This part of Volume I presents the figures on the number of inhabitants of the United States as returned in the 1960 Census of Population. These figures relate to the total population of various areas and not to the characteristics of the population. Summary figures are presented in Chapter 1 for the United States and its urban and rural parts, places classified by size, regions, divisions, and States, and their urban and rural parts, counties, minor civil divisions, incorporated and unincorporated places, urbanized areas, economic subregions, and State economic areas. Detailed figures on most of these subjects are presented in the individual chapters for each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Selected figures are also shown for Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Canal Zone.
In accordance with census practice dating back to 1790, each person enumerated in the 1000 Census was counted' as an inhabitant of his usual place of abode, which is generally construed to mean the place where he lives and sleeps most of the time. This place is not necessarily the same as his legal residence, voting residence, or domicile; however, in the vast majority of cases, the use of these different bases of classification would produce substantially the same statistics, although there may he appreciable differences for a few areas.
In the application of this rule, persons were not always counted as residents of the places in which they happened to be found by the census enumerators, Persons in the larger hotels, motels, and similar places were enumerated on the night of March 31, and those whose usual place of residence was elsewhere were allocated to their homes, in addition, information on persons away from their usual place of residence was obtained from other members of their families, landladies, etc. If an entire family was expected to be away during the whole period of the ('numeration, Information on it was obtained from neighbors. A matching process was used to eliminate duplicate reports for a person who reported for himself while away from his usual residence and who was also reported at his usual residence by someone else.
Persons in the Armed Forces quartered on military installations were enumerated as residents of the States, counties, and minor civil divisions in which their installations were located. Members of their families were enumerated where they actually resided. As in 1950, college students were considered residents of the communities in which they were residing while attending college. The crews of vessels of the U.S. Navy and of the U.S. Merchant Marine in harbors of the United States were counted as part of the population of the ports in which their vessels were berthed on April 1, 1960. Inmates of institutions, who ordinarily live there for long periods of time, were counted as inhabitants of the place in which the institution was located, whereas patients in general hospitals, who ordinarily remain for short periods of time, were counted at, or allocated to, their homes. Persons without a usual place of residence were counted where they were enumerated.
Persons staying overnight at a mission, flophouse, jail, detention center, reception and diagnostic center, or other similar place on a specified night (for example, April 8 in some areas) were enumerated on that night as residents of that place, Americans who were overseas for an extended period (in the Armed Forces, working at civilian jobs, studying in foreign universities, etc.) are not included in the population of any of the States or the District of Columbia. On the other hand, persons temporarily abroad on vacations, business trips, and the like, were enumerated at their usual residence on the basis of information received from members of their families or from neighbors.
Coverage of citizens of foreign countries
Citizens of foreign countries temporarily visiting or traveling in the United States or living on the premises of an embassy, ministry, legation, chancellery, or consulate were not enumerated. Citizens of foreign countries having their usual residence in the United States as defined above, including those working here (but not living at an embassy, etc.) and those attending school (but not living at an embassy, etc,), were included in the enumeration, however, as were members of their families living with them.
The date of enumeration for the Census of 1960 was April 1, in accordance with the requirements of the Act of Congress of August 31, 1954 (amended August 1957) which codified Title 13 of the United States Code. The corresponding date for the Censuses of 1950, 1940, and 1930 was also April 1, in accordance with the requirements of the Fifteenth Census Act. The Census of 1920 was taken as of January 1 and that; of 1910 was taken as of April 15. For the decennial censuses between 1830 and 1900, the date of enumeration was June 1 and in the period 1790 to 1830 the census date was the first Monday in August. The enumeration date April 1 was selected for recent censuses as a date on which the number of persons away from home would be relatively small and on which the weather conditions favor rather than impede the field work.
Enumeration for the 1960 Census of Population began on April 1, 1960. Eighty-five percent of the population had been enumerated by mid-April; 98 percent by the end of the month. Unfavorable weather conditions in some parts of the country delayed the beginning of enumeration in some areas from one to three weeks.
