statistical areas (ANVSA's) for statistical purposes. For the 1990 census, the Census Bureau cooperated with officials of the nonprofit corporation within each participating Alaska Native Regional Corporation (ANRC), as well as other knowledgeable officials, to delineate boundaries that encompass the settled area associated with each ANV. ANVSA's are located within ANRC's and do not cross ANRC boundaries. ANVSA's for the 1990 census replace the ANV's that the Census Bureau recognized for the 1980 census.
Each ANVSA is assigned a four-digit census code ranging from 6001 through 8989. Each ANVSA also is assigned a five-digit FIPS code. Both the census and FIPS codes are assigned in alphabetical order of ANVSA's.
American Indian Reservation and Trust Land
American Indian Reservation--Federal American Indian reservations are areas with boundaries established by treaty, statute, and/or executive or court order, and recognized by the Federal Government as territory in which American Indian tribes have jurisdiction. State reservations are lands held in trust by State governments for the use and benefit of a given tribe. The reservations and their boundaries were identified for the 1990 census by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Department of Interior (for Federal reservations), and State governments (for State reservations). The names of American Indian reservations recognized by State governments, but not by the Federal Government, are followed by "(State)." Areas composed of reservation lands that are administered jointly and/or are claimed by two reservations, as identified by the BIA, are called "joint areas," and are treated as separate American Indian reservations for census purposes.
Federal reservations may cross State boundaries, and Federal and State reservations may cross county, county subdivision, and place boundaries. For reservations that cross State boundaries, only the portion of the reservations in a given State are shown in the data products for that State; the entire reservations are shown in data products for the United States.
Each American Indian reservation is assigned a four-digit census code ranging from 0001 through 4989. These census codes are assigned in alphabetical order of American Indian reservations nationwide, except that joint areas appear at the end of the code range. Each American Indian reservation also is assigned a five-digit FIPS code; because the FIPS codes are assigned in alphabetical sequence of American Indian reservations within each State, the FIPS code is different in each State for reservations in more than one State.
Trust Land--Trust lands are property associated with a particular American Indian reservation or tribe, held in trust by the Federal Government. Trust lands may be held in trust either for a tribe (tribal trust land) or for an individual member of a tribe (individual trust land). Trust lands recognized for the 1990 census comprise all tribal trust lands and inhabited individual trust lands located outside of a reservation boundary. As with other American Indian areas, trust lands may be located in more than one State. Only the trust lands in a given State are shown in the data products for that State; all trust lands associated with a reservation or tribe are shown in data products for the United States. The Census Bureau first reported data for tribal trust lands for the 1980 census.
Trust lands are assigned a four-digit census code and a five-digit FIPS code, the same as that for the reservation with which they are associated. Trust lands not associated with a reservation are presented by tribal name, interspersed alphabetically among the reservations.
Tribal Designated Statistical Area (TDSA)
Tribal designated statistical areas (TDSA's) are areas, delineated outside Oklahoma by federally and State recognized tribes without a land base or associated trust lands, to provide statistical areas for which the Census Bureau tabulates data. TDSA's represent areas generally containing the American Indian population over which federally recognized tribes have jurisdiction and areas in which State tribes provide benefits and services to their members. The names of TDSA's delineated by State-recognized tribes are followed by "(State)." The Census Bureau did not recognize TDSA's before the 1990 census.
Each TDSA is assigned a four-digit census code ranging from 9001 through 9589. The census codes are assigned in alphabetical order of TDSA's nationwide. Each TDSA also is assigned a five-digit FIPS code in alphabetical order within State.
Tribal Jurisdiction Statistical Area (TJSA)
Tribal jurisdiction statistical areas (TJSA's) are areas, delineated by federally-recognized tribes in Oklahoma without a reservation, for which the Census Bureau tabulates data. TJSA's represent areas generally containing the American Indian population over which one or more tribal governments have jurisdiction; if tribal officials delineated adjacent TJSA's so that they include some duplicate territory, the overlap area is called a "joint use area," which is treated as a separate TJSA for census purposes. TJSA's replace the "Historic Areas of Oklahoma (excluding urbanized areas)" shown in 1980 census data products. The Historic Areas of Oklahoma comprised the territory located within reservations that had legally established boundaries from 1900 to 1907; these reservations were dissolved during the 2- to 3-year period preceding the statehood of Oklahoma in 1907. The Historic Areas of Oklahoma (excluding urbanized areas) were identified only for the 1980 census.
Each TJSA is assigned a four-digit census code ranging from 5001 through 5989. The census codes are assigned in alphabetical order of TJSA's, except that joint areas appear at the end of the code range. Each TJSA also is assigned a five-digit FIPS code in alphabetical order within Oklahoma.
Area measurements provide the size, in square kilometers (also in square miles in printed reports), recorded for each geographic entity for which the Census Bureau tabulates data in general-purpose data products (except crews-of-vessels entities and ZIP Codes). (Square kilometers may be divided by 2.59 to convert an area measurement to square miles.) Area was calculated from the specific set of boundaries recorded for the entity in the Census Bureau's geographic data base (see "TIGER"). On machine-readable files, area measurements are shown to three decimal places; the decimal point is implied. In printed reports and listings, area measurements are shown to one decimal.
