Persons by Family Characteristics (Volume II, Part IV - Subject Reports)
Definitions and Explanations
Some of the definitions used in 1960 differ from those used in 1950. These changes were made after consultation with users of census data in order to improve the statistics, even though it was recognized that comparability would be affected. The Definitions and Explanations should be interpreted in the context of the 1960 Censuses, in which data were collected by a combination of self-enumeration, direct interview, and observation by the enumerator.
The definitions below are consistent with the instructions given to the enumerator. As in all surveys, there were some failures to execute the instructions exactly. Through the forms distributed to households, the respondents were given explanations of some of the questions more uniformly than would have been given in direct interviews. Nevertheless, it was not feasible to give the full instructions to the respondents, and some erroneous replies have undoubtedly gone undetected.
More complete discussions of the definitions of population items are given in 1960 Census of Population, Volume I, Characteristics of the Population, Part 1, United States Summary, and in each of the State parts.
Household and Family Status
On the basis of census returns on several items" including household relationship, Marital Status, age, and sex, the population in households is classified into several categories according to family status. Within households, persons who are family members are distinguished from those who are not family members. Persons In families are subdivided into those who are related to the household head (that is, persons in "primary families") and all others (persons in "secondary families"). Family members are further classic fled by relationship to the family head. Persons in households who are not family members are subdivided into those who are household heads (primary individuals) and those who are not household heads (secondary individuals). The complexity of this classification is a reflection of the variety of family living arrangements which characterize the population.
A household consists of all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room, is regarded as a housing unit when it is occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters; that is, when the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure and there is either (1) direct access from the outside or through a common hall or (2) a kitchen or cooking equipment for the exclusive use of the occupants.
A household includes the related family members and also the unrelated persons, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, wards, or employees who share the housing unit. A person living alone in a housing unit, or a group of unrelated persons sharing a housing unit as partners, is also counted as a household.
All persons who are not members of households are regarded as living in group quarters. Group quarters are living arrangements for institutional inmates, regardless of the number of inmates, or for other groups containing five or more persons unrelated to the person in charge. Most of the persons in group quarters live in rooming houses, college dormitories, military barracks, or institutions. For specific types of group quarters, see sections below on "Secondary individual" and "Inmate of institution."
A very small number of persons in group quarters may have had relatives present. In the 1960 Census, persons in group quarters were sampled on an individual basis, and no information on family relationship was coded for them.
A family consists of two or more persons in the same household who are related to each other by blood, marriage, or adoption; all persons living together in one household who are related to each other are regarded as one family. For example, if the son of the head of the household and the son's wife are members of the household, they are treated as part of the head's family. A lodger and his wife who are not related to the head of the household, or a resident employee and his wife living in, are considered as a separate family, however. Thus, a household may contain more than one family. A household head living alone or with nonrelatives only is not regarded as a family. Some households, therefore, do not contain a family.
A "primary family" comprises the head of a household and all (one or more) other persons in the household related to the head. All other families are "secondary families"; these comprise groups of mutually related persons such as lodgers or resident employees.
The delineation of families is based on the relationship reported among persons who were usual residents of a housing unit at the time of the enumeration. For instance, college students were enumerated at the place where they lived while attending college, and persons living in military barracks, etc., were enumerated where they were stationed. Such persons were not included in the statistics, for their family homes, even though they may have intended to return home on their completion of college or period of service.
The classification of families by type is based on the sex and marital status of the head. Families with a head and his wife present are termed "husband-wife families." Families with no spouse of head present are "other families with male head" or "families with female head," depending on the sex of the head.
A subfamily is a married couple with or without children, or one parent with one or more own single children under 18 years old, living in a household and related to, but not including, the head of the primary family or his wife. The most common example of a subfamily is a young married couple sharing the home of the husband's or wife's parents. Only the single sons and daughters under 18 years old of a subfamily head are regarded as children in the subfamily. Members of a subfamily are also members of the primary family. The number of subfamilies, there-fore, is not included in the number of families.
In the 1960 Census, subfamilies were delineated in primary families but not in secondary families.
A primary individual is a household head living alone or with nonrelatives only. About 7 in 8 primary individuals were living alone (as one-person households) in 1960, according to statistics from the 1960 Census of Population. Examples of primary individuals who have nonrelatives living with them include a single woman who shares her apartment with a partner or housekeeper, and a widow who has a lodger occupying a room in her house.
A secondary individual is:
1. a lodger or resident employee living in a household who has no relatives present in the household, or
2. a resident of group quarters who is not an inmate of an institution. Examples of the former include a resident employee with no relatives present who shares living arrangements with the household head, and a lodger who has no relatives present.
Nine basic types of group quarters, in addition to quarters for institutional inmates, are recognized in this report:
1. Rooming or boarding house
This category consists mainly of rooming and boarding houses, but it also includes group quarters in ordinary homes, tourist homes, hotels, motels, residential clubs, Y's, and in a few cases, dormitories for students below the college level.
2. Military barracks
These are quarters which are occupied by military personnel and which are not divided into separate housing units. This category includes military vessels.
3. College dormitory
As used here, this term also refers to a fraternity or sorority house.
