Data Dictionary: Census 2010
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Survey: Census 2010
Data Source: Census Bureau; Social Explorer
Table: P22. Household Type By Age Of Householder [21]
Universe: Households
Table Details
Notes:
Source: 2000 SF1 P21. A household that has at least one member of the household related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption is a "Family household." Same-sex couple households are included in the family households category if there is at least one additional person related to the householder by birth or adoption. Same-sex couple households with no relatives of the householder present are tabulated in nonfamily households. Responses of "same-sex spouse" were edited during processing to "unmarried partner." "Nonfamily households" consist of people living alone and households which do not have any members related to the householder.
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Household Type and Relationship
Household
A household includes all the people who occupy a housing unit. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.) A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any other people in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living arrangements. In the 2010 Census data products, the count of households or householders equals the count of occupied housing units.

Average Household Size
Average household size is a measure obtained by dividing the number of people in households by the number of households. In cases where people in households are cross-classified by race or Hispanic origin, people in the household are classified by the race or Hispanic origin of the householder rather than the race or Hispanic origin of each individual. Average household size is rounded to the nearest hundredth.

Relationship to Householder
Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to Question 2, which was asked of all people in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder. In most cases, this is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented and who is listed on line one of the questionnaire. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years old and over could be designated as the householder.
Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: a family householder and a nonfamily householder. A family householder is a householder living with one or more individuals related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Spouse
The spouse category includes a person identified as the husband or wife of the householder and who is of the opposite sex. For most of the tables, unless otherwise specified, it does not include same-sex spouses even if a marriage was performed in a state issuing marriage certificates for same-sex couples.

The child category includes a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or adopted child of the householder, regardless of the childs age or marital status. The category excludes sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, and foster children.

Biological Son or Daughter
The son or daughter of the householder by birth.
Adopted Son or Daughter
The son or daughter of the householder by legal adoption. If a stepson, stepdaughter, or foster child has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.
Stepson or Stepdaughter
The son or daughter of the householder through marriage but not by birth, excluding sons-in-law and daughters-in-law. If a stepson or stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.

Own Children
A child under 18 years who is a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or an adopted child of the householder is included in the own children category.

Related Children
Any child under 18 years old who is related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption is included in the related children category. Children, by definition, exclude persons under 18 years who maintain households or are spouses or unmarried partners of householders.

Other Relatives
In tabulations, the category other relatives includes any household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption but not included specifically in another relationship category. In certain detailed tabulations, the following categories may be shown:


Grandchild
The grandson or granddaughter of the householder.

Brother/Sister
The brother or sister of the householder, including stepbrothers, stepsisters, and brothers and sisters by adoption. Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law are included in the Other Relative category on the questionnaire.

Parent
The father or mother of the householder, including a stepparent or adoptive parent. Fathers-in-law and mothers-in-law are included in the Parent-in-law category on the questionnaire.

Parent-in-Law
The mother-in-law or father-in-law of the householder.

Son-in-law or Daughter-in-Law
The spouse of the child of the householder.

Other Relatives
Anyone not listed in a reported category above who is related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (brother-in-law, grandparent, nephew, aunt, cousin, and so forth).

Nonrelatives
This category includes any household member not related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. The following categories may be presented in more detailed tabulations:

Roomer or Boarder
A roomer or boarder is a person who lives in a room in the household of the householder. Some sort of cash or noncash payment (e.g., chores) is usually made for their living accommodations.

Housemate or Roommate
A housemate or roommate is a person aged 15 years and over who is not related to the householder and who shares living quarters primarily in order to share expenses.

Unmarried Partner
An unmarried partner is a person aged 15 years and over who is not related to the householder, who shares living quarters, and who has a close personal relationship with the householder. Responses of same-sex spouse are edited into this category.

Other Nonrelatives
Anyone who is not related by birth, marriage, or adoption to the householder and who is not described by the categories given above. Unrelated foster children or unrelated foster adults are included in this category, Other Nonrelatives. A foster child who has been adopted by the householder is classified as an adopted child.

When relationship is not reported for an individual, it is allocated according to the responses for age and sex for that person while maintaining consistency with responses for other individuals in the household. (For more information on allocation, see 2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.)

Families
Family Type
A family consists of a householder and one or more other people living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A family household may contain people not related to the householder, but those people are not included as part of the householders family in tabulations. Thus, the number of family households is equal to the number of families, but family households may include more members than do families. A household can contain only one family for purposes of tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may be comprised of a group of unrelated people or of one person living alone-these are called nonfamily households. Same-sex unmarried partner households are included in the family households category only if there is at least one additional person related to the householder by birth or adoption. Families are classified by type as either a husband-wife family or other family according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. The data on family type are based on answers to questions on sex and relationship.

