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Documentation: Census 1960 (US, County & State)
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Publisher: U.S. Census Bureau
Document: Nonwhite Population by Race (Volume II, Part I - Subject Reports)
U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports, Nonwhite Population by Race. Final Report PC(2)-1C. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1963.
Nonwhite Population by Race (Volume II, Part I - Subject Reports)
Definitions and Explanations
Some of the definitions used in 1960 differ from those used in 1950. These changes were made after consultation with users of census data in order to improve the statistics, even though it was recognized that comparability would be affected. The definitions and explanations should be interpreted in the context of the 1960 Censuses, in which data were collected by a combination of self-enumeration, direct interview, and observation, by the enumerator.

The definitions below are consistent with the instructions given to the enumerator. As in all surveys, there were some failures to execute the instructions exactly. Through the forms distributed to households, the respondents were given explanations of some of the questions more uniformly than would have been given in direct interviews. Nevertheless, it was not feasible to give the full instructions to the respondents, and some erroneous replies have undoubtedly gone undetected.

More complete discussions of the definitions of population items are given in 1960 Census of Population, Volume I, Characteristics of the Population. Part 1, United States Summary, and in each of the State parts.
Race and Color
The data on race were derived from answers to the following question on the Advance Census Report:

The concept of race as used by the Bureau of the Census is derived from that which is commonly accepted by the general public. It does not, therefore, reflect clear-cut definitions of biological stock, and several categories obviously refer to national origins.

The term "color" refers to the division of population into two groups, white and nonwhite. The color group designated as "nonwhite" includes Negroes, American Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Hawaiians, Asian Indians, Malayans, Eskimos, Aleuts, etc. Persons of Mexican birth or ancestry who are not definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race are classified as white.
In addition to persons of Negro and mixed Negro and white descent, this classification, according to instructions to enumerators, includes persons of mixed American Indian and Negro descent, unless the Indian ancestry very definitely predominates or unless the individual is regarded as an Indian in the community.
American Indian
In addition to full-blooded American Indians, persons of mixed white and Indian blood are included in this category if they are enrolled on an Indian tribal or agency roll or if they are regarded as Indians in their community. A common requirement for such enrollment at present is that the proportion of Indian blood should be at least one-fourth.

In the eastern part of the United States, there are certain populations of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry. In censuses prior to 19$0, these groups had been variously classified by the enumerators, sometimes as Negro and sometimes as Indian. In 1950, an attempt was made to isolate these groups and include them in the category "All other" races. Because of problems in the identification of these groups in 1950 and the likelihood that they would not be distinguishable in self-enumeration, this effort was abandoned in the 1960 Census. Generally, the number involved was small except in North Carolina, which had a heavy concentration of this mixed racial population (notably in Robeson and surrounding counties).
Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, and residual "All other" races
Racial categories such as Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, etc., are based largely on country or area of origin, and not necessarily on biological stock.
Statistics based on the 25-percent sample are given in this report for Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and a residual "All other" races category. This residual category includes Hawaiians, Eskimos, Aleuts, Koreans, Asian Indians, Malayans, etc. The last two tables of this report, showing characteristics of racial categories in Alaska and Hawaii, include data based on the complete count for Aleuts and Eskimos in Alaska and for Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians in Hawaii. These special categories were not included separately in the 25-percent sample enumeration schedules5 and they were included in 100-percent schedules only for the two States mentioned. The figure for part- Hawaiians does not include any other racial mixtures, such as white-Japanese or Chinese-Japanese. In the 1950 Census of Hawaii, as the result of a special question on mixed race, approximately 4 percent of the total population were reported as of a mixed racial group other than part-Hawaiian.

Respondents and enumerators sometimes report, for the racial classification, such entries as "Puerto Rican," "Turk," "Germanic," and others, which should have teen included within one of the Census Bureau's broader categories such as "White," or "Negro." The relative frequency of these various types within the residual "All other" races category is not known.

Figures for the "All other" races category and other categories may differ somewhat between tabulations based on the 25-percent sample and the complete count shown in this report and elsewhere. (See table A.) Race entries on all 25-percent sample schedules were edited as a routine part of the manual coding operation, and obvious errors were corrected. In processing the complete-count schedules, however, only those enumeration districts in which the number of "All other" races entries exceeded certain tolerances were visually inspected. Although these tolerances were stringent, they were not sufficient to prevent inclusion of a substantial number of spurious cases in the statistics.