4. Religious group quarters not elsewhere classified
This classification comprises principally group quarters for nuns teaching in parochial schools and for priests living in rectories; it also includes other convents and monasteries except those associated with a General hospital or an institution.
5. Workers' dormitory
This classification includes bunkhouses in migratory workers' camps, logging camps, and other labor camps.
As used here, this term also refers to flophouses.
This term refers to shipboard group quarters for crews of vessels except those occupied by military personnel.
8. General hospital. This term refers mainly to group quarters for nurses and other staff members. It excludes most patients. Patients under short-term care for surgical treatment, observation, or convalescence were included only if they had no usual place of residence elsewhere; other short-term patients were enumerated at their usual place of residence. Patients receiving certain specialized types of care on a relatively long-term basis, such as psychiatric treatment and treatment for chronic diseases, were enumerated as inmates of institutions.
9. Institution (staff)
This classification comprises group quarters for staff personnel residing on institutional grounds who provide care or custody for the inmates. See section below on "Comparability" for information on other persons included in this classification in the statistics in this report.
Inmates of institutions are persons for whom care or custody is provided in such places as homes for delinquent or dependent children; homes and schools for the mentally or physically handicapped; places providing specialized medical care for persons with mental disorders, tuberculosis, or other chronic disease; nursing and domiciliary homes for the aged and dependent; prisons; and jails. For a more extensive description of criteria employed in classifying persons as inmates of institutions, see 1960 Census of Population, Final Report PC(2)-8A, In-mates of Institutions.
Head of household, family, or subfamily
One person in each household is designated as the "head"; the number of heads of households is, therefore, equal to the number of households. The same principle applies to families and subfamilies. The head is generally the person so reported by the household respondent; however, in order to avoid establishing a separate category for the small number of families with the wife reported as the head, such families were edited to show the husband as the head.
The number of household heads is equal to the number of primary family heads plus the number of primary individuals.
Wife of household head, family head, or subfamily head
The number of women who are wives of heads in each category is, by definition, the same as the number of husband-wife households, husband-wife families, or husband-wife subfamilies. The classification includes women in common-law marriages as well as women in formal marriages.
Although by definition the number of wives of household, family, or subfamily heads should be equal to the number of heads who are married males, wife present, in practice the numbers may differ because, in the weighting of the sample, husbands and their wives were sometimes given different weights.
A child of a household or family head is a son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the head. Foster children and wards are excluded from the count of the head's children. A child of a subfamily head is a son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child (of the subfamily head) who is single (never married) and under 18 years old.
In several tables in this report, family and subfamily members are classified by the presence or absence of "own children" of the family or subfamily head, or by the number of such children. "Own" children comprise the head's sons and daughters, including stepchildren and adopted children, living in the hone. The count of "own children under 18 years old" is limited to single (never married) children; however, when used with no age restriction, as in tables 5 and 7, the term "own children" denotes all children of the head regardless of marital status or age.
An "other relative" of the head is a person related to the family head by blood, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another category. In table 2, "other relatives" of the primary family head include grandparents, aunts, cousins, and more remote relatives present in the home. In tables 4 to 10 and 12, however, this classification includes all family members except the head, wife of head, and children of head.
The various classifications of relatives of head (other than "wife" and "child") recognized in this report are described below. In general, these classifications include persons who are related to the head by virtue of their relationship to some family member other than the head. For instance, a parent-in-law of the head is related to the head by virtue of being a parent of the head's spouse. With one exception (see "Nephew or niece" below), these classifications were based directly on relationships reported in the census. They do not, therefore, presuppose the presence in the household of the person (e.g., the head's spouse, in the case of a parent-in-law) through whom the person is related to the head.
This classification comprises the husbands and wives of children of the family head.
This classification comprises family members who are sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children of a child of the family head. In some tables in this report, grandchildren whose parents are present are separately identified by the further designation "child of subfamily head."
This classification comprises parents, including stepparents and adoptive parents, of the family head. In the classification of primary family members by presence of parents and grandchildren of the head in table 13, and in the classification of subfamily heads by presence of parents and grandchildren of the primary family head in table 14, the term "parents" includes parents and parents-in-law of the primary family head.
This classification comprises parents, including stepparents and adoptive parents, of the spouse of the family head.
This classification also includes stepbrothers and stepsisters of the family head and brothers and sisters of the head by adoption.
Brother- or sister-in-law
This classification comprises brothers and sisters of the spouse of the family head and the spouses of the family head's brothers and sisters.
This classification comprises single (never married) children under 18 years old in subfamilies with parent classified as brother, sister, brother-in-law, or sister-in-law of the family head. Nephews and nieces of the family head could be identified, under the coding structure that was used, only if they were children of subfamily heads classified as brother, sister, brother-in-law, or sister-in-law of head.
This classification comprises persons in the household who are not related to the household head by blood, marriage, or adoption. Non- relatives consist of lodgers and resident employees and their families, as defined below.
A "lodger" is any household member not related to the household head except a resident employee. The classification includes roomers, boarders, partners, and relatives of such persons, and also foster children and wards. In tables 2 and 15 of this report, lodgers are classified into partners of household head and other lodgers. A partner, as the term is generally understood, shares the household expenses with the head, whereas other lodgers generally pay a set fee for their accommodations.
