Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: P12H. Sex By Age (Hispanic Or Latino) [49]
Universe: People who are Hispanic or Latino
Table Details
P12H. Sex By Age (Hispanic Or Latino)
Universe: People who are Hispanic or Latino
Variable Label
P012H001
P012H002
P012H003
P012H004
P012H005
P012H006
P012H007
P012H008
P012H009
P012H010
P012H011
P012H012
P012H013
P012H014
P012H015
P012H016
P012H017
P012H018
P012H019
P012H020
P012H021
P012H022
P012H023
P012H024
P012H025
P012H026
P012H027
P012H028
P012H029
P012H030
P012H031
P012H032
P012H033
P012H034
P012H035
P012H036
P012H037
P012H038
P012H039
P012H040
P012H041
P012H042
P012H043
P012H044
P012H045
P012H046
P012H047
P012H048
P012H049
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Sex
The data on sex were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. Individuals were asked to mark either "male" or "female" to indicate their sex. For most cases in which sex was not reported, it was determined by the appropriate entry from the persons given (i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was imputed according to the relationship to the householder and the age of the person. (For more information on imputation, see "Accuracy of the Data.")

Sex ratio
A measure derived by dividing the total number of males by the total number of females and multiplying by 100.

Comparability
A question on the sex of individuals has been asked of the total population in every census.
For more information on sex, please telephone 301-457-2378.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years as of April 1, 2000. The age of the person was usually derived from their date of birth information. Their reported age was used only when date of birth information was unavailable.

Data on age are used to determine the applicability of some of the sample questions for a person and to classify other characteristics in census tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and examine many programs and policies.

Median age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single year of age distribution.

Limitation of the data
The most general limitation for many decades has been the tendency of people to overreport ages or years of birth that end in zero or five. This phenomenon is called "age heaping." In addition, the counts in the 1970 and 1980 censuses for people 100 years old and over were substantially overstated. So also were the counts of people aged 69 in 1970 and aged 79 in 1980. Improvements have been made since then in the questionnaire design, and in the allocation procedures which have further minimized these problems. The count of people aged 89 in the 1990 census was not overstated.

Review of detailed 1990 census information indicated that respondents tended to provide their age as of the date they completed the questionnaire, not their age as of April 1, 1990. One reason this happened was that respondents were not specifically instructed to provide their age as of April 1, 1990. Another reason was that data collection efforts continued well past the census date. In addition, there may have been a tendency for respondents to round their age up if they were close to having a birthday. It is likely that approximately 10 percent of people in most age groups were actually one year younger. For most single years of age, the misstatements were largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age zero because people lost to age one probably were not fully offset by the inclusion of babies born after April 1, 1990. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age one to avoid reporting age as zero years. (Age in complete months was not collected for infants under age one.)

The reporting of age one year older than true age on April 1, 1990, is likely to have been greater in areas where the census data were collected later in calendar year 1990. The magnitude of this problem was much less in the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses where age was typically derived from respondent data on year of birth and quarter of birth.

These shortcomings were minimized in Census 2000 because age was usually calculated from exact date of birth and because respondents were specifically asked to provide their age as of April 1, 2000. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the section below that discusses "Comparability.")

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. For the first time since 1950, the 1990 data were not available by quarter year of age. This change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth. In 2000, each individual has both an age and an exact date of birth. In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as "imputation." The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see "Accuracy of the Data.")
For more information on age, please telephone 301-457-2428.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Hispanic or Latino
The data on the Hispanic or Latino population were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The terms "Spanish,""Hispanic origin," and "Latino" are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. Hispanics or Latinos who identify with the terms "Spanish,"" Hispanic," or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino categories listed on the questionnaire ("Mexican,""Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino." People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino" are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, the Dominican Republic, or people identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, Hispanic, Hispano, Latino, and so on. All write-in responses to the "other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino" category were coded.

Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the persons parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race. Some tabulations are shown by the origin of the householder. In all cases where the origin of households, families, or occupied housing units is classified as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino, the origin of the householder is used. (See the discussion of householder under "Household Type and Relationship.")

If an individual could not provide a Hispanic origin response, their origin was assigned using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if origin was missing for a natural-born daughter in the household, then either the origin of the householder, another naturalborn child, or spouse of the householder was assigned. If Hispanic origin was not reported for anyone in the household, the Hispanic origin of a householder in a previously processed household with the same race was assigned. This procedure is a variation of the general imputation procedures described in "Accuracy of the Data" and is similar to those used in 1990, except for Census 2000 race and Spanish surnames were used to assist in assigning an origin (see the "Comparability" section below also).

Comparability
There are two important changes to the Hispanic origin question for Census 2000. First, the sequence of the race and Hispanic origin questions for Census 2000 differs from that in 1990; in 1990, the race question preceded the Hispanic origin question. Testing prior to Census 2000 indicated that response to the Hispanic origin question could be improved by placing it before the race question without affecting the response to the race question. Second, there is an instruction preceding the Hispanic origin question indicating that respondents should answer both the Hispanic origin and the race questions. This instruction was added to give emphasis to the distinct concepts of the Hispanic origin and race questions, and to emphasize the need for both pieces of information.

Furthermore, there has been a change in the processing of the Hispanic origin and race responses. In the 1990 census, respondents provided Hispanic origin responses in the race question and race responses in the Hispanic origin question. In 1990, the Hispanic origin question and the race question had separate edits; therefore, although information may have been present on the questionnaire, it was not fully utilized due to the discrete nature of the edits. However, for Census 2000 there is a joint race and Hispanic origin edit, which can utilize Hispanic origin and race information that was reported in the inappropriate question.
For more information on Hispanic or Latino, please telephone 301-457-2403.