Data Dictionary: Census 2010
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Survey: Census 2010
Data Source: Census Bureau; Social Explorer
Table: PCT12. Sex By Age [209]
Universe: Total population
Table Details
PCT12. Sex By Age
Universe: Total population
Variable Label
PCT0120001
PCT0120002
PCT0120003
PCT0120004
PCT0120005
PCT0120006
PCT0120007
PCT0120008
PCT0120009
PCT0120010
PCT0120011
PCT0120012
PCT0120013
PCT0120014
PCT0120015
PCT0120016
PCT0120017
PCT0120018
PCT0120019
PCT0120020
PCT0120021
PCT0120022
PCT0120023
PCT0120024
PCT0120025
PCT0120026
PCT0120027
PCT0120028
PCT0120029
PCT0120030
PCT0120031
PCT0120032
PCT0120033
PCT0120034
PCT0120035
PCT0120036
PCT0120037
PCT0120038
PCT0120039
PCT0120040
PCT0120041
PCT0120042
PCT0120043
PCT0120044
PCT0120045
PCT0120046
PCT0120047
PCT0120048
PCT0120049
PCT0120050
PCT0120051
PCT0120052
PCT0120053
PCT0120054
PCT0120055
PCT0120056
PCT0120057
PCT0120058
PCT0120059
PCT0120060
PCT0120061
PCT0120062
PCT0120063
PCT0120064
PCT0120065
PCT0120066
PCT0120067
PCT0120068
PCT0120069
PCT0120070
PCT0120071
PCT0120072
PCT0120073
PCT0120074
PCT0120075
PCT0120076
PCT0120077
PCT0120078
PCT0120079
PCT0120080
PCT0120081
PCT0120082
PCT0120083
PCT0120084
PCT0120085
PCT0120086
PCT0120087
PCT0120088
PCT0120089
PCT0120090
PCT0120091
PCT0120092
PCT0120093
PCT0120094
PCT0120095
PCT0120096
PCT0120097
PCT0120098
PCT0120099
PCT0120100
PCT0120101
PCT0120102
PCT0120103
PCT0120104
PCT0120105
PCT0120106
PCT0120107
PCT0120108
PCT0120109
PCT0120110
PCT0120111
PCT0120112
PCT0120113
PCT0120114
PCT0120115
PCT0120116
PCT0120117
PCT0120118
PCT0120119
PCT0120120
PCT0120121
PCT0120122
PCT0120123
PCT0120124
PCT0120125
PCT0120126
PCT0120127
PCT0120128
PCT0120129
PCT0120130
PCT0120131
PCT0120132
PCT0120133
PCT0120134
PCT0120135
PCT0120136
PCT0120137
PCT0120138
PCT0120139
PCT0120140
PCT0120141
PCT0120142
PCT0120143
PCT0120144
PCT0120145
PCT0120146
PCT0120147
PCT0120148
PCT0120149
PCT0120150
PCT0120151
PCT0120152
PCT0120153
PCT0120154
PCT0120155
PCT0120156
PCT0120157
PCT0120158
PCT0120159
PCT0120160
PCT0120161
PCT0120162
PCT0120163
PCT0120164
PCT0120165
PCT0120166
PCT0120167
PCT0120168
PCT0120169
PCT0120170
PCT0120171
PCT0120172
PCT0120173
PCT0120174
PCT0120175
PCT0120176
PCT0120177
PCT0120178
PCT0120179
PCT0120180
PCT0120181
PCT0120182
PCT0120183
PCT0120184
PCT0120185
PCT0120186
PCT0120187
PCT0120188
PCT0120189
PCT0120190
PCT0120191
PCT0120192
PCT0120193
PCT0120194
PCT0120195
PCT0120196
PCT0120197
PCT0120198
PCT0120199
PCT0120200
PCT0120201
PCT0120202
PCT0120203
PCT0120204
PCT0120205
PCT0120206
PCT0120207
PCT0120208
PCT0120209
Notes:
Source: 2000 SF1 PCT12.
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Sex
Individuals were asked to mark either "male&quot or "female" to indicate their sex. For most cases in which sex was not reported, the appropriate entry was determined from the persons given (i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was allocated according to the relationship to the householder and the age of the person. (For more information on allocation, see "2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.")


Sex Ratio
The sex ratio represents the balance between the male and female populations. Ratios above 100 indicate a larger male population, and ratios below 100 indicate a larger female population. This measure is derived by dividing the total number of males by the total number of females and then multiplying by 100. It is rounded to the nearest tenth.

Comparability
A question on the sex of individuals has been asked of the total population in every census.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a two-part question (i.e., age and date of birth). The age classification for a person in census tabulations is the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 2010, the census reference date. Both age and date of birth responses are used in combination to
determine the most accurate age for the person as of the census reference date. Inconsistently reported and missing values are assigned or allocated based on the values of other variables for that person, from other people in the household or from people in other households (i.e., hot-deck imputation).
Age data are tabulated in age groupings and single years of age. Data on age also are used to classify other characteristics in census tabulations.


Median Age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single-year-of-age distribution using a linear interpolation method.

Limitation of the data
There is some tendency for respondents to provide their age as of the date they completed the census questionnaire or interview, not their age as of the census reference date. The two-part question and editing procedures have attempted to minimize the effect of this reporting problem on tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question displays the census reference date prominently, and interviewer training emphasizes the importance of collecting age as of the reference date.

Respondents sometimes round a persons age up if they were close to having a birthday. For most single years of age, the misstatements are largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age 0. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age 1 to avoid reporting age as 0 years. (Age in completed months was not collected for infants under age 1.) Editing procedures correct this problem.

There is some respondent resistance to reporting the ages of babies in completed years (i.e., 0 years old when the baby is under 1 year old). Instead, babies ages are sometimes reported in months. The two-part question along with enhanced editing and data capture procedures correct much of this problem before the age data are finalized in tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question includes an instruction for babies ages to be answered as 0 years old when they are under 1 year old.

Age heaping is a common age misreporting error. Age heaping is the tendency for people to overreport ages (or years of birth) that end in certain digits (commonly digits 0 or 5) and underreport ages or years of birth ending in other digits. The two-part question helps minimize the effect of age heaping on the final tabulations.

Age data for centenarians have a history of data quality challenges. The counts in the 1970 and 1980 Censuses for people 100 years and over were substantially overstated. Editing and data collection methods have been enhanced in order to meet the data quality challenges for this population.

It also has been documented that the population aged 69 in the 1970 Census and the population aged 79 in the 1980 Census were overstated. The population aged 89 in 1990 and the population aged 99 in 2000 did not have an overstated count. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the Comparability section below.)

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. However, there have been some differences in the way they have been collected and processed over time. In the 2010 Census (as in Census 2000), each individual provided both an age and an exact date of birth. The 1990 Census collected age and year of birth. Prior censuses had collected month and quarter of birth in addition to age and year of birth. The 1990 Census change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth.

In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as imputation. The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see 2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.)