A "resident employee" is an employee of the head of the household who usually resides in the housing unit with his employer; the term also includes the employee's relatives living in the same housing unit. Among the main types of resident employees are maids, hired farm hands, cooks, nurses, and companions.
Uses and Limitations of the Data
The statistics shown in this report may be used to study the living arrangements of persons in relation to a wide variety of social, economic, and housing characteristics of the households or families of which they are members. In using these statistics, it should be kept in mind that they refer to the population enumerated at its usual place of residence. For instance, a married woman whose husband is living away from home because of membership in the Armed Forces would have been assigned the marital status classification "married, spouse absent because, according to the rules by which the population was assigned a usual place of residence, her husband would have been counted at his military installation rather than at his wife's home. Similarly, the count of parents of family heads includes only those parents whose usual residence was in the household of one of their children, the count of children includes those children whose usual residence was in the parental home, and so forth. The relationship classifications thus provide a measure of the practical, day-to-day living arrangements of the population and not of those other, perhaps more permanent, relationships that are not reflected in the composition of the household at the time of the enumeration.
Data on household and family status in the 1960 Census are derived from data on relationship and marital status of each person in the home. Some information on the quality of data on relationship and marital status is available from reports on nonresponse rates. See 1960 Census of Population, Volume I, Characteristics of the Population, tables B-1, C-2, and D-1. Further information will be forthcoming in a report in the ER60 series of 1960 Census evaluation reports presenting comparisons of reporting of household and family status for identical persons in the census with that in the Current Population Survey.
Population, reports for each census since 18J0 contain figures on the number of households, but some of the earlier census figures were limited to the free population and have other limitations. After the 1900 Census had been taken, a few household characteristics for 1790 were tabulated for the free population in those areas with census records still in existence, and the results were reported in chapter VIII of A Century of Population Growth in the United States, 1790-1900, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1909. Beginning with I89O, more adequate household data in varying degrees of detail were published.
Information on the household relationship of the population has been collected in each census since 1880, but It was not until the 1940 Census data were processed that tables on this subject were prepared; at that time, limited data for 1910 on relationship of native white and Negro women 15 to 49 years old to the head of the household were shown in specially prepared tables in reports on fertility. Statistics on relationship to family head were shown in the 1950 Census in somewhat less detail than in this report, and corresponding statistics were shown in the 1940 Census in still less detail. The figures on relationship of primary family members to head of primary family shown in this report and in the 1950 Census may be compared to the 1940 statistics on relationship to head of household, for persons related to the head by blood, marriage, or adoption.
In 1947, the Bureau of the Census adopted a revised set of household and family status concepts. Statistics on "families" and "private households" in earlier reports are, in general, comparable with statistics on "households" in reports published in 1947 and subsequent years. In the 1960 and 1950 reports, the number of households is equal to the number of primary families plus the number of primary individuals. Primary individuals are persons who would have been classified as "one-person families" under the former terminology. The definition of families adopted in 1947 includes the small number of secondary families which would not have been classified as families under the old definition.
Table A. Household and family Status of the Population 14 Years Old and Over, For the United States, and Conterminous United States, 1950 and 1940
(Numbers in thousands.) "Conterminous United States" refers to the United States exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. Data based on 5- percent sample for 1960, 3 1/3 -percent sample for 1950, and complete count and 3.3-percent sample for 1940)
|Household and family status
|Total, 14 years old and over
|Head (number of households)
|In primary families
|Married, wife present
|Wife of head
|Child of head
|Grandchild of head
|Parent or parent-in-law of head
|Son- or daughter-in-law of head
|Other relative of head
|Nonrelative of household head
|In secondary families
|Wife of head
|Other relative of head
|In secondary families
|Wife of head
|Other relative of head
|Resident employee of head
|In group quarters
|Inmate of institution
The definition of a household used in 1960 differs slightly from that used in the 1950 Census and in the 1940 Census. The change arises as a result of the shift from a dwelling unit to a housing unit as the basic unit of enumeration in the Census of Housing. According to the 1960 definition, a household consists of all the persons who occupy a housing unit, whereas in the 1950 and 1940 Censuses a household consisted of all persons who occupied a dwelling unit.
A dwelling unit was defined as: (1) A group of rooms occupied or intended for occupancy as separate quarters and having either separate cooking equipment or a separate entrance; or (2) a single room (a) if it had separate cooking equipment, (b) if it was located in a regular apartment house, or (c) if it constituted the only living quarters in the structure.
Housing units differ from dwelling units mainly in that separate living quarters consisting of one room with direct access but without cooking equipment always qualify as a housing unit in 1960 but qualified as a dwelling unit before 1960 only when located in a regular apartment house or when the room was the only living quarters in the structure.
The evidence available suggests that the change from the dwelling unit concept to the housing unit concept had relatively little effect on the total number of households for the Nation as a whole and for large areas. Any effect which the change in concept may have can be expected to be greatest in statistics shown in other reports for some small areas, such as city blocks and census tracts. Living quarters classified as housing units in 1960 but which would not have been classified as dwelling units in the earlier censuses tend to be clustered in neighborhoods where many persons live alone in single rooms in hotels, rooming houses, and other light housekeeping quarters.