Table A. Comparison of Complete-Count and Sample Data for the Nonwhite Population by Race, For the United States: 1960
(Minus sign (-) indicates sample lower than complete count)

Item Negro Other nonwhite races
Total Indian Japanese Chinese Filipino Other
Complete count 18,871,831 1,619,612 523,591 464,332 237,292 176,310 218,087
Sample 18,848,619 1,639,377 546,228 473,170 236,084 181,614 202,281
Number -23,212 +19,765 +22,637 +8,838 -1,208 +5,304 -15,806
Percent -0.1 +1.2 +4.3 +1.9 -0.5 +3.0 -7.2

Source: Complete Count--Volume I, United States Summary, chapter D, table 233. Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Other, this report, tables 2 through 6.

Mixed parentage
Persons of mixed racial parentage are classified according to the race of the non- white parent, and mixtures of nonwhite races are classified according to the race of the father, with the special exceptions noted above.
Effects of self-enumeration
Since the 1960 Census was the first in which most respondents had an opportunity to classify themselves with respect to race-in previous censuses the racial classification was made for the most part by the enumerator on the basis of observation-it was expected that the character of the racial data in 1960 might differ from that of previous censuses. Some persons undoubtedly would have been classified differently by race in the 1960 Census if direct enumeration had been used uniformly, especially in families involving mixed racial marriages, but such differences as existed may have been largely offsetting. In terms of the final results, there is little evidence of a change for the major categories. The distribution of the population by color in 1960 was close to that shown by postcensal estimates for 1960 based on the 1950 Census counts by color and estimated population changes during the decade. The increase in the Negro population, in particular, was consistent with the statistics on its natural increase during the decade. The increases in the Japanese and Chinese population were large, but high rates of natural increase and substantial immigration during the decade obscure any effects which self-enumeration may have had on the 1960 count. Results of the evaluation studies on the classification of the population by color, white and nonwhite, may be found in the "Evaluation and Research" series of 1960 Census reports.

The use of self-enumeration may have added to the accuracy of the 1960 count of the Indian population. Studies of the adequacy of the enumeration In the last several censuses have led to the conclusion that it was incomplete largely as the result of the failure of enumerators to identify off-reservation Indians.
Age data for Indians show a marked concentration in the age group 55 to 59 years in urban areas. Investigations indicate this may be a result of a combination of factors among which "age heaping" may be of Importance. The reader is referred to a discussion of the reporting of age in 1960 Census of Population, Volume I, Characteristics of the Population, Part 1, United States Summary. Also to be considered is the possibility that the increase in the movement of Indians off reservations during the late thirties was reflected in the decennial census for the first time in 1960, as a result of more precise reporting.
The median is presented in connection with the data on age, years of school completed, and income. It is the value which divides the distribution into two equal parts, one-half the cases falling below this value and one-half the cases exceeding this value.

A plus (+) or minus (-) sign after the median indicates that the median is above or below that number. For example, a median of $10,000+ for income indicates that the median fell in the interval "$10,000 or more."
Urban-Rural Residence
In general, the urban population comprises all persons living in urbanized areas arid in places of 2,500 inhabitants or more outside urbanized areas. More specifically, according to the definition adopted for use in the 1960 Census, the urban population comprises all persons living in (a) places of 2,500 inhabitants or more incorporated as cities, boroughs, villages, and towns (except towns in New England, New York, and Wisconsin); (b) the densely settled urban fringe, whether incorporated or unincorporated, of urbanized areas; (c) towns in New England and townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania which contain no incorporated municipalities as subdivisions and have either 25,000 inhabitants or more or a population of 2,500 to 25,000 and a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; (d) counties in States other than the New England States, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that have no incorporated municipalities within their boundaries and have a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; and (e) unincorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more. The population not classified as urban constitutes the rural population.
Farm-Nonfarm Residence
The rural population is subdivided into the rural- farm population, which comprises all rural residents living on farms, and the rural-nonfarm population, which comprises the remaining rural population. In the 1960 Census, the farm population consists of persons living in rural territory on places of 10 or more acres from which sales of farm products amounted to $50 or more in 1959 or on places of less than 10 acres from which sales of farm products amounted to $250 or more in 1959- All persons living in group quarters are classified as nonfarm except the relatively few living in workers' quarters (including quarters for migratory agricultural workers) that are located on a farm or ranch.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
Except in New England, an SMSA is a county or group of contiguous counties which contains at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, or "twin cities" with a combined population of at least 50,000. In addition to the county, or counties, containing such a city or cities, contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if, according to certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city. In New England, SMSA's consist of towns and cities, rather than counties.
Indian Areas
The areas for which statistics on Indians are presented in tables 51 and 56 in this report were delineated in cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, and Division of Indian Health, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

