Data Dictionary: Census 2010
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Survey: Census 2010
Data Source: Census Bureau; Social Explorer
Table: PCT12J. Sex By Age (Black Or African American Alone, Not Hispanic Or Latino) [209]
Universe: People who are Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino
Table Details
PCT12J. Sex By Age (Black Or African American Alone, Not Hispanic Or Latino)
Universe: People who are Black or African American alone, not Hispanic or Latino
Variable Label
PCT012J001
PCT012J002
PCT012J003
PCT012J004
PCT012J005
PCT012J006
PCT012J007
PCT012J008
PCT012J009
PCT012J010
PCT012J011
PCT012J012
PCT012J013
PCT012J014
PCT012J015
PCT012J016
PCT012J017
PCT012J018
PCT012J019
PCT012J020
PCT012J021
PCT012J022
PCT012J023
PCT012J024
PCT012J025
PCT012J026
PCT012J027
PCT012J028
PCT012J029
PCT012J030
PCT012J031
PCT012J032
PCT012J033
PCT012J034
PCT012J035
PCT012J036
PCT012J037
PCT012J038
PCT012J039
PCT012J040
PCT012J041
PCT012J042
PCT012J043
PCT012J044
PCT012J045
PCT012J046
PCT012J047
PCT012J048
PCT012J049
PCT012J050
PCT012J051
PCT012J052
PCT012J053
PCT012J054
PCT012J055
PCT012J056
PCT012J057
PCT012J058
PCT012J059
PCT012J060
PCT012J061
PCT012J062
PCT012J063
PCT012J064
PCT012J065
PCT012J066
PCT012J067
PCT012J068
PCT012J069
PCT012J070
PCT012J071
PCT012J072
PCT012J073
PCT012J074
PCT012J075
PCT012J076
PCT012J077
PCT012J078
PCT012J079
PCT012J080
PCT012J081
PCT012J082
PCT012J083
PCT012J084
PCT012J085
PCT012J086
PCT012J087
PCT012J088
PCT012J089
PCT012J090
PCT012J091
PCT012J092
PCT012J093
PCT012J094
PCT012J095
PCT012J096
PCT012J097
PCT012J098
PCT012J099
PCT012J100
PCT012J101
PCT012J102
PCT012J103
PCT012J104
PCT012J105
PCT012J106
PCT012J107
PCT012J108
PCT012J109
PCT012J110
PCT012J111
PCT012J112
PCT012J113
PCT012J114
PCT012J115
PCT012J116
PCT012J117
PCT012J118
PCT012J119
PCT012J120
PCT012J121
PCT012J122
PCT012J123
PCT012J124
PCT012J125
PCT012J126
PCT012J127
PCT012J128
PCT012J129
PCT012J130
PCT012J131
PCT012J132
PCT012J133
PCT012J134
PCT012J135
PCT012J136
PCT012J137
PCT012J138
PCT012J139
PCT012J140
PCT012J141
PCT012J142
PCT012J143
PCT012J144
PCT012J145
PCT012J146
PCT012J147
PCT012J148
PCT012J149
PCT012J150
PCT012J151
PCT012J152
PCT012J153
PCT012J154
PCT012J155
PCT012J156
PCT012J157
PCT012J158
PCT012J159
PCT012J160
PCT012J161
PCT012J162
PCT012J163
PCT012J164
PCT012J165
PCT012J166
PCT012J167
PCT012J168
PCT012J169
PCT012J170
PCT012J171
PCT012J172
PCT012J173
PCT012J174
PCT012J175
PCT012J176
PCT012J177
PCT012J178
PCT012J179
PCT012J180
PCT012J181
PCT012J182
PCT012J183
PCT012J184
PCT012J185
PCT012J186
PCT012J187
PCT012J188
PCT012J189
PCT012J190
PCT012J191
PCT012J192
PCT012J193
PCT012J194
PCT012J195
PCT012J196
PCT012J197
PCT012J198
PCT012J199
PCT012J200
PCT012J201
PCT012J202
PCT012J203
PCT012J204
PCT012J205
PCT012J206
PCT012J207
PCT012J208
PCT012J209
Notes:
Source: 2000 SF1 PCT12J.
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Sex
Individuals were asked to mark either "male&quot or "female" to indicate their sex. For most cases in which sex was not reported, the appropriate entry was determined from the persons given (i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was allocated according to the relationship to the householder and the age of the person. (For more information on allocation, see "2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.")


Sex Ratio
The sex ratio represents the balance between the male and female populations. Ratios above 100 indicate a larger male population, and ratios below 100 indicate a larger female population. This measure is derived by dividing the total number of males by the total number of females and then multiplying by 100. It is rounded to the nearest tenth.

Comparability
A question on the sex of individuals has been asked of the total population in every census.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a two-part question (i.e., age and date of birth). The age classification for a person in census tabulations is the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 2010, the census reference date. Both age and date of birth responses are used in combination to
determine the most accurate age for the person as of the census reference date. Inconsistently reported and missing values are assigned or allocated based on the values of other variables for that person, from other people in the household or from people in other households (i.e., hot-deck imputation).
Age data are tabulated in age groupings and single years of age. Data on age also are used to classify other characteristics in census tabulations.