However, for the 17 metropolitan areas shown separately in the report on the Components of Inventory Change survey of December 1959, the count of housing units for the combined 17 areas from the (April) 1960 Census is slightly higher than the count of dwelling units from the 1959 survey; there is evidence that this difference exists even after allowing for Sampling Variability of the 1959 estimate and the difference in dates of enumeration. Furthermore, the estimate from the 1960 Census of the number of 1- and 2-room renter-occupied housing units in the 17 areas is higher than the estimate of dwelling units in the comparable category from the 1959 survey.1
U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of Housing, Volume IV, Components of Inventory Change, HC(4), Part 1A, No. (?)
The count of households in 1950, 1940, 1930, ant 1900 excluded groups of persons living as members of quasi-households. However, the numbers for 1920, 1910 and 1850 to 1890 included quasi-households. A quasi household was defined in 1950 as the occupants of a rooming house containing five or more persons not related to the head, or the occupants of certain other types of living quarters, such as dormitories, military barracks, and institutions. The 1940 definition of a quasi-household was similar to that of 1950 except that a rooming house was regarded as a quasi- household only when it included eleven or more persons not related to the head. The concept of quasi- household used in 1950 and 19^0 is thus similar to the concept of group quarters used in 1960.
Except for the household concept, the other 1960 definitions relating to household and family status of the population are essentially the same as those previously used. However, the 1950 data on members of families include the small number in quasi-households, whereas, in 1960, statistics on members of families were compiled only for those in households.
Despite the similarity of definitions of household relationship, the national statistics for certain relatively small categories by relationship and family status appear to have been significantly affected by the change in the household definition. The change in household definition introduced in 1960 would theoretically tend to make the numbers of primary families and primary individuals enumerated .in 1960 higher than the numbers that would have been obtained under earlier procedures, and to make the numbers of secondary families and secondary individuals lower. The evidence available Indicates that, for the Nation as a whole, the number of husband-wife secondary families and the number of males classified as secondary individuals were lower in 1960 than they would have been under t-he earlier procedures. However, because these numbers are relatively small, even a substantial proportional reduction in them would not necessarily produce an appreciable compensating increase in the national totals of the much more numerous primary families and primary individuals.
Table B. Comparison Of Complete-Count Data And Data From 25-Percent And 5-Percent Samples Of The 1960 Census Of Population And Data From The Current Population Survey, For The United States: 1960
|Household and family status
||Current Population Survey, March 1960
||Deviation from complete count
||Deviation from 25-percent sample
||Deviation from 1960 Census 5-percent sample
|Head (number of households)
|In primary families
|Wife of head
|Child of head
|Under 18 years old
|18 years old and over
|Grandchild of head
|Parent or parent-in-law of head
|Son- or daughter-in-law of head
|Brother or sister, or brother- or sister-in-law of head
|Other relative of head
|In secondary families
|Relative of head
|In group quarters
|Military barracks (males)
|Other group quarters, excl. institutions
|Inmate of institution
Males in military barracks excluded from coverage of CPS.
CPS figures includes persons in college dormitories, enumerated at their parental homes.
Most persons in college dormitories excluded from group quarters population in CPS; such persons were enumerated at their parental homes.
The 5-percent sample figure includes some persons not enrolled in college; see text.
The 5-percent sample figures includes some persons other than institution staff; see text.
Includes some persons in college dormitories with no usual residence elsewhere.
Number of inmates in 1960 CPS based on 1950 Census data.
1960 Census data in other reports
Other reports present data based on the complete count and on the 25-percent sample. The number of households and the total population in the United States according to the 25-percent sample, are virtually identical with the numbers according to the complete count, because the numbers in the sample were controlled to agree with those in the complete count (table B). This control did not extend to other categories of household and family status, including the two types of households (primary families and primary individuals). Thus the 25-percent sample as published underrepresented primary individuals by about 354,000, or percent, and overrepresented primary families by about 357,000, or 0.8 percent, as compared with the complete-count data. Moreover, the number of children of primary family heads was about 343,000 larger, and the number of wives of primary family heads was about, 265,000 larger, in the 25-percent sample than in the complete count. Investigation of available data suggests that these differences arose primarily in the Sample Designation. The procedure for selecting the sample would have produced unbiased results if the design had been carried out according to instructions. The designation of the sample by the enumerator at the time he was canvassing was a low-cost procedure which created some opportunity for undetected errors to occur and made control difficult. The difference between the complete-count data and the 25-percent sample data with regard to members of primary families other than heads, wives, and children under 18 may result from the Sample Designation. However, this and other differences shown in table B may also result in part from differences in the procedures for Editing the complete-count and sample data, and from the fact that the sample data were processed through a clerical coding operation, whereas the complete-count data were not.