The Census Bureau provides measurements for both land area and total water area for the 1990 census; the water figure includes inland, coastal, Great Lakes, and territorial water. (For the 1980 census, the Census Bureau provided area measurements for land and inland water.) The Census Bureau will provide measurements for the component types of water for the affected entities in a separate file. "Inland water" consists of any lake, reservoir, pond, or similar body of water that is recorded in the Census Bureau's geographic data base. It also includes any river, creek, canal, stream, or similar feature that is recorded in that data base as a two-dimensional feature (rather than as a single line). The portions of the oceans and related large embayments (such as the Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound), the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea that belong to the United States and its possessions are considered to be "coastal" and "territorial" waters; the Great Lakes are treated as a separate water entity. Rivers and bays that empty into these bodies of water are treated as "inland water" from the point beyond which they are narrower than one nautical mile across. Identification of land and inland, coastal, and territorial waters is for statistical purposes, and does not necessarily reflect legal definitions thereof.
By definition, census blocks do not include water within their boundaries; therefore, the water area of a block is always zero. Land area measurements may disagree with the information displayed on census maps and in the TIGER file because, for area measurement purposes, features identified as "intermittent water" and "glacier" are reported as land area. For this reason, it may not be possible to derive the land area for an entity by summing the land area of its component census blocks. In addition, the water area measurement reported for some geographic entities includes water that is not included in any lower-level geographic entity. Therefore, because water is contained only in a higher-level geographic entity, summing the water measurements for all the component lower-level geographic entities will not yield the water area of that higher-level entity. This occurs, for example, where water is associated with a county but is not within the legal boundary of any minor civil division, or the water is associated with a State but is not within the legal boundary of any county. Crews-of-vessels entities (see "Census Tract and Block Numbering Area" and "Block") do not encompass territory and therefore have no area measurements. ZIP Codes do not have specific boundaries, and therefore, also do not have area measurements.
The accuracy of any area measurement figure is limited by the inaccuracy inherent in (1) the location and shape of the various boundary features in the data base, and (2) rounding affecting the last digit in all operations that compute and/or sum the area measurements.
Census blocks are small areas bounded on all sides by visible features such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and by invisible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, property lines, and short, imaginary extensions of streets and roads.
Tabulation blocks, used in census data products, are in most cases the same as collection blocks, used in the census enumeration. In some cases, collection blocks have been "split" into two or more parts required for data tabulations. Tabulation blocks do not cross the boundaries of counties, county subdivisions, places, census tracts or block numbering areas, American Indian and Alaska Native areas, congressional districts, voting districts, urban or rural areas, or urbanized areas. The 1990 census is the first for which the entire United States and its possessions are block-numbered.
Blocks are numbered uniquely within each census tract or BNA. A block is identified by a three-digit number, sometimes with a single alphabetical suffix. Block numbers with suffixes generally represent collection blocks that were "split" in order to identify separate geographic entities that divide the original block. For example, when a city limit runs through data collection block 101, the data for the portion inside the city is tabulated in block 101A and the portion outside, in block 101B. A block number with the suffix "Z" represents a "crews-of-vessels" entity for which the Census Bureau tabulates data, but that does not represent a true geographic area; such a block is shown on census maps associated with an anchor symbol and a census tract or block numbering area with a .99 suffix.
A geographic block group (BG) is a cluster of blocks having the same first digit of their three-digit identifying numbers within a census tract or block numbering area (BNA). For example, BG 3 within a census tract or BNA includes all blocks numbered between 301 and 397. In most cases, the numbering involves substantially fewer than 97 blocks. Geographic BG's never cross census tract or BNA boundaries, but may cross the boundaries of county subdivisions, places, American Indian and Alaska Native areas, urbanized areas, voting districts, and congressional districts. BG's generally contain between 250 and 550 housing units, with the ideal size being 400 housing units.
In the data tabulations, a geographic BG may be split to present data for every unique combination of county subdivision, place, American Indian and Alaska Native area, urbanized area, voting district, urban/rural and congressional district shown in the data product; for example, if BG3 is partly in a city and partly outside the city, there will be separate tabulated records for each portion of BG3. BG's are used in tabulating decennial census data nationwide in the 1990 census, in all block-numbered areas in the 1980 census, and in Tape Address Register (TAR) areas in the 1970 census. For purposes of data presentation, BG's are a substitute for the enumeration districts (ED's) used for reporting data in many parts of the United States for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and in all areas for pre-1970 censuses.
The boundaries of some counties, county subdivisions, American Indian and Alaska Native areas, and many incorporated places, changed between those reported for the 1980 census and January 1, 1990. Boundary changes to legal entities result from:
- Annexations to or detachments from legally established governmental units.
- Mergers or consolidations of two or more governmental units.
- Establishment of new governmental units.
- Disincorporations or disorganizations of existing governmental units.
- Changes in treaties and Executive Orders.
