Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Universe: Two or more races population 5 years and over
Variable Details
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Residence 5 Years Ago
The data on residence 5 years earlier were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 15, which was asked of a sample of the population 5 years old and over. This question asked for the state (or foreign country), U.S. county, city or town, and ZIP Code of residence on April 1, 1995, for those people who reported that on that date they lived in a different house than their current residence. Residence 5 years earlier is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population and the resulting redistribution of the population across the various states, metropolitan areas, and regions of the country.

On the Puerto Rico questionnaire, people living in Puerto Rico in 1995 were asked to report the name of the municipio (county equivalent); the city, town or village; and the ZIP Code where they lived. People living in the United States in 1995 were asked to report the name of the city, county, state, and ZIP Code where they lived. People living outside Puerto Rico or the United States were asked to report the name of the foreign country or U.S. Island Area where they were living in 1995.

When no information on previous residence was reported for a person, information for other family members, if available, was used to assign a location of residence in 1995. All cases of nonresponse or incomplete response that were not assigned a previous residence based on information from other family members were imputed the previous residence of another person with similar characteristics who provided complete information on residence 5 years earlier.

The tabulation category, "Same house," includes all people 5 years old and over who did not move during the 5 years as well as those who had moved but by Census Day had returned to their 1995 residence. The category, "Different house in the United States," includes people who lived in the United States 5 years earlier but lived in a different house or apartment from the one they occupied on Census Day. These movers are then further subdivided according to the type of move.

In most tabulations, movers within the U.S. are divided into three groups according to their previous residence: "Different house, same county," "Different county, same state," and "Different state." The last group may be further subdivided into region of residence in 1995. An additional category, "Abroad," includes those whose previous residence was in a foreign country, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands, including members of the armed forces and their dependents. Some tabulations show movers who were residing in Puerto Rico or one of the U.S. Island Areas in 1995 separately from those residing in foreign countries.

In most tabulations, movers within Puerto Rico are divided into two groups according to their 1995 residence: "Same municipio," and "Different municipio." Municipio of previous residence in Puerto Rico is not available for people living in the United States in 2000. Other tabulations show movers within or between metropolitan areas similar to the stateside tabulations.

Some special tabulations present data on inmigrants, outmigrants, and net migration. "Inmigrants" are generally defined as those people who moved into an area. In some tabulations, movers from abroad may be included in the number of inmigrants; in others, only movers within the United States are included. "Outmigrants" are people who moved out of a specific area to some other place in the United States. Movers who left the United States are not available to be included in any tabulations. "Net migration" is calculated by subtracting the number of outmigrants from the number of inmigrants. The net migration for the area is net inmigration if the result is positive and net outmigration if the result is negative. In the tabulations, net outmigration is indicated by a minus sign (-).

Inmigrants and outmigrants for states include only those people who did not live in the same state at both dates; that is, they exclude people who moved between counties within the same state. Thus, the sum of the inmigrants to (or outmigrants from) all counties in any state is greater than the number of inmigrants to (or outmigrants from) that state. However, in the case of net migration, the sum of the nets for all the counties within a state equals the net for the state. In the same fashion, the net migration for a division or region equals the sum of the nets for the states comprising that division or region, while the number of inmigrants and outmigrants for that division or region is less than the sum of the inmigrants or outmigrants for the individual states.

The number of people who were living in a different house 5 years earlier is somewhat less than the total number of moves during the 5-year period. Some people in the same house at the two dates had moved during the 5-year period but by the time of the census had returned to their 1995 residence. Other people who were living in a different house had made one or more intermediate moves. For similar reasons, the number of people living in a different county, metropolitan area, or state, or the number moving between nonmetropolitan areas, may be understated.

Comparability
Similar questions were asked on all previous censuses beginning in 1940, except the questions in 1950 referred to residence 1 year earlier rather than 5 years earlier. Although the questions in the 1940 census covered a 5-year period, comparability with that census is reduced somewhat because of different definitions and categories of tabulation. Comparability with the 1960 and 1970 censuses is also somewhat reduced because nonresponse was not imputed in those earlier censuses.

Similar questions were asked on all previous Puerto Rico censuses beginning in 1940, except the questions in 1950 referred to residence 1 year earlier rather than 5 years earlier. Nonresponse, if not assigned based on information from other family members, was not imputed in those earlier censuses.