The figures from the 5-percent sample shown in this report tend to be in very close agreement with those from the 25-percent sample shown in other reports with the exception of the figures for certain types of group quarters. Here, differences in the figures are attributable to differences in the tabulation specifications for obtaining the population in these quarters. The 25-percent sample figure for persons in college dormitories is limited to students who were enrolled in college, whereas the corresponding figure from the 5-percent sample includes all residents of such places including housemothers, resident housemasters and their families, wives and children of students if they lived in places classified as college dormitories, and other persons who, because they were not enrolled in college, were excluded from the college dormitory classification in the 25-percent sample data and were classified instead as in "other group quarters." The 25-percent sample figure for the staff of institutions includes only those non-inmate residents of group quarters in institutions who were employed, whereas the 5-per cent sample figure includes all non-inmate residents of group quarters in institutions whether or not they were employed. Non-inmate residents of group quarters in institutions who were not employed were classified in the 25-percent sample data as in "other group quarters." Thus, any family members who were living with the staff person in group quarters were included in the 5-percent sample figure, but were included in the 25-percent sample figure only if they were employed. The available evidence also indicates that several thousand persons who should have been classified in the 5-percent sample as inmates of institutions were incorrectly classified as non-inmate residents of institutions. Because few of these persons were employed, few were included in the 25-percent sample figure for institutional staff.
These persons were, however, included in the 5-percent sample figure for institutional staff.
Current Population Survey
Table B includes comparisons of figures from the March 1960 Current Population Survey (CPS) with those from the present report, which is based on the 1960 Census 5-percent sample. The key figures in the CPS with regard to the number of households, primary family heads and wives, and primary individuals are in agreement with those in the 1960 Census 5-percent sample, when account is taken of the sampling error associated with the estimates. Furthermore, when allowance is made for the difference between the date of the CPS and that of the Census, and for the exclusion from the CPS of Armed Forces in military barracks, the total population in the CPS, which was controlled to independent estimates, is quite close to that in the census. In general, the number of persons in households is larger in the CPS figures than in the census. This difference is attributable in part to the fact that college students were enumerated in the census in the community where they attended college, whereas in the CPS unmarried college students were enumerated in their parental homes. This difference may also be attributable in part to differences between the age distribution of the population according to the 1960 Census and the age distribution in the independent estimates used to inflate the sample figures from the CPS. The CPS figures were prepared by inflating weighted sample results to independent estimates of the population based on statistics from the 1950 Census of Population, statistics of births, deaths, immigration, and emigration, and other information. Although the total population - according to the independent estimates was quite close to the 1960 Census count, the independent estimates showed more young persons, and fewer old persons, than did the 1960 Census. This may account in part for the excess of members of primary families other than heads and wives (most of whom are children) in the CPS as compared with the census.
There is a relatively large difference between the CPS count of persons in secondary families in households and the corresponding figure in the census. Statistics for subsequent years in the CPS suggest that in March 1960 some enumerators may have classified as secondary families a few families who should have been classified as primary families. March 1960 was the first month in which the new (1960) household definition was used in the CPS, and some enumerators may not have adjusted immediately to the change in definition. As indicated in table B, CPS figures for the portion of the population in group quarters that may be compared with the census are lower than those in the census. This difference may reflect better coverage of residents of group quarters in the census, where a special effort is made to include persons who have no fixed place of residence.
The median is presented in connection with the data on income. It is the value which divides the distribution into two equal parts, one-half the cases falling below this value and one-half the cases exceeding this value.
A plus (+) sign after the median indicates that the median is above that number. For example, a median of $10,000+ for income indicates that the median fell in the interval "$10,000 and over."
In general, the urban population comprises all persons living in urbanized areas and in places of 2,500 inhabitants or more outside Urbanized Areas. Here specifically, according to the definition adopted for use in the 1960 Census, the urban population comprises all persons living in (a) places of 2,500 inhabitants or more incorporated as cities, boroughs, villages, and towns (except towns in New England, New York, and Wisconsin); (b) the densely settled urban fringe, whether incorporated or unincorporated, of Urbanized Areas; (c) towns in New England and townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania which contain no Incorporated municipalities as subdivisions and have either 25,000 Inhabitants or more or a population of 2,500 to 25,000 and a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; (d) counties in States other than the New England States, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that have no incorporated municipalities within their boundaries and have a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; and (e) unincorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more. The population not classified as urban constitutes the rural population.
The rural population is subdivided into the rural-farm population, which comprises all rural residents living on farms, and the rural-nonfarm population, which comprises the remaining, rural population. In the 1960 Census, the farm population consists of per sons living in rural territory on places of 10 or more acres from which sales of farm products amounted to $50 or more in 1959 or on places of less than 10 acres from which sales of farm products amounted to $250 or more in 1959. All persons living in group quarters are classified as nonfarm except the relatively few living in workers' quarters (including quarters for migratory agricultural workers) that are located on a farm or ranch.
An Urbanized Area contains at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more in 1960 and the surrounding closely settled incorporated places and unincorporated areas that meet certain criteria relating to population density or land use. An Urbanized Area may be thought of as divided into the central city, or cities, and the remainder of the area, or the urban fringe. All persons residing in an Urbanized Area are included in the urban population.
The age classification is based on the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 1960, as determined from the reply to a question on month and year of birth.
The term "color" refers to the division of population into two groups, white and nonwhite. The color group designated as "nonwhite" includes Negroes, American Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Hawaiians, Asian Indians, Malayans, Eskimos, Aleuts, etc. Persons of Mexican birth or ancestry who are not definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race are classified as white.