The historical counts shown for counties, county subdivisions, and places are not updated for such changes, and thus reflect the population and housing units in the area as delineated at each census. Information on boundary changes reported between the 1980 and 1990 censuses for counties, county subdivisions, and incorporated places is presented in the "User Notes" section of the technical documentation of Summary Tape Files 1 and 3, and in the 1990 CPH-2, Population and Housing Unit Counts printed reports. For information on boundary changes for such areas in the decade preceding other decennial censuses, see the Number of Inhabitants reports for each census. Boundary changes are not reported for some areas, such as census designated places and block groups.
Census Region and Census Division
Census divisions are groupings of States that are subdivisions of the four census regions. There are nine divisions, which the Census Bureau adopted in 1910 for the presentation of data. The regions, divisions, and their constituent States are:
New England Division:
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut
Middle Atlantic Division:
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania
East North Central Division:
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin
West North Central Division:
Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas
South Atlantic Division:
Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida
East South Central Division:
Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi
West South Central Division:
Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas
Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada
Washington, Oregon, California, Alaska, Hawaii
Census regions are groupings of States that subdivide the United States for the presentation of data. There are four regions--Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Each of the four census regions is divided into two or more census divisions. Prior to 1984, the Midwest region was named the North Central region. From 1910, when census regions were established, through the 1940's, there were three regions--North, South, and West.
Census Tract and Block Numbering Area
Block Numbering Area (BNA)
Block numbering areas (BNA's) are small statistical subdivisions of a county for grouping and numbering blocks in nonmetropolitan counties where local census statistical areas committees have not established census tracts. State agencies and the Census Bureau delineated BNA's for the 1990 census, using guidelines similar to those for the delineation of census tracts. BNA's do not cross county boundaries.
BNA's are identified by a four-digit basic number and may have a two-digit suffix; for example, 9901.07. The decimal point separating the four-digit basic BNA number from the two-digit suffix is shown in printed reports, in microfiche, and on census maps; in machine-readable files, the decimal point is implied. Many BNA's do not have a suffix; in such cases, the suffix field is left blank in all data products. BNA numbers range from 9501 through 9989.99, and are unique within a county (numbers in the range of 0001 through 9499.99 denote a census tract). The suffix .99 identifies a BNA that was populated entirely by persons aboard one or more civilian or military ships. A "crews-of-vessels" BNA appears on census maps only as an anchor symbol with its BNA number (and block numbers on maps showing block numbers); the BNA relates to the ships associated with the onshore BNA's having the same four-digit basic number. Suffixes in the range .80 through .98 usually identify BNA's that either were revised or were created during the 1990 census data collection activities. Some of these revisions produced BNA's that have extremely small land area and ay have little or no population or housing. For data analysis, such a BNA can be summarized with an adjacent BNA.
Census tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county. Census tracts are delineated for all metropolitan areas (MA's) and other densely populated counties by local census statistical areas committees following Census Bureau guidelines (more than 3,000 census tracts have been established in 221 counties outside MA's). Six States (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, New Jersey, and Rhode Island) and the District of Columbia are covered entirely by census tracts. Census tracts usually have between 2,500 and 8,000 persons and, when first delineated, are designed to be homogeneous with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions. Census tracts do not cross county boundaries. The spatial size of census tracts varies widely depending on the density of settlement. Census tract boundaries are delineated with the intention of being maintained over a long time so that statistical comparisons can be made from census to census. However, physical changes in street patterns caused by highway construction, new development, etc., may require occasional revisions; census tracts occasionally are split due to large population growth, or combined as a result of substantial population decline. Census tracts are referred to as "tracts" in all 1990 data products.
Census tracts are identified by a four-digit basic number and may have a two-digit suffix; for example, 6059.02. The decimal point separating the four-digit basic tract number from the two-digit suffix is shown in printed reports, in microfiche, and on census maps; in machine-readable files, the decimal point is implied. Many census tracts do not have a suffix; in such cases, the suffix field is left blank in all data products. Leading zeros in a census tract number (for example, 002502) are shown only on machine-readable files.
Census tract numbers range from 0001 through 9499.99 and are unique within a county (numbers in the range of 9501 through 9989.99 denote a block numbering area). The suffix .99 identifies a census tract that was populated entirely by persons aboard one or more civilian or military ships. A "crews-of-vessels" census tract appears on census maps only as an anchor symbol with its census tract number (and block numbers on maps showing block numbers). These census tracts relate to the ships associated with the on-shore census tract having the same four-digit basic number. Suffixes in the range .80 through .98 usually identify census tracts that either were revised or were created during the 1990 census data collection activities. Some of these revisions may have resulted in census tracts that have extremely small land area and may have little or no population or housing. For data analysis, such a census tract can be summarized with an adjacent census tract.
Congressional districts (CD's) are the 435 areas from which persons are elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. After the apportionment of congressional seats among the States, based on census population counts, each State is responsible for establishing CD's for the purpose of electing representatives. Each CD is to be as equal in population to all other CD's in the State as practicable, based on the decennial census counts.