For the 1980 and 1990 censuses, nonresponse was imputed in a manner similar to Census 2000, except that Census 2000 was the first to impute a specific city or town of previous residence within the United States or a specific foreign country. In 1980 and 1990, only state and county (or state, county, and minor civil division in the Northeast) were imputed; people who were abroad 5 years earlier were tabulated as "abroad, country not specified" rather than being imputed to a specific country.

If residence was in the United States in 2000 but in Puerto Rico in 1995, then a specific city or town was not imputed for nonresponse. For residents of Puerto Rico in 2000, a specific city or town was imputed for nonresponse if they lived in a different residence in Puerto Rico in 1995 or if they lived in the United States in 1995.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
State (or Statistically Equivalent Entity)
States are the primary governmental divisions of the United States. The District of Columbia is treated as a statistical equivalent of a state for data presentation purposes. For Census 2000, the U.S. Census Bureau also treats a number of entities that are not legal divisions of the United States as statistically equivalent to a state: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands of the United States.

Each state and statistically equivalent entity is assigned a two-digit numeric Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) code in alphabetical order by state name, followed in alphabetical order by Puerto Rico and the Island Areas. Each state and statistically equivalent entity also is assigned a two-letter FIPS/U.S. Postal Service code and a two-digit census code. The census code is assigned on the basis of the geographic sequence of each state within each census division; the first digit of the code identifies the respective division, except for Puerto Rico and the Island Areas, which are not assigned to any region or division. The census regions, census divisions, and their component states are listed in Figure A-3.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
County (or Statistically Equivalent Entity)
The primary legal divisions of most states are termed "counties." In Louisiana, these divisions are known as parishes. In Alaska, which has no counties, the statistically equivalent entities are census areas, city and boroughs (as in Juneau City and Borough), a municipality (Anchorage), and organized boroughs. Census areas are delineated cooperatively for data presentation purposes by the state of Alaska and the U.S. Census Bureau. In four states (Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia), there are one or more incorporated places that are independent of any county organization and thus constitute primary divisions of their states; these incorporated places are known as "independent cities" and are treated as equivalent to counties for data presentation purposes. (In some data presentations, they may be treated as county subdivisions and places.) The District of Columbia has no primary divisions, and the entire area is considered equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes. In American Samoa, the primary divisions are districts and islands; in the Northern Mariana Islands, municipalities; in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the principal islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas. Guam has no primary divisions, and the entire area is considered equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes.

Each county and statistically equivalent entity is assigned a three-digit Federal Information Processing Standards code that is unique within state. These codes are assigned in alphabetical order of county or county equivalent within state, except for the independent cities, which are assigned codes higher than and following the listing of counties.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Two or more races
People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum races identified by the OMB, and the Census Bureau "Some other race" category. For data product purposes, "Two or more races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
  1. White
  2. Black or African American
  3. American Indian and Alaska Native
  4. Asian
  5. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  6. Some other race
There are 57 possible combinations (see below) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of "White" and "Asian" was tallied as two or more races, while a response of "Japanese" and "Chinese" was not because "Japanese" and "Chinese" are both Asian responses. Tabulations of responses involving reporting of two or more races within the American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander categories are available in other data products.

Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)
1. White; Black or African American
2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native
3. White; Asian
4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
5. White; Some other race
6. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
7. Black or African American; Asian
8. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
9. Black or African American; Some other race
10. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
11. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
12. American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
13. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
14. Asian; Some other race
15. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
16. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
17. White; Black or African American; Asian
18. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
19. White; Black or African American; Some other race
20. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
21. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
22. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
23. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
24. White; Asian; Some other race
25. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
26. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
27. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
28. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
29. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
30. Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
31. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
32. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
33. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
34. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
35. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
36. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
37. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
38. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
39. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
40. White; Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
41. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
42. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
43. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
44. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
45. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
46. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
47. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
48. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
49. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
50. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
51. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
52. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
53. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
54. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
55. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
56. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
57. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

Given the many possible ways of displaying data on two or more races, data products will provide varying levels of detail. The most common presentation shows a single line indicating "Two or more races." Some data products provide totals of all 57 possible combinations of two or more races, as well as subtotals of people reporting a specific number of races, such as people reporting two races, people reporting three races, and so on.

In other presentations on race, data are shown for the total number of people who reported one of the six categories alone or in combination with one or more other race categories. For example, the category, "Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races" includes people who reported Asian alone and people who reported Asian in combination with White, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and Some other race. This number, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as Asian in the question on race. When this data presentation is used, the individual race categories will add to more than the total population because people may be included in more than one category.