Year Moved into Present House
The data on Year Moved into Present House refer to the most recent move the person made. Thus, a person who had moved back into the same house (or apartment) in which he had previously lived was asked to give the date at which he began the present occupancy. If a person had moved from one apartment to another in the same building, he was expected to give the year when he moved into the present apartment. The category "always lived here" consists of persons who reported that their residence on April 1, 1960, was the same as their residence at birth and who had never had any other place of residence.
Statistics on selected events in relation to year moved in are presented for household members in table 23. This table shows, for instance, that 88,786,070 persons were members of households of which the head moved into the unit during the period 1950 to 1958. Of these, 83,614,999 members moved into the unit in the same period as the head, 719,041 moved in before that period (that is, before 1950), and 4,452,030 moved in after that period (after 1958). The section of table 23 for members who first married in the period when the head moved in shows, for instance, that there were 5,227,447 wives (of household heads) first married in 1950 to 1958 with husbands (household heads) who moved into the present home from 1950 to 1958, and that all but a relatively few of these wives moved in during the same period.
The classification by Mobility Status is based on a comparison of current residence with residence on April 1, 1955, that is, the usual place of residence five years prior to enumeration. The category "same house in 1955" includes all persons 5 years old and over who were reported as living in the same house on the date of enumeration in 1960 and five years prior to enumeration. Included in the group are persons who had never moved during the five years as well as those who had moved but by 1960 had returned to their 1955 residence. The category "different house in 1955" includes persons who, on April 1, 1955, lived in the United States in a different house from the one they occupied on April 1, 1960. This category was subdivided into four groups according to 1955 residence, viz., "different house, same county," "different county, same State," "contiguous State," and "noncontiguous State." States are classified as contiguous if their boundaries touch at any point. A list of the contiguous States for each State is given in report PC(2)-2A, State of Birth.
The category "abroad in 1955" includes those with residence in a foreign country or an outlying area of the United States in 1955. (In the coding of this item, persons who lived in Alaska or Hawaii in 1955 but in other States in 1960 were classified as living in a different State in 1955-) Persons 5 years old and over who had indicated they had moved into their present residence after April 1, 1955, but for whom sufficiently complete and consistent Information regarding residence on April 1, 1955, was not collected are included in the group "moved, place of Residence In 1955 not reported."
In the first type of distribution in table 20, family members 5 years old and over are cross-classified by their own Mobility Status and the Mobility Status of the family head. In the second type of distribution in this table, family members 5 years old and over are classified as "with 1955 residence same as head's" or "with 1955 residence different from head's." A family member was classified as "with 1955 residence same as head's" if the member and the head were classified in the same one of the following eleven categories:
In SMSA in 1960:
1. Same house in 1955
2. Different house in central city of this SMSA in 1955
3. Different house in ring of this SMSA in 1955
4. Central city of different SMSA in 1955
5. Ring of different SMSA in 1955
Not In SMSA in 1955 Not in SMSA in 1960:
6. Same house in 1955
7. In central city of SMSA in 1955
8. In ring of SMSA in 1955
9. Different house not In SMSA in 1955
10. Abroad in 1955
Family members who were classified in a different one of these categories from the head were classified in table 20 as "with1955 residence different from head's." family members (including heads) with a non-report on 1955 residence were excluded from this comparison and were classified as "moved, 1955 residence not reported."
In preparing the record for the 5-percent sample, on which the present report is based, all movers from one borough to another within New York City were classified as movers within the "same county," whereas In reports based on the 25-percent record, persons who moved across borough lines were classified as movers between counties within the "same State." Hence, the 5-percent sample shows more family heads who were movers within the same county than would be shown in corresponding figures from the 25-percent sample, and fewer migrants between counties within the same State.
Household heads enrolled in college are one of the groups, shown separately in table 23. Persons were included as enrolled in college if they were reported as attending or enrolled in, a, "regular" college at any time between February 1, 1960, and the time of enumeration. "Regular" college is explained in the following section.
Years of School Completed
The data on Years of School Completed (also termed "educational attainment" in this report) were derived from the answers to the two questions: (a) "What is the highest grade (or year) of regular school he has ever attended?" and (b) "Did he finish this grade (or year)?" Enumerators were Instructed to obtain the approximate equivalent grade in the American school system for persons whose highest grade of attendance was in a foreign school system, whose highest level of attendance was in an ungraded school, whose highest level of schooling was measured by "readers," or whose training by a tutor was regarded as qualifying under the "regular" school definition. Persons were to answer "No" to the second question if they were attending school, had completed only part of a grade before they dropped out, or failed to pass the last grade attended.
The number in each category of highest grade of school completed represents the combination of (a) persons who reported that they had attended the indicated grade and finished it, and (b) those who had attended the next higher grade but had not finished it.
The questions on educational attainment applied only to progress in "regular" schools. Regular schooling is that which may advance a person toward an elementary school certificate or high school diploma, or a college, university, or professional degree. Schooling that was not obtained in a regular school and schooling from a tutor or through correspondence courses were counted only if the credits obtained were regarded as transferable to a school in the regular school system. Schooling which is generally regarded as not regular Includes that which is given in nursery schools, in specialized vocational, trade, or business schools; in on-the-job training; and through correspondence courses.