The CD's that were in effect on January 1, 1990 were those of the 101st Congress. Data on the 101st Congress appear in an early 1990 census data product (Summary Tape File 1A). The CD's of the 101st Congress are the same as those in effect for the 102nd Congress. CD's of the 103rd Congress, reflecting redistricting based on the 1990 census, are summarized in later 1990 data products (STF's 1D and 3D, and 1990 CPH-4, Population and Housing Characteristics for Congressional Districts of the 103rd Congress printed reports).
The primary political divisions of most States are termed "counties." In Louisiana, these divisions are known as "parishes." In Alaska, which has no counties, the county equivalents are the organized "boroughs" and the "census areas" that are delineated for statistical purposes by the State of Alaska and the Census Bureau. In four States (Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia), there are one or more cities that are independent of any county organization and thus constitute primary divisions of their States. These cities are known as "independent cities" and are treated as equivalent to counties for statistical purposes. That part of Yellowstone National Park in Montana is treated as a county equivalent. The District of Columbia has no primary divisions, and the entire area is considered equivalent to a county for statistical purposes.
Each county and county equivalent is assigned a three-digit FIPS code that is unique within State. These codes are assigned in alphabetical order of county or county equivalent within State, except for the independent cities, which follow the listing of counties.
County subdivisions are the primary subdivisions of counties and their equivalents for the reporting of decennial census data. They include census county divisions, census subareas, minor civil divisions, and unorganized territories.
Each county subdivision is assigned a three-digit census code in alphabetical order within county and a five-digit FIPS code in alphabetical order within State.
Census county divisions (CCD's) are subdivisions of a county that were delineated by the Census Bureau, in cooperation with State officials and local census statistical areas committees, for statistical purposes. CCD's were established in 21 States where there are no legally established minor civil divisions (MCD's), where the MCD's do not have governmental or administrative purposes, where the boundaries of the MCD's change frequently, and/or where the MCD's are not generally known to the public. CCD's have no legal functions, and are not governmental units.
The boundaries of CCD's usually are delineated to follow visible features, and in most cases coincide with census tract or block numbering area boundaries. The name of each CCD is based on a place, county, or well-known local name that identifies its location. CCD's have been established in the following 21 States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Kentucky, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. For the 1980 census, the county subdivisions recognized for Nevada were MCD's.
Census subareas are statistical subdivisions of boroughs and census areas (county equivalents) in Alaska. Census subareas were delineated cooperatively by the State of Alaska and the Census Bureau. The census subareas, identified first in 1980, replaced the various types of subdivisions used in the 1970 census.
Minor civil divisions (MCD's) are the primary political or administrative divisions of a county. MCD's represent many different kinds of legal entities with a wide variety of governmental and/or administrative functions. MCD's are variously designated as American Indian reservations, assessment districts, boroughs, election districts, gores, grants, magisterial districts, parish governing authority districts, plantations, precincts, purchases, supervisors' districts, towns, and townships. In some States, all or some incorporated places are not located in any MCD and thus serve as MCD's in their own right. In other States, incorporated places are subordinate to (part of) the MCD's in which they are located, or the pattern is mixed--some incorporated places are independent of MCD's and others are subordinate to one or more MCD's.
The Census Bureau recognizes MCD's in the following 28 States: Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The District of Columbia has no primary divisions, and the entire area is considered equivalent to an MCD for statistical purposes.
The MCD's in 12 selected States (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin) also serve as general-purpose local governments. The Census Bureau presents data for these MCD's in all data products in which it provides data for places.
Unorganized Territory (unorg.)
In nine States (Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, and South Dakota), some counties contain territory that is not included in an MCD recognized by the Census Bureau. Each separate area of unorganized territory in these States is recognized as one or more separate county subdivisions for census purposes. Each unorganized territory is given a descriptive name, followed by the designation "unorg."
Geographic codes are shown primarily on machine-readable data products, such as computer tape and compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM), but also appear on other products such as microfiche; they also are shown on some census maps. Codes are identified as "census codes" only if there is also a Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) code for the same geographic entity. A code that is not identified as either "census" or "FIPS" is usually a census code for which there is no FIPS equivalent, or for which the Census Bureau does not use the FIPS code. The exceptions, which use only the FIPS code in census products, are county, congressional district, and metropolitan area (that is, metropolitan statistical area, consolidated metropolitan statistical area, and primary metropolitan statistical area).
Census codes are assigned for a variety of geographic entities, including American Indian and Alaska Native area, census division, census region, county subdivision, place, State, urbanized area, and voting district. The structure, format, and meaning of census codes appear in the 1990 census Geographic Identification Code Scheme; in the data dictionary portion of the technical documentation for summary tape files, CD-ROM's, and microfiche.
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Code
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) codes are assigned for a variety of geographic entities, including American Indian and Alaska Native area, congressional district, county, county subdivision, metropolitan area, place, and State. The structure, format, and meaning of FIPS codes used in the census are shown in the 1990 census Geographic Identification Code Scheme; in the data dictionary portion of the technical documentation for summary tape files, CD-ROM's, and microfiche.
The objective of the FIPS codes is to improve the use of data resources of the Federal Government and avoid unnecessary duplication and incompatibilities in the collection, processing, and dissemination of data. More information about FIPS and FIPS code documentation is available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
United States Postal Service (USPS) Code
United States Postal Service (USPS) codes for States are used in all 1990 data products. The codes are two-character alphabetic abbreviations. These codes are the same as the FIPS two-character alphabetic abbreviations.