Husband-Wife Family
A family in which the householder and his or her spouse of the opposite sex are enumerated as members of the same household.   Other Family:
  • Male householder, no wife present- A family with a male householder and no wife of householder present.
  • Female householder, no husband present- A family with a female householder and no husband of householder present.


Average Family Size
Average family size is a measure obtained by dividing the number of people in families by the total number of families (or family householders). In cases where the measures people in family or people per family are cross-tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, the race or Hispanic origin refers to the householder rather than the race or Hispanic origin of each individual. Nonrelatives of the householder living in family households are not counted as part of the family. They are included in the count of average household size. Average family size is rounded to the nearest hundredth.

Multigenerational Household
A multigenerational household is one that contains three or more parent-child generations; for example, the householder, child of householder (either biological, stepchild, or adopted child), and grandchildren of householder. A householder with a parent or parent-in-law of the householder and a child of the householder may also be a multigenerational household.

Unmarried-Partner Household
An unmarried-partner household is a household other than a "husband-wife household" that includes a householder and an unmarried partner. An "unmarried partner" can be of the same sex or of the opposite sex as the householder. An "unmarried partner" in an "unmarried-partner household" is an adult who is unrelated to the householder but shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship with the householder. An "unmarried-partner" household also may be a family household or a nonfamily household, depending on the presence or absence of another person in the household who is related to the householder. There may be only one unmarried partner per household, and an unmarried partner may not be included in a husband-wife household, as the householder cannot have both a spouse and an unmarried partner. Same-sex married-couple households are edited into this category.

Comparability
The 2000 relationship category "Natural-born son/daughter" has been replaced by "Biological son or daughter" for 2010. The category "Foster child" was dropped due to space limitations on the 2010 questionnaire. Foster children in 2010 are included in the category "Other nonrelatives." They cannot be tabulated separately. The term "married-couple" family in tabulations has been replaced by "husband-wife" family. In all standard 2010 tabulations, the term spouse refers to only a person who is married to and living with the householder and is of the opposite sex. Data for unmarried partners are comparable to data presented in 2000. Data on same-sex couple households will be presented for the first time in a special product.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a two-part question (i.e., age and date of birth). The age classification for a person in census tabulations is the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 2010, the census reference date. Both age and date of birth responses are used in combination to
determine the most accurate age for the person as of the census reference date. Inconsistently reported and missing values are assigned or allocated based on the values of other variables for that person, from other people in the household or from people in other households (i.e., hot-deck imputation).
Age data are tabulated in age groupings and single years of age. Data on age also are used to classify other characteristics in census tabulations.


Median Age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single-year-of-age distribution using a linear interpolation method.

Limitation of the data
There is some tendency for respondents to provide their age as of the date they completed the census questionnaire or interview, not their age as of the census reference date. The two-part question and editing procedures have attempted to minimize the effect of this reporting problem on tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question displays the census reference date prominently, and interviewer training emphasizes the importance of collecting age as of the reference date.

Respondents sometimes round a persons age up if they were close to having a birthday. For most single years of age, the misstatements are largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age 0. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age 1 to avoid reporting age as 0 years. (Age in completed months was not collected for infants under age 1.) Editing procedures correct this problem.

There is some respondent resistance to reporting the ages of babies in completed years (i.e., 0 years old when the baby is under 1 year old). Instead, babies ages are sometimes reported in months. The two-part question along with enhanced editing and data capture procedures correct much of this problem before the age data are finalized in tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question includes an instruction for babies ages to be answered as 0 years old when they are under 1 year old.

Age heaping is a common age misreporting error. Age heaping is the tendency for people to overreport ages (or years of birth) that end in certain digits (commonly digits 0 or 5) and underreport ages or years of birth ending in other digits. The two-part question helps minimize the effect of age heaping on the final tabulations.

Age data for centenarians have a history of data quality challenges. The counts in the 1970 and 1980 Censuses for people 100 years and over were substantially overstated. Editing and data collection methods have been enhanced in order to meet the data quality challenges for this population.

It also has been documented that the population aged 69 in the 1970 Census and the population aged 79 in the 1980 Census were overstated. The population aged 89 in 1990 and the population aged 99 in 2000 did not have an overstated count. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the Comparability section below.)

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. However, there have been some differences in the way they have been collected and processed over time. In the 2010 Census (as in Census 2000), each individual provided both an age and an exact date of birth. The 1990 Census collected age and year of birth. Prior censuses had collected month and quarter of birth in addition to age and year of birth. The 1990 Census change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth.

In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as imputation. The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see 2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.)

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to Question 2, which was asked of all people in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder. In most cases, this is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented and who is listed on line one of the questionnaire. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years old and over could be designated as the householder.
Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: a family householder and a nonfamily householder. A family householder is a householder living with one or more individuals related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.