These areas comprise most counties or groups of counties having 2,500 or more Indians. Since the data are in terms of whole counties the selected Indian areas do not necessarily represent Federal reservations, although reservation, land is included in varying proportion in many of them. The areas generally contain an Indian population which is relatively homogeneous with respect to tribal and cultural affiliations. However, there may be considerable variation in the character of the areas. An area may be a cluster of counties over which a single Federal Indian Reservation is spread, as in the case of Fort Peck in Montana, or it may be a large group of counties containing several reservations such as United Pueblos in New Mexico.

No attempt has been made to include a description of the area in the area name. The names include reference to an identifying geographic location in the area, the name of one or more major Indian tribe in the area, or the name of the principal reservation or reservations in the area.
The component counties of each of the selected Indian areas are presented below:

Composition and Location of Indian Areas
Indian area State and county
Apache (Ariz.) Ariz.
Apache (N. Mex.) N. Mex.
  Bio Arriba
Blackfeet Mont.
Central Wisconsin Wis.
  La Crosse
Cheyenne River S. Dak.
Clinton-Shawnee Okla.
  Roger Mills
Colville-Spokane Wash.
  Pend Oreille
Crow-Northern Cheyenne Mont.
  Big Horn
Eastern Cherokee N.C.
Fort Belknap Mont.
Fort Berthold N. Dak.
Fort Hall-Northern Idaho Idaho
  Nez Peroe
Fort Peek Mont.
Fort Yuma Calif.
Greater Leech Lake-White Earth Minn.
Hoopa Valley Calif.
  Del Norte
Iroquois N.Y.
Lao Courte Oreilles-Lac du Flambeau Wis.
Lawton Okla.
Menominee Wis.
Mississippi Choctaw Miss.
Mount Edgecombe Alaska
  Election Districts 1-6
Navajo Utah
  San Juan
Navajo-Hopi Ariz.
Navajo-Zuni N. Mex.
  San Juan
Olympic Peninsula Wash.
  Grays Harbor
Other Minnesota Chippewa1 Minn.
  Mille Lacs
  St. Louis
Pima-Papago Ariz.
Pine Ridge S. Dak.
  Fall River
Puget Sound Wash.
Red Lake Minn.
Rosebud-Yankton S. Dak.
  Bon Homme
  Charles Mix
Standing Rock S. Dak.
  N. Dak.
Tahlequah Okla.
Talihina Okla.
  Le Flore
Tanana Alaska
  Election Districts 18-20
Turtle Mountain-Fort Totten N. Dak.
Umatilla-Warm Springs Oreg.
United Pueblos N. Mex.
  Santa Fe
Walker River Nev.
Wind River Wyo.
  Hot Springs
Yakima Wash.