A hierarchical geographic presentation shows the geographic entities in a superior/subordinate structure in census products. This structure is derived from the legal, administrative, or areal relationships of the entities. The hierarchical structure is depicted in report tables by means of indentation, and is explained for machine-readable media in the discussion of file structure in the geographic coverage portion of the abstract in the technical documentation. An example of hierarchical presentation is the "standard census geographic hierarchy": block, within block group, within census tract or block numbering area, within place, within county subdivision, within county, within State, within division, within region, within the United States. Graphically, this is shown as:
Place (or part)
Census tract/block numbering area (or part)
Block group (or part)
An inventory presentation of geographic entities is one in which all entities of the same type are shown in alphabetical or code sequence, without reference to their hierarchical relationships. Generally, an inventory presentation shows totals for entities that may be split in a hierarchical presentation, such as place, census tract/block numbering area, or block group. An example of a series of inventory presentations is: State, followed by all the counties in that State, followed by all the places in that State. Graphically, this is shown as:
Historical counts for total population and total housing units are shown in the 1990 CPH-2, Population and Housing Unit Counts report series. As in past censuses, the general rule for presenting historical data for States, counties, county subdivisions, and places is to show historical counts only for single, continually existing entities. Stated another way, if an entity existed for both the current and preceding censuses, the tables show counts for the preceding censuses. Included in this category are entities of the same type (county, county subdivision, place) even if they had changed their names. Also included are entities that merged, but only if the new entity retained the name of one of the merged entities. The historical counts shown are for each entity as it was bounded at each census.
In cases where an entity was formed since a preceding census, such as a newly incorporated place or a newly organized township, the symbol three dots "..." is shown for earlier censuses. The three-dot symbol also is shown for those parts of a place that have extended into an additional county or county subdivision through annexation or other revision of boundaries since the preceding census.
In a few cases, changes in the boundaries of county subdivisions caused a place to be split into two or more parts, or to be split differently than in the preceding census. If historical counts for the parts of the place as currently split did not appear in a preceding census, "(NA)" is shown for the place in each county subdivision; however, the historical population and housing unit counts of the place appear in tables that show the entire place. For counties, county subdivisions, and places formed since January 1, 1980, 1980 census population and housing unit counts in the 1990 territory are reported in the geographic change notes included in the "User Notes" text section of 1990 CPH-2, Population and Housing Unit Counts, and in the technical documentation of Summary Tape Files 1 and 3.
In some cases, population and housing unit counts for individual areas were revised since publication of the 1980 reports (indicated by the prefix "r"). In a number of tables of 1990 CPH-2, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 1980 counts are shown for aggregations of individual areas, such as the number, population, and housing unit counts of places in size groups, or urban and rural distributions. Revisions of population and housing unit counts for individual areas were not applied to the various aggregations. Therefore, it may not be possible to determine the individual areas in a given aggregation using the historical counts; conversely, the sum of the counts shown for individual areas may not agree with the aggregation.
An internal point is a set of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) that is located within a specified geographic entity. A single point is identified for each entity; for many entities, this point represents the approximate geographic center of that entity. If the shape of the entity caused this point to be located outside the boundaries of the entity, it is relocated from the center so that it is within the entity. If the internal point for a block falls in a water area, it is relocated to a land area within the block. On machine-readable products, internal points are shown to six decimal places; the decimal point is implied.
The general concept of a metropolitan area (MA) is one of a large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. Some MA's are defined around two or more nuclei.
The MA classification is a statistical standard, developed for use by Federal agencies in the production, analysis, and publication of data on MA's. The MA's are designated and defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget, following a set of official published standards. These standards were developed by the interagency Federal Executive Committee on Metropolitan Areas, with the aim of producing definitions that are as consistent as possible for all MA's nationwide.
Each MA must contain either a place with a minimum population of 50,000 or a Census Bureau-defined urbanized area and a total MA population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England). An MA comprises one or more central counties. An MA also may include one or more outlying counties that have close economic and social relationships with the central county. An outlying county must have a specified level of commuting to the central counties and also must meet certain standards regarding metropolitan character, such as population density, urban population, and population growth. In New England, MA's are composed of cities and towns rather than whole counties.
The territory, population, and housing units in MA's are referred to as "metropolitan." The metropolitan category is subdivided into "inside central city" and "outside central city." The territory, population, and housing units located outside MA's are referred to as "nonmetropolitan." The metropolitan and nonmetropolitan classification cuts across the other hierarchies; for example, there is generally both urban and rural territory within both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. To meet the needs of various users, the standards provide for a flexible structure of metropolitan definitions that classify an MA either as a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or as a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA) that is divided into primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSA's). Documentation of the MA standards and how they are applied is available from the Secretary, Federal Executive Committee on Metropolitan Areas, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233.