Elementary school, as defined here, includes grades 1 to 8, and high school includes grades 9 to 12. College includes junior or community colleges, regular 4-year colleges, and graduate or professional schools.
This classification refers to the marital status of the person at the time of enumeration. Persons classified as "married" comprise, therefore, both those who have been married only once and those who remarried after having been widowed or divorced. A married person with "spouse present" is a man or woman whose spouse was enumerated as a member of the same household even though he or she may have been temporarily absent on business or vacation, visiting, in a hospital, etc., at the time of the enumeration. Persons reported as separated (either legally separated or otherwise absent from the spouse because of marital discord) are classified as a subcategory of married persons. Married persons classified as "other, spouse absent" are married persons (except separated) whose spouse had his usual residence elsewhere; for instance, a married person whose spouse was away in the Armed Forces or in an institution would be included in this classification. The enumerators were instructed to report persons in common-law marriages as married and persons whose only marriage had been annulled as single.
Statistics on presence of spouse for married persons (except separated) were compiled in 1960 for persons in housing units only; data are not available for the very small number of married persons with spouse present in group quarters. Such persons were classified as "other married, spouse absent."
The number of married men with spouse present should, by definition, be the same as the number of married women with spouse present. However, the two figures may not be the same because, in the weighting of the sample, husbands and their wives were sometimes given different weights. Differences between the figures for all married men and all married women for an area may arise for the foregoing reason and also because the husband and wife may have had different places of residence and because of differences in the completeness and accuracy of reporting on marital status for men and women.
Year of First Marriage and Years since First Marriage
In the 1960 Census, persons in the sample who had ever been married were asked the date of their first marriage; this information was placed on the electronic tapes in terms of calendar quarter and year. Thus, direct information was obtained for this report on year of first marriage for married (including separated), widowed, and divorced persons. The number of years since first marriage was derived by subtraction of the date of first marriage from April 1, 1960, and represents the interval in completed years since first marriage.
The data on Employment Status relate to the calendar week prior to the date on which the respondents filled their Household Questionnaires or were interviewed by enumerators. This week is not the same for all respondents because not all persons were enumerated during the same week.
Employed persons comprise all civilians 14 years old and over who were either (a) "at work"-those who did any work for pay or profit, or worked without pay for 15 hours or more on a family farm or in a family, business; or (b) were "with a job but not at work"- those who did not work and were not looking for work but had a job or business from which they were temporarily absent because of bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, illness, or other personal reasons.
Persons are classified as unemployed if they were 14 years old and over and not "at work" but looking for work. A person is considered as looking for work not only if he actually tried to find work but also if he had made such efforts recently (i.e., within the past 60 days) and was awaiting the results of these efforts. Persons waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off or furloughed are also counted as unemployed.
The "civilian labor force" includes all persons classified as employed or unemployed, as described above. The "labor force" also includes members of the Armed Forces (persons on active duty with the United States Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard).
Persons "not in the labor force" comprise all those 14 years old and over who are not classified as members of the labor force, including persons doing only incidental unpaid family work (less than 15 hours during the week).
The statistics on hours worked pertain to the number of hours actually worked, and not necessarily to the number usually worked or the scheduled number of hours. For persons working at more than one job, the figures reflect the combined number of hours worked at all jobs during the week. In table 25 of this report, family heads in the Armed Forces were classified as working 35 hours or more.
The data on Weeks Worked In 1959 pertain to the number of different weeks during 1959 in which a person did any work for pay or profit (including paid vacation and sick leave) or worked without pay on a family farm or in a family business. Weeks of active service in the Armed Forces are also included.
Occupation, Industry, and Class of Worker
The data on occupation in this report are for employed persons and refer to the job held during the week for which Employment Status was reported. For persons employed at two or more jobs, the data refer to the job at which the person worked the greatest number of hours. The data on industry and class of worker for employed persons refer to the job held during the week for which Employment Status was reported; for persons not employed, the data refer to the last job held since 1950. The occupation and industry statistics presented here are based on the detailed systems developed for the 1960 Census; see 1960 Census of Population, Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1960.
Tables 27 and 28 present statistics relating to the number of persons dependent on agriculture and other industries.
Information on income for the calendar year 1959 was requested from all persons years old and over in the sample. "Total income" is the sum of amounts reported separately for wage or salary income, self- employment income, and other income. Wage or salary income is defined as the total money earnings received for work performed as an employee. It represents the amount received before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond purchases, union dues, etc. Self-employment income is defined as net money income (gross receipts minus operating expenses) from a business, farm, or professional enterprise in which the person was engaged on his own account. Other income includes money income received from such sources as net rents, interest, dividends, Social Security benefits, pensions, veterans' payments, unemployment insurance, and public assistance or other governmental payments, and periodic receipts from insurance policies or annuities. Not included as income are money received from the sale of property (unless the recipient was engaged in the business of selling such property), the value of income "in kind," withdrawals of bank deposits, money borrowed, tax refunds, and gifts and lump-sum inheritances or insurance payments.
