Starting with the weighting for the 2011 1-year ACS estimates, the group quarters (GQ) person weighting changed in important ways from previous years' weighting. The GQ population sample was supplemented by a large-scale whole person imputation into not-in-sample GQ facilities. For the 2020 ACS GQ data, roughly as many GQ persons were imputed as interviewed. The goal of the imputation methodology was two-fold.
- The primary objective was to establish representation of municipio by major GQ type group in the tabulations for each combination that exists on the PRCS GQ sample frame. The seven major GQ type groups are defined by the Population Estimates Program and
are given in Table 3.
- A secondary objective was to establish representation of tract by major GQ type group for each combination that exists on the PRCS GQ sample frame.
The GQ sampling frame was modified to create an imputation frame from which all imputed GQs were selected from. The frame was updated with the actual populations and GQ type changes from ACS interviews, as well as any subsequent information gathered in other processes since the sampling frame was initially created. The change in populations for ACS GQ interviews was used to calculate a not-in-sample adjustment factor that was used to update the population for all GQs on the frame not selected for sample. This adjustment factor was calculated at the following level:
GQ Major Type x GQ Size Stratum
There were three size strata used for this process: GQs in sample with certainty, GQs with 16 or more persons, and GQs with less than 16 persons.
For all not-in-sample GQ facilities with an expected population of 16 or more persons (large facilities), we imputed a number of GQ persons equal to 2.5% of the expected population. For those GQ facilities with an expected population of fewer than 16 persons (small facilities), we selected a random sample of GQ facilities as needed to accomplish the two objectives given above. For those selected small GQ facilities, we imputed a number of GQ persons equal to 20% of the facility's expected population.
Interviewed GQ person records were then sampled at random to be donors for the imputed persons of the selected not-in-sample GQ facilities. An expanding search algorithm searched for donors within the same specific type of GQ facility and the same county. If that failed, the search included all GQ facilities of the same major GQ type group. If that still failed, the search expanded to a specific type within state, then a major GQ type group within state. This expanding search continued through division, region, and the entire nation until suitable donors were found.
The weighting procedure made no distinction between sampled and imputed GQ person records. The initial weights of person records in the large GQ facilities equaled the observed or expected population of the GQ facility divided by the number of person records. The initial weights of person records in small GQ facilities equaled the observed or expected population of the GQ facility divided by the number of records, multiplied by the inverse of the fraction of small GQ facilities represented in the weighting to the number on the frame of that tract by major GQ type group combination.
The population totals on the imputation frame are used to ensure that the sub-state distribution of GQ weighting preserves the distribution from the frame. This accomplished through a series of three constraints:
- Tract Constraint (TRCON) - This factor makes the total weight within each tract by major type group equal the total population from the imputation frame.
- County Constraint (CYCON) - This factor makes the total weight within each county by major type group equal the total population from the imputation frame.
- State Constraint (STCON) - This factor makes the total weight within each state by major type group equal the total population from the imputation frame.
As was done in previous years' weighting, we controlled the final weights to an independent set of GQ population estimates produced by the Population Estimates Program for each state by each of the seven major GQ type groups.
Lastly, the final GQ person weight was rounded to an integer. Rounding was performed so that the sum of the rounded weights were within one person of the sum of the unrounded weights for any of the groups listed below:
Major GQ Type Group
Major GQ Type Group x Municipio