1 Excludes Greater Leech Lake-White Earth and Red Lake, shown separately.

The age classification is based on the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 1960, as determined from the reply to a question on month and year of birth.
This category comprises persons born in the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a possession of the United States; persons born in a foreign country or at sea who have at least one native American parent; and persons whose place of birth was not reported and whose census report contained no contradictory information, such as an entry of a language spoken prior to coming to the United States.
Foreign born
This category includes all persons not classified as native.
Residence In 1955
Residence on April 1, 1955, is the usual place of residence five years prior to enumeration. The category "same house as in 1960" Includes all persons 5 years old and over who were reported as living in the same house on the date of enumeration in 1960 and five years prior to enumeration. Included in the group are persons who had never moved during the five years as well as those who had moved but by 1960 had returned to their 1955 residence. The category "different house in the U.S." includes persons who, on April 1, 1955, lived in the United States in a different house from the one they occupied on April 1, 1960. This category was subdivided into three groups according to their 1955 residence, viz., "different house, same county," "different county, same State," and "different State." The category "abroad" includes those with residence in a foreign country or an outlying area of the United States in 1955. (In the coding of this item, persons who lived in Alaska or Hawaii in 1955 hut in other States in 1960 were classified as living in a different State in 1955.) Persons 5 years old and over who had indicated they had moved into their present residence after April 1, 1955, hut, for whom sufficiently complete and consistent information regarding residence on April 1, 1955, was not collected, are included in the group "moved, place of residence in 1955 not reported."
School Enrollment
School enrollment is shown for persons 5 to 34 years old. Persons were included as enrolled in school if they were reported as attending or enrolled in a "regular" school or college at any time between February 1, 1960, and the time of enumeration. Regular schooling is that which may advance a person toward an elementary school certificate or high school diploma, or a college, university, or professional degree. Schooling that was not obtained in a regular school and schooling from a tutor or through correspondence courses were counted only if the credits obtained were regarded as transferable to a school in the regular school system. Schooling which is generally regarded as not regular includes that which is given in nursery schools, in specialized vocational, trade, or business schools; in on-the-job training; and through correspondence courses.
Years of School Completed
The data on years of school completed were derived from the answers to the two questions: (a) "What is the highest grade (or year) of regular school he has ever attended?" and (b) "Did he finish this grade (or year)?" Enumerators were instructed to obtain the approximate equivalent grade in the American school system for persons whose highest grade of attendance was in a foreign school system, whose highest level of attendance was in an ungraded school, whose highest level of schooling was measured by "readers," or whose training by a tutor was regarded as qualifying under the "regular" school definition. Persons were to answer "No" to the second question if they were attending school, had completed only part of a grade before they dropped out, or failed to pass the last grade attended.
The number in each category of highest grade of school completed represents the combination of (a) persons who reported that they had attended the indicated grade and finished it, and (b) those who had attended the next higher grade but had not finished it.

Elementary school, as defined here, includes grades 1 to 8, and high school includes grades 9 to 12. College includes Junior or community colleges, regular U-year colleges, and graduate or professional schools.
Marital Status
This classification refers to the marital status of the person at the time of enumeration. Persons classified as "married" comprise, therefore, both those who have been married only once and those who remarried after having been widowed or divorced. Persons reported as separated (either legally separated or otherwise absent from the spouse because of marital discord) are classified as a subcategory of married persons. The enumerators were instructed to report persons in common-law marriages as married and persons whose only marriage had been annulled as single. Persons "ever married" are those in the categories married (including separated), widowed, and divorced.

The number of married men may be different from the number of married women for an area because of the absence of husbands or wives from the country, because the husband and wife have different places of residence, because of the methods used to inflate the sample data, or for other reasons.

A married person with "spouse present" is a man or woman whose spouse was enumerated as a member of the same household even though he or she may have been temporarily absent on business or vacation, visiting, in a hospital, etc., at the time of enumeration.
Household, Group Quarters, And Relationship to Head of Household
A household consists of all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room, is regarded as a housing unit when it is occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters; that is, when the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure and there is either (1) direct access from the outside or through a common hall or (2) a kitchen or cooking equipment for the exclusive use of the occupants. The population per household is obtained by dividing the population in households by the number of households.

All persons who are not members of households are regarded as living in group quarters. Group quarters are living arrangements for institutional inmates or for other groups containing five or more persons unrelated to the person in charge. Most of the persons in group quarters live in rooming houses, college dormitories, military barracks, or institutions. Inmates of institutions are persons for whom care or custody is provided in such places as homes for delinquent or dependent children; homes and schools for the mentally or physically handicapped; places providing specialized medical care for persons with mental disorders, tuberculosis, or other chronic disease; nursing and domiciliary homes for the aged and dependent) prisons; and Jails.