In the statistics on family income, the combined incomes of al1 members of each family are treated as a single amount. Although the time period covered by the Income statistics is the calendar year 1959, the composition of families refers to the time of enumeration. For most of the families, however, the Income reported was received by persons who were members of the family throughout 1959.
The chief income recipient in a family was defined, in general, as that member of a family who had the largest total income (at least $1 more than any other family member). If the family head and one or more other family members had identical incomes and they had the highest incomes in the family, or if no family member had reported income, the family head was considered the chief income recipient. If two or more family members other than the head had equal and highest incomes, the first one listed was regarded as the chief income recipient.
The number of household members includes all persons enumerated as usual residents of the housing unit whether related or not.
The number of persons per room was computed for each housing unit by dividing the total number of household members by the number of rooms in the unit. The number of rooms is the count of whole rooms used for living purposes, such as living rooms, dining rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, finished attic or basement rooms, recreation rooms, lodgers' rooms, and rooms used for offices by a person living in the unit. Not counted as rooms are bathrooms; halls, foyers, or vestibules; closets; alcoves; pantries; strip or pullman kitchens; laundry or furnace rooms; unfinished attics, basements, and other space used for storage.
"Year built" refers to the date the original construction of the structure was completed, not to any later remodeling, addition, or conversion.
Living quarters are regarded as having direct access if the entrance is direct from the outside of the structure, or through a common hall, lobby, or vestibule used by the occupants of more than one unit. The hall, lobby, or vestibule must not be part of any unit, but must be clearly separate from all units in the structure. Living quarters do not have direct access when the only entrance to the room or rooms is through a room or hall which is part of another unit.
Kitchen or cooking equipment
A kitchen is defined as a room used primarily for cooking and the preparation of meals. Cooking equipment is defined as (1) a range or stove, whether or not it is regularly used, or (2) other equipment such as a hotplate or electrical appliance if it is used for the regular preparation of meals. The category "with kitchen or cooking equipment" comprises units with facilities for exclusive use. The category "lacking kitchen or cooking equipment" comprises units with shared or no facilities. Equipment is for exclusive use if it is used only by the occupants of one unit.
The enumerator determined the condition of the housing, unit by observation, on the basis of specified criteria. Nevertheless, the application of these criteria involved some judgment on the part of the individual enumerator. The training program for enumerators was designed to minimize differences in judgment.
Sound housing is defined as that which has no defects, or only slight defects which are normally corrected during the course of regular maintenance.
Deteriorating housing needs more repair than would be provided in the course of regular maintenance. Such housing has one or more defects, of an intermediate nature that must be corrected if the unit is to continue to provide safe and adequate shelter.
Dilapidated housing does not provide safe and adequate shelter and in its present condition endangers the health, safety, or well-being of the occupants. Such housing has one or more critical defects, or has a combination of intermediate defects in sufficient number or extent to require considerable repair or rebuilding, or is of inadequate original construction. Critical defects result from continued neglect or lack of repair, or indicate serious damage to the structure,
The facilities referred to are water supply, toilet facilities, and bathing facilities. A unit has hot piped water even though the hot water is not supplied continuously; for example, it may be supplied only at certain times of the day, week, or year. A unit has a flush toilet if it is inside the structure and available for the use of the occupants of the unit. A unit has a bath if there is a bathtub or shower supplied with piped water (not necessarily hot water) inside the structure and available for the use of the occupants of the unit.
Facilities are for exclusive use if they are used only by the occupants of the one housing unit, including lodgers or other unrelated persons living in the housing unit.
A clothes washing machine owned by a member of the household was to be reported, whether it was located in the housing unit or elsewhere on the property. Machines used but not owned by members of the household, such as those provided by the management of an apartment building, were not to be reported. The number of households with a washer and a dryer (or a washer-dryer combination) are shown in table 17. Dryers used but not owned by members of the household, such as those provided by the management of an apartment building, were not to be reported.
A home food freezer is defined as an appliance, separate from the refrigerator, which freezes food and keeps food frozen. The freezer must be located in the housing unit or elsewhere on the property. Excluded is a freezer combined in the same cabinet with a refrigerator, even if it has a separate door.
A unit is classified as having a telephone if there is a telephone available to the occupants of the unit for receiving calls. The telephone may be located inside or outside the housing unit, and one telephone may serve the occupants of several units.
The count of automobiles available represents the number of passenger automobiles, including station wagons, owned or regularly used by any of the occupants of the housing unit. Passenger cars were to be counted if they were owned by a member of the household or if they were regularly used and ordinarily kept at home, as in the case of some company cars. Not to be counted were taxis, pickups or larger trucks, and dismantled or dilapidated cars in an early stage of being junked. The statistics do not reflect the number of automobiles privately owned or the number of households owning one or more automobiles.
Air conditioning is defined as the cooling of air by refrigerating apparatus. Excluded are evaporative coolers and fans or blowers which are not connected to a refrigerating apparatus. The statistics shown in table 17 are for members of households having air conditioners designed to cool one room and those having equipment designed to cool more than one room (including central systems).
Television sets of all kinds located in the unit were to be included in the count- floor, table, built-in, portable, and combination with radio or phonograph. Sets in working order and sets being repaired were to be counted. A combination radio-television set was to be reported both as a television and as a radio set.