In each MSA and CMSA, the largest place and, in some cases, additional places are designated as "central cities" under the official standards. A few PMSA's do not have central cities. The largest central city and, in some cases, up to two additional central cities are included in the title of the MA; there also are central cities that are not included in an MA title. An MA central city does not include any part of that city that extends outside the MA boundary.
Consolidated and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA and PMSA)
If an area that qualifies as an MA has more than one million persons, primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSA's) may be defined within it. PMSA's consist of a large urbanized county or cluster of counties that demonstrates very strong internal economic and social links, in addition to close ties to other portions of the larger area. When PMSA's are established, the larger area of which they are component parts is designated a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA).
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
Metropolitan statistical areas (MSA's) are relatively freestanding
MA's and are not closely associated with other MA's. These areas
typically are surrounded by nonmetropolitan counties.
Metropolitan Area Title and Code
The title of an MSA contains the name of its largest central city, and up to two additional city names, provided that the additional places meet specified levels of population, employment, and commuting. Generally, a city with a population of 250,000 or more is in the title, regardless of other criteria.
The title of a PMSA may contain up to three place names, as determined above, or up to three county names, sequenced in order of population. A CMSA title also may include up to three names, the first of which generally is the most populous central city in the area. The second name may be the first city or county name in the most populous remaining PMSA; the third name may be the first city or county name in the next most populous PMSA. A regional designation may be substituted for the second and/or third names in a CMSA title if such a designation is supported by local opinion and is deemed to be unambiguous and suitable by the Office of Management and Budget.
The titles for all MA's also contain the name of each State in which the area is located. Each metropolitan area is assigned a four-digit FIPS code, in alphabetical order nationwide. If the fourth digit of the code is a "2," it identifies a CMSA. Additionally, there is a separate set of two-digit codes for CMSA's, also assigned alphabetically.
Outlying Areas of the United States
The Census Bureau treats the outlying areas as the statistical equivalents of States for the 1990 census. The outlying areas are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Geographic definitions specific to each outlying area are shown in appendix A of the text in the data products for each area.
Places, for the reporting of decennial census data, include census designated places and incorporated places. Each place is assigned a four-digit census code that is unique within State. Each place is also assigned a five-digit FIPS code that is unique within State. Both the census and FIPS codes are assigned based on alphabetical order within State. Consolidated cities (see below) are assigned a one-character alphabetical census code that is unique nationwide and a five-digit FIPS code that is unique within State.
Census Designated Place (CDP)
Census designated places (CDP's) are delineated for the decennial census as the statistical counterparts of incorporated places. CDP's comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by name, but are not legally incorporated places. Their boundaries, which usually coincide with visible features or the boundary of an adjacent incorporated place, have no legal status, nor do these places have officials elected to serve traditional municipal functions. CDP boundaries may change with changes in the settlement pattern; a CDP with the same name as in previous censuses does not necessarily have the same boundaries.
Beginning with the 1950 census, the Census Bureau, in cooperation with State agencies and local census statistical areas committees, has identified and delineated boundaries for CDP's. In the 1990 census, the name of each such place is followed by "CDP." In the 1980 census, "(CDP)" was used; in 1970, 1960, and 1950 censuses, these places were identified by "(U)," meaning "unincorporated place." To qualify as a CDP for the 1990 census, an unincorporated community must have met the following criteria:
1. In all States except Alaska and Hawaii, the Census Bureau uses three population size criteria to designate a CDP. These criteria are:
a. 1,000 or more persons if outside the boundaries of an urbanized area (UA) delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census.
b. 2,500 or more persons if inside the boundaries of a UA delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census.
c. 250 or more persons if outside the boundaries of a UA delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census, and within the official boundaries of an American Indian reservation recognized for the 1990 census.
2. In Alaska, 25 or more persons if outside a UA, and 2,500 or more persons if inside a UA delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census.
3. In Hawaii, 300 or more persons, regardless of whether the community is inside or outside a UA.
For the 1990 census, CDP's qualified on the basis of the population counts prepared for the 1990 Postcensus Local Review Program. Because these counts were subject to change, a few CDP's may have final population counts lower than the minimums shown above. Hawaii is the only State with no incorporated places recognized by the Bureau of the Census. All places shown for Hawaii in the data products are CDP's. By agreement with the State of Hawaii, the Census Bureau does not show data separately for the city of Honolulu, which is coextensive with Honolulu County.
A consolidated government is a unit of local government for which the functions of an incorporated place and its county or minor civil division (MCD) have merged. The legal aspects of this action may result in both the primary incorporated place and the county or MCD continuing to exist as legal entities, even though the county or MCD performs few or no governmental functions and has few or no elected officials. Where this occurs, and where one or more other incorporated places in the county or MCD continue to function as separate governments, even though they have been included in the consolidated government, the primary incorporated place is referred to as a "consolidated city."
The data presentation for consolidated cities varies depending upon the geographic presentation. In hierarchical presentations, consolidated cities are not shown. These presentations include the semi-independent places and the "consolidated city (remainder)." Where the consolidated city is coextensive with a county or county subdivision, the data shown for those areas in hierarchical presentations are equivalent to those for the consolidated government.