For persons in households, several categories of relationship to head of household are recognized in this report:

1. The head of the household is the member reported as the head by the household respondent. However, if a married woman living with her husband is reported as the head, her husband is classified as the head for the purpose of census tabulations.
2. The wife of a head of a household is a woman married to and living with a household head. This category includes women in common-law marriages as well as women in formal marriages.
3. Another relative of the head is a person related to the head of the household by blood, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another category.
4. A nonrelative of the head is any member of the household who is not related to the household head. This category includes lodgers (roomers and partners, relatives of such persons, and foster children) and resident employees (maids, hired farm hands, etc.).
Family, Subfamily, Own Child, And Primary Individual
A family consists of two or more persons in the same household who are related to each other by blood, marriage, or adoption; all persons living in one household who are related to each other are regarded as one family. In a primary family, the head of the family is the head of a household. Other families are secondary families. A "husband-wife" family is a family in which the head and his wife are enumerated as members of the same household.

A subfamily is a married couple with or without children, or one parent with one or more own children under 18 years old, living in a housing unit and related to the head of the household or his wife. The number of subfamilies is not included in the count of families.

Own child of a household head or of a family head is defined here as a single (never married) son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the head in question.
A primary individual is a head of a household living alone or with nonrelatives only.
Employment Status
The data on employment status relate to the calendar week prior to the date on which the respondents filled their Household Questionnaires or were interviewed by enumerators. This week is not the same for all respondents because not all persons were enumerated during the same week.

Employed persons comprise all civilians 14 years old and over who were either (a) "at work"-those who did any work for pay or profit, or worked without pay for 15 hours or more on a family farm or in a family business; or (b) were "with a job but not at work"- those who did not work and were not looking for work but had a job or business from which they were temporarily absent because of bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, illness, or other personal reasons.

Persons are classified as unemployed if they were 14 years old and over and not "at work" but looking for work. A person is considered as looking for work not only if he actually tried to find work but also if he had made such efforts recently (I.e., within the past 60 days) and was awaiting the results of these efforts. Persons waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off or furloughed are also counted as unemployed.

The "civilian labor force" includes all persons classified as employed or unemployed, as described above. The "labor force" also includes members of the Armed Forces (persons on active duty with the United States Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard).

Persons "not in the labor force" comprise all those years old and over who are not classified as members of the labor force, including persons doing only incidental unpaid family work (less than 15 hours during the week).
Hours Worked
The statistics on hours worked pertain to the number of hours actually worked, and not necessarily to the number usually worked or the scheduled number of hours. For persons working at more than one job, the figures reflect the combined number of hours worked at all jobs during the week. The data on hours worked presented in this report provide a broad classification of persons at work into full-time and part-time workers. Persons are considered to be working full time if they worked 35 hours or more during the reference week and part time if they worked less than 35 hours.
Weeks Worked In 1959
The data on weeks worked in 1959 pertain to the number of different weeks during 1959 in which a person did any work for pay or profit (including paid vacation and sick leave) or worked without pay on a family farm or in a family business. Weeks of active service in the Armed Forces are also included.
Occupation and Industry
The data on occupation and industry in this report are for employed persons and refer to the job held during the week for which employment status was reported. For persons employed at two or more jobs, the data refer to the job at which the person worked the greatest number of hours. The occupation and industry statistics presented here are based on the detailed systems developed for the 1960 Census; see 1960 Census of Population, Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1960.
Income In 1959
Information on income for the calendar year 1959 was requested from all persons 14 years old and over in the sample. "Total income" is the sum of amounts reported separately for wage or salary income, self- employment income, and other income. Wage or salary income is defined as the total money earnings received for work performed as an employee. It represents the amount received before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond purchases, union dues, etc. Self-employment income is defined as net money income (gross receipts minus operating expenses) from a business, farm, or professional enterprise in which the person was engaged on his own account. "Earnings" are obtained by summing wage or salary income and self- employment income. Other income includes money income received from such sources as net rents, interest, dividends, Social Security benefits, pensions, veterans' payments, unemployment insurance, and public assistance or other governmental payments, and periodic receipts from insurance policies or annuities. Not included as income are money received from the sale of property (unless the recipient was engaged in the business of selling such property), the value of income "in kind," withdrawals of bank deposits, money borrowed, tax refunds, and gifts and lump-sum inheritances or insurance payments.

In the statistics on family income, the combined incomes of all members of each family are treated as a single amount. Although the time period covered by the income statistics is the calendar year 1959, the composition of families refers to the time of enumeration. For most of the families, however, the income reported was received by persons who were members of the family throughout 1959- The number of earners in the family refers to the number of family members who had wage or salary income or self-employment income.