The fact that the enumeration is spread over a period of weeks, rather than made on a single day, creates certain problems with respect to coverage. Thus, some persons who move during the enumeration period may be missed altogether, since the area in which they originally lived may not be canvassed before they move and enumeration may be completed in the area of their new home by the time they arrive. Conversely, there is the possibility of duplicate enumeration, once at the initial residence and once at their new home. It seems probable, however, that; the net result is an underenumeration of these movers. Again, enumerators tend to ignore the explicit date of enumeration and to record information as of the date of their visit. Therefore, in spite of instructions, some infants are included in the census who were born after the census date, and some persons who died after April 1 are excluded. It is believed, however, that the use of the Advance Census Report for the first time in the 1960 Census has reduced these difficulties to some extent.
In the 1960 Census, the areas enumerated were as follows: The United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Canal Zone, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and some additional small areas of sovereignty or jurisdiction. Certain of these latter areas, however, were not enumerated by the Bureau of the Census; the figures on their population were obtained as far as possible from other sources (see table 1).
The 1960 Census also made special provision for the enumeration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States abroad and their dependents living with them, civilian American citizens employed by the United States Government abroad and their dependents living with them, and the crews of vessels in the American Merchant Marine on the high seas or in foreign ports. This phase of the enumeration was made possible through the cooperative efforts of the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the United States Maritime Administration, whereby these agencies took the responsibility for the distribution and collection of specially designed census reports for individuals and households. Other persons who were only temporarily abroad were supposed to have been reported by their families or neighbors in the United States. In addition, a serious effort was made to obtain reports for private citizens who were abroad for long periods of time and the total number reporting is given in table 1. Since, however, the reporting was made on a voluntary basis; it is probable that this group was not so well reported as other groups covered by the census. A later report on the characteristics of the overseas population may contain an evaluation of the coverage of these private American citizens.
The data in the 1960 Census on the population abroad were the most comprehensive ever obtained in a decennial census. In 1940, for example, the War and Navy Departments gave to the Bureau of the Census the number of their personnel stationed abroad; and the State Department furnished the number of employees in the diplomatic service abroad and their dependents. The content of the schedules used in the overseas enumeration in 1960 and 1950 was somewhat different from that of the schedules used in the United States, although basic demographic items were covered in both schedules.
In this report the term "United States" when used without qualification refers to the 50 States and the District of Columbia, but excludes outlying areas. In some tables, in order to preserve historical comparability, totals are shown for the 48 States and the District of Columbia. This area is designated as "conterminous United States." For earlier censuses, this term refers to the expanding area of the United States (regardless of status as a State or territory) within the present area of the 48 States and the District of Columbia.
The Census of 1890 was the first at which a complete enumeration was made of the area now comprised within the boundaries of the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Indians living in the Indian Territory or on reservations were not included in the population until 1890, and at earlier censuses large tracts of unorganized and sparsely settled territory were not canvassed by the enumerators. Thus, the sum of the areas enumerated was not always identical with the area included within the legal boundaries of the United States at the respective dates, nor was it always possible to indicate the exact boundaries of the enumerated areas. In the earlier censuses not all of a State or territory was covered by the enumerators but only that part up to the "frontier line" and any large isolated settlements beyond. For example, Iowa Territory in 1840 included all of what is now Iowa and most of what is now Minnesota, but within the Territory the only substantial settlements were in the eastern corner of what is now Iowa, and hence only this was covered by the Census of 1840. It is not feasible to a more exact statement than that the area of what is now was added to the area of enumeration in 1840. The w part of what is now Minnesota, however, was not included later.
The Census of 1790 covered areas now embraced in the District of Columbia and the following States: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Large areas in some of these States, however, were not covered in the enumeration. Only about one-fourth the area of Georgia, for example, was enumerated. 1
The area added at each census to the area of enumeration within the boundaries of the United States may be briefly dedicated as follows:
Note: This part of document was not readable, therefore, it is omitted.
1For maps showing the distribution of the population at each c from 1790 to 1010, see U.S. Bureau of Census, Statistical Atlas c United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,