For inventory geographic presentations, the consolidated city appears at the end of the listing of places. The data for the consolidated city include places that are part of the consolidated city. The "consolidated city (remainder)" is the portion of the consolidated government minus the semi-independent places, and is shown in alphabetical sequence with other places.
In summary presentations by size of place, the consolidated city is not included. The places semi-independent of consolidated cities are categorized by their size, as is the "consolidated city (remainder)." Each consolidated city is assigned a one-character alphabetic census code. Each consolidated city also is assigned a five-digit FIPS code that is unique within State. The semi-independent places and the "consolidated city (remainder)" are assigned a four-digit census code and a five-digit FIPS place code that are unique within State. Both the census and FIPS codes are assigned based on alphabetical order within State.
Incorporated places recognized in 1990 census data products are those reported to the Census Bureau as legally in existence on January 1, 1990 under the laws of their respective States as cities, boroughs, towns, and villages, with the following exceptions: the towns in the New England States, New York, and Wisconsin, and the boroughs in New York are recognized as minor civil divisions for census purposes; the boroughs in Alaska are county equivalents.
Population or Housing Unit Density
Population or housing unit density is computed by dividing the total population or housing units of a geographic unit (for example, United States, State, county, place) by its land area measured in square kilometers or square miles. Density is expressed as both "persons (or housing units) per square kilometer" and "persons (or housing units) per square mile" of land area in 1990 census printed reports.
States are the primary governmental divisions of the United States. The District of Columbia is treated as a statistical equivalent of a State for census purposes. The four census regions, nine census divisions, and their component States are shown under "Census Region and Census Division" in this appendix.
The Census Bureau treats the outlying areas as State equivalents for the 1990 census. The outlying areas are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Geographic definitions specific to each outlying area are shown in appendix A in the data products for each area. Each State and equivalent is assigned a two-digit numeric Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) code in alphabetical order by State name, followed by the outlying area names. Each State and equivalent area also is assigned a two-digit census code. This code is assigned on the basis of the geographic sequence of each State within each census division; the first digit of the code is the code for the respective division. Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the outlying areas of the Pacific are assigned "0" as the division code. Each State and equivalent area also is assigned the two-letter FIPS/United States Postal Service (USPS) code.
In 12 selected States (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin), the minor civil divisions also serve as general-purpose local governments. The Census Bureau presents data for these minor civil divisions in all data products in which it provides data for places.
TIGER is an acronym for the new digital (computer-readable) geographic data base that automates the mapping and related geographic activities required to support the Census Bureau's census and survey programs. The Census Bureau developed the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System to automate the geographic support processes needed to meet the major geographic needs of the 1990 census: producing the cartographic products to support data collection and map publication, providing the geographic structure for tabulation and publication of the collected data, assigning residential and employer addresses to their geographic location and relating those locations to the Census Bureau's geographic units, and so forth. The content of the TIGER data base is made available to the public through a variety of "TIGER Extract" files that may be obtained from the Data User Services Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233.
The United States comprises the 50 States and the District of Columbia. In addition, the Census Bureau treats the outlying areas as statistical equivalents of States for the 1990 census. The outlying areas include American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands of the United States.
The Census Bureau defines "urban" for the 1990 census as comprising all territory, population, and housing units in urbanized areas and in places of 2,500 or more persons outside urbanized areas. More specifically, "urban" consists of territory, persons, and housing units in:
1. Places of 2,500 or more persons incorporated as cities, villages, boroughs (except in Alaska and New York), and towns (except in the six New England States, New York, and Wisconsin), but excluding the rural portions of "extended cities."
2. Census designated places of 2,500 or more persons.
3. Other territory, incorporated or unincorporated, included in urbanized areas.
Territory, population, and housing units not classified as urban constitute "rural." In the 100-percent data products, "rural" is divided into "places of less than 2,500" and "not in places." The "not in places" category comprises "rural" outside incorporated and census designated places and the rural portions of extended cities. In many data products, the term "other rural" is used; "other rural" is a residual category specific to the classification of the rural in each data product.
In the sample data products, rural population and housing units are subdivided into "rural farm" and "rural nonfarm." "Rural farm" comprises all rural households and housing units on farms (places from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were sold in 1989); "rural nonfarm" comprises the remaining rural.
The urban and rural classification cuts across the other hierarchies; for example, there is generally both urban and rural territory within both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas.
In censuses prior to 1950, "urban" comprised all territory, persons, and housing units in incorporated places of 2,500 or more persons, and in areas (usually minor civil divisions) classified as urban under special rules relating to population size and density. The definition of urban that restricted itself to incorporated places having 2,500 or more persons excluded many large, densely settled areas merely because they were not incorporated. Prior to the 1950 census, the Census Bureau attempted to avoid some of the more obvious omissions by classifying selected areas as "urban under special rules." Even with these rules, however, many large, closely built-up areas were excluded from the urban category.