Median Age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single-year-of-age distribution using a linear interpolation method.

Limitation of the data
There is some tendency for respondents to provide their age as of the date they completed the census questionnaire or interview, not their age as of the census reference date. The two-part question and editing procedures have attempted to minimize the effect of this reporting problem on tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question displays the census reference date prominently, and interviewer training emphasizes the importance of collecting age as of the reference date.

Respondents sometimes round a persons age up if they were close to having a birthday. For most single years of age, the misstatements are largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age 0. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age 1 to avoid reporting age as 0 years. (Age in completed months was not collected for infants under age 1.) Editing procedures correct this problem.

There is some respondent resistance to reporting the ages of babies in completed years (i.e., 0 years old when the baby is under 1 year old). Instead, babies ages are sometimes reported in months. The two-part question along with enhanced editing and data capture procedures correct much of this problem before the age data are finalized in tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question includes an instruction for babies ages to be answered as 0 years old when they are under 1 year old.

Age heaping is a common age misreporting error. Age heaping is the tendency for people to overreport ages (or years of birth) that end in certain digits (commonly digits 0 or 5) and underreport ages or years of birth ending in other digits. The two-part question helps minimize the effect of age heaping on the final tabulations.

Age data for centenarians have a history of data quality challenges. The counts in the 1970 and 1980 Censuses for people 100 years and over were substantially overstated. Editing and data collection methods have been enhanced in order to meet the data quality challenges for this population.

It also has been documented that the population aged 69 in the 1970 Census and the population aged 79 in the 1980 Census were overstated. The population aged 89 in 1990 and the population aged 99 in 2000 did not have an overstated count. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the Comparability section below.)

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. However, there have been some differences in the way they have been collected and processed over time. In the 2010 Census (as in Census 2000), each individual provided both an age and an exact date of birth. The 1990 Census collected age and year of birth. Prior censuses had collected month and quarter of birth in addition to age and year of birth. The 1990 Census change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth.

In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as imputation. The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see 2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.)

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Black or African American
A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as Black, African Am., or Negro or report entries such as African American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Hispanic or Latino Origin
The data on the Hispanic or Latino population were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The terms Hispanic,Latino, and Spanish are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms, while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. People who identify with the terms Hispanic,Latino, or Spanish are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish categories listed on the questionnaire (Mexican,Puerto Rican, or Cuban) as well as those who indicate that they are another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or the Dominican Republic. Up to two write-in responses to the another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin category are coded.

Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the persons parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be any race.

Some tabulations are shown by the origin of the householder. In all cases where the origin of households, families, or occupied housing units is classified as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish, the origin of the householder is used. (See the discussion of householder under "Household Type and Relationship.")

If an individual did not provide a Hispanic origin response, his or her origin was allocated using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if origin was missing for a natural-born child in the household, then either the origin of the householder, another natural-born child, or spouse of the householder was allocated.
If Hispanic origin was not reported for anyone in the household and origin could not be obtained from a response to the race question, then their origin was assigned based on their prior census record (either from Census 2000 or the American Community Survey), if available. If not, then the Hispanic origin of a householder in a previously processed household with the same race was allocated. (For more information on allocation, see "2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.") As in Census 2000, surnames (Spanish and non-Spanish) were used to assist in allocating an origin or race.

Comparability
There are four changes to the Hispanic origin question for the 2010 Census. First, the wording of the question differs from that in 2000. In 2000, the question asked if the person was Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. In 2010, the question asks if the person is of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Second, in 2000, the question provided an instruction, Mark ý the 'No'box if not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. The 2010 Census question provided no specific instruction for non-Hispanics. Third, in 2010, the Yes, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin category provided examples of six Hispanic origin groups (Argentinean, Colombian, Dominican, Nicaraguan, Salvadoran, Spaniard, and so on) and instructed respondents to print origin. In 2000, no Hispanic origin examples were given. Finally, the fourth change was the addition of a new instruction in the 2010 Census that was not used in Census 2000. The instruction is stated as follows: NOTE: Please answer BOTH Question 8 about Hispanic origin and Question 9 about race. For this census, Hispanic origins are not races.

There were two changes to the Hispanic origin question for Census 2000. First, the sequence of the race and Hispanic origin questions for Census 2000 differs from that in 1990; in 1990, the race question preceded the Hispanic origin question. Testing prior to Census 2000 indicated that response to the Hispanic origin question could be improved by placing it before the race question without affecting the response to the race question. Second, there was an instruction preceding the Hispanic origin question indicating that respondents should answer both the Hispanic origin and the race questions. This instruction was added to give emphasis to the distinct concepts of the Hispanic origin and race questions, and emphasized the need for both pieces of information.

Furthermore, there was a change in the processing of the Hispanic origin and race responses. In the 1990 census, respondents provided Hispanic origin responses in the race question and race responses in the Hispanic origin question. In 1990, the Hispanic origin question and the race question had separate edits; therefore, although information may have been present on the questionnaire, it was not fully utilized due to the discrete nature of the edits. However, for Census 2000, there was a joint race and Hispanic origin edit that utilized Hispanic origin and race information regardless of the location.