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Documentation: Census 1960 (US, County & State)
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Publisher: U.S. Census Bureau
Document: Journey to Work (Volume II, Part VI - Subject Reports)
U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports, Journey to Work. Final Report PC(2)-6B. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1963.
Journey to Work (Volume II, Part VI - Subject Reports)
This is a report on workers classified by place of residence and place of work. Data are presented on the daily flow of workers into, and out of, standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) of 250,000 or more as well as among the constituent parts of these areas. Data are also provided on means of transportation to work and other characteristics of workers. For the purposes of this report, workers are defined as civilians employed and at work and members of the Armed Forces not sick, on leave, etc., during the week preceding census enumeration. The statistics are based on a 25-percent sample of the population enumerated in the Eighteenth Decennial Census of Population, taken as of April 1, I960.
Related Materials
Other I960 Census statistics on place of work and means of transportation to work are presented in chapters C and D of Volume I, Characteristics of the Population, and in the census tract reports.

In chapter C, Social and Economic Characteristics, place of work is classified simply as to whether it was in the same county (or equivalent area) as the worker's county of residence or in a different county. Statistics are shown for States and for their urban and rural parts, by color; for SMSA's, for urbanized areas, and for urban places of 10,000 inhabitants or more , data are presented for all workers, supplemented by data for nonwhites in areas with 1,000 or more nonwhites. Means of transportation is shown for the same areas as those covered by statistics on place of work, but without separate data for nonwhite workers.

In chapter D, Detailed Characteristics, classification of place of work is by central city of SMSA of residence, ring (i.e., remainder of SMSA), and outside SMSA of residence separately for workers living in the central city and in the ring of each SMSA of 100,000 or more. Each such residence by place-of-work group is shown by color, sex, age, means of transportation to work, occupation, and industry - the latter two groups excluding Armed Forces. In addition, a table concerned with the earnings of workers crossing State boundaries in their journey to work shows average earnings in 1959, by class of worker, of workers residing in each State who work in the same State, who work in each specific contiguous State, and who work in noncontiguous States.

In the reports entitled1960 Censuses of Population and Housing, Census Tracts, place of work and means of transportation to work are shown for census tracts and summaries are included for each urban place of 25,000 or more and each county, in each of178SMSA's and in Middlesex and Somerset Counties in the New York-Northeastern New Jersey Standard Consolidated Area. The place-of-work categories include central cities, other selected cities, remainders of counties containing central cities, each of the additional counties within the respective SMSA's, and the total for areas outside the SMSA of residence.

Additional statistics on journey to work are included in other Volume II and Volume III reports of the 1960 Census of Population which either have already been published or are being planned for publication.
Availability of Unpublished Data
There are several sources of unpublished data on place of work and means of transportation to work collected in the 1960 Census. First, statistics corresponding to those presented in chapter C, Volume I, have been tabulated but not published for each urban place of 2,500 to 10,000 and for the rural-farm and rural-nonfarm parts of each county.

Second, more geographic detail on place of work outside the SMSA of residence for workers residing in tracted areas is available in unpublished special table PH-2. A total of not more than 13 separate place-of-work categories is shown in this table, including those specific areas shown in the published tables for census tracts. In addition, the distribution of workers over a 13-category place-of-work listing is available in special table PH-4 for population residing outside tracted areas by residence in (1) wards of cities of 25,000 or more, (2) urban places of less than 25,000, and(3) the remainder of each minor civil division or census county division. Data on means of transportation to work are available for the same areas in this table. Photocopies of special tables PH-2 and PHJ+ are available at cost from the Bureau of the Census.

Third, the contents of the present report were prepared by means of tabulating data summaries on place of work. These summaries are available on UNIVAC computer tape and are in the following form: One record is available for every residence-by-place- of-work combination reported in the census in which either residence or place of work was located in an SMSA of 250,000 or more. These records contain information on the number of workers living in a specified area and working in another specified area. The geographic detail is described in the section below on "Journey to work." Moreover, the counts of workers in each residence-by-place-of-work "stream" are distributed by the characteristics appearing in table 2 of this report, as well as by additional characteristics.

Requests for unpublished data giving a specific description of the figures desired may be made in writing to the Chief, Population Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C., 20233. Inquiries concerning unpublished data on computer tape should be transmitted to the Bureau as soon as possible, because tape files are not maintained indefinitely.