To improve its measure of urban territory, population, and housing units, the Census Bureau adopted the concept of the urbanized area and delineated boundaries for unincorporated places (now, census designated places) for the 1950 census. Urban was defined as territory, persons, and housing units in urbanized areas and, outside urbanized areas, in all places, incorporated or unincorporated, that had 2,500 or more persons. With the following three exceptions, the 1950 census definition of urban has continued substantially unchanged. First, in the 1960 census (but not in the 1970, 1980, or 1990 censuses), certain towns in the New England States, townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and Arlington County, Virginia, were designated as urban. However, most of these "special rule" areas would have been classified as urban anyway because they were included in an urbanized area or in an unincorporated place of 2,500 or more persons. Second, "extended cities" were identified for the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses. Extended cities primarily affect the figures for urban and rural territory (area), but have very little effect on the urban and rural population and housing units at the national and State levels-- although for some individual counties and urbanized areas, the effects have been more evident. Third, changes since the 1970 census in the criteria for defining urbanized areas have permitted these areas to be defined around smaller centers.
Documentation of the urbanized area and extended city criteria is available from the Chief, Geography Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233.
Since the 1960 census, there has been a trend in some States toward the extension of city boundaries to include territory that is essentially rural in character. The classification of all the population and living quarters of such places as urban would include in the urban designation territory, persons, and housing units whose environment is primarily rural. For the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses, the Census Bureau identified as rural such territory and its population and housing units for each extended city whose closely settled area was located in an urbanized area. For the 1990 census, this classification also has been applied to certain places outside urbanized areas. In summary presentations by size of place, the urban portion of an extended city is classified by the population of the entire place; the rural portion is included in "other rural."
The Census Bureau delineates urbanized areas (UA's) to provide a better separation of urban and rural territory, population, and housing in the vicinity of large places. A UA comprises one or more places ("central place") and the adjacent densely settled surrounding territory ("urban fringe") that together have a minimum of 50,000 persons. The urban fringe generally consists of contiguous territory having a density of least 1,000 persons per square mile. The urban fringe also includes outlying territory of such density if it was connected to the core of the contiguous area by road and is within 1 1/2 road miles of that core, or within 5 road miles of the core but separated by water or other undevelopable territory. Other territory with a population density of fewer than 1,000 people per square mile is included in the urban fringe if it eliminates an enclave or closes an indentation in the boundary of the urbanized area. The population density is determined by (1) outside of a place, one or more contiguous census blocks with a population density of at least 1,000 persons per square mile or (2) inclusion of a place containing census blocks that have at least 50 percent of the population of the place and a density of at least 1,000 persons per square mile. The complete criteria are available from the Chief, Geography Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233.
Urbanized Area Central Place
One or more central places function as the dominant centers of each UA. The identification of a UA central place permits the comparison of this dominant center with the remaining territory in the UA. There is no limit on the number of central places, and not all central places are necessarily included in the UA title. UA central places include:
- Each place entirely (or partially, if the place is an extended city) within the UA that is a central city of a metropolitan area (MA).
- If the UA does not contain an MA central city or is located outside of an MA, the central place(s) is determined by population size.
Urbanized Area Title and Code
The title of a UA identifies those places that are most important within the UA; it links the UA to the encompassing MA, where appropriate. If a single MA includes most of the UA, the title and code of the UA generally are the same as the title and code of the MA. If the UA is not mostly included in a single MA, if it does not include any place that is a central city of the encompassing MA, or if it is not located in an MA, the Census Bureau uses the population size of the included places, with a preference for incorporated places, to determine the UA title. The name of each State in which the UA is located also is in each UA title.
The numeric code used to identify each UA is the same as the code for the mostly encompassing MA (including CMSA and PMSA). If MA title cities represent multiple UA's, or the UA title city does not correspond to the first name of an MA title, the Census Bureau assigns a code based on the alphabetical sequence of the UA title in relationship to the other UA and MA titles.
A voting district (VTD) is any of a variety of types of areas (for example, election districts, precincts, wards, legislative districts) established by State and local governments for purposes of elections. For census purposes, each State participating in Phase 2 of the 1990 Census Redistricting Data Program outlined the boundaries of VTD's around groups of whole census blocks on census maps. The entities identified as VTD's are not necessarily those legally or currently established. Also, to meet the "whole block" criterion, a State may have had to adjust VTD boundaries to nearby block boundaries. Therefore, the VTD's shown on the 1990 census tapes, listings, and maps may not represent the actual VTD's in effect at the time of the census. In the 1980 census, VTD's were referred to as "election precincts." Each VTD is assigned a four-character alphanumeric code that is unique within each county. The code "ZZZZ" is assigned to nonparticipating areas; the Census Bureau reports data for areas coded "ZZZZ."
ZIP Codes are administrative units established by the United States Postal Service (USPS) for the distribution of mail. ZIP Codes serve addresses for the most efficient delivery of mail, and therefore generally do not respect political or census statistical area boundaries. ZIP Codes usually do not have clearly identifiable boundaries, often serve a continually changing area, are changed periodically to meet postal requirements, and do not cover all the land area of the United States. ZIP Codes are identified by five-digit codes assigned by the USPS. The first three digits identify a major city or sectional distribution center, and the last two digits generally signify a specific post office's delivery area or point. For the 1990 census, ZIP Code data are tabulated for the five-digit codes in STF 3B. On computer--readable files, area measurements are shown to six decimal places; the decimal point is implied.