Data Dictionary: Census 1990
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Survey: Census 1990
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: H92. Imputation Of Mortgage Status And Selected Monthly Owner Costs [7]
Universe: Specified owner-occupied housing units
Table Details
H92. Imputation Of Mortgage Status And Selected Monthly Owner Costs
Universe: Specified owner-occupied housing units
Variable Label
H092_001
H092_002
H092_003
H092_004
H092_005
H092_006
H092_007
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Confidentiality of the Data
To maintain the confidentiality required by law (Title 13, United States Code), the Bureau of the Census applies a confidentiality edit to the 1990 census data to assure that published data do not disclose information about specific individuals, households, or housing units. As a result, a small amount of uncertainty is introduced into the estimates of census characteristics. The sample itself provides adequate protection for most areas for which sample data are published since the resulting data are estimates of the actual counts; however, small areas require more protection. The edit is controlled so that the basic structure of the data is preserved.

The confidentiality edit is implemented by selecting a small subset of individual households from the internal sample data files and blanking a subset of the data items on these household records. Responses to those data items were then imputed using the same imputation procedures that were used for nonresponse. A larger subset of households is selected for the confidentiality edit for small areas to provide greater protection for these areas. The editing process is implemented in such a way that the quality and usefulness of the data were preserved.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Editing of Unacceptable Data
The objective of the processing operation is to produce a set of data that describes the population as accurately and clearly as possible. To meet this objective, questionnaires were edited during field data collection operations for consistency, completeness, and acceptability. Questionnaires also were reviewed by census clerks for omissions, certain specific inconsistencies, and population coverage. For example, write-in entries such as Dont know or NA were considered unacceptable. For some district offices, the initial edit was automated; however, for the majority of the district offices, it was performed by clerks. As a result of this operation, a telephone or personal visit followup was made to obtain missing information. Potential coverage errors were included in the followup, as well as a sample of questionnaires with omissions and/or inconsistencies. Subsequent to field operations, remaining incomplete or inconsistent information on the questionnaires was assigned using imputation procedures during the final automated edit of the collected data. Imputations, or computer assignments of acceptable codes in place of unacceptable entries or blanks, are needed most often when an entry for a given item is lacking or when the information reported for a person or housing unit on that item is inconsistent with other information for that same person or housing unit. As in previous censuses, the general procedure for changing unacceptable entries was to assign an entry for a person or housing unit that was consistent with entries for persons or housing units with similar characteristics. The assignment of acceptable codes in place of blanks or unacceptable entries enhances the usefulness of the data.

Another way in which corrections were made during the computer editing process was through substitution; that is, the assignment of a full set of characteristics for a person or housing unit. When there was an indication that a housing unit was occupied but the questionnaire contained no information for the people within the household or the occupants were not listed on the questionnaire, a previously accepted household was selected as a substitute, and the full set of characteristics for the substitute was duplicated. The assignment of the full set of housing characteristics occurred when there was no housing information available. If the housing unit was determined to be occupied, the housing characteristics were assigned from a previously processed occupied unit. If the housing unit was vacant, the housing characteristics were assigned from a previously processed vacant unit.

Table A. Unadjusted Standard Error for Estimated Totals [Based on a 1-in-6 simple random sample]
Estimated Total Size of publication area2
500 1,000 2,500 5,000 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000 1,000,000 5,000,000 10,000,000 25,000,000
50 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
100 20 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22
250 25 30 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35
500   35 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
1,000     55 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
2,500       80 95 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
5000         110 140 150 150 160 160 160 160 160 160
10,000           170 200 210 220 220 220 220 220 220
15,000           170 230 250 270 270 270 270 270 270
25,000             250 310 340 350 350 350 350 350
75,000               310 510 570 590 610 610 610
100,000                 550 630 670 700 700 710
250,000                   790 970 1 090 1 100 1 100
500,000                     1120 1 500 1 540 1 570
1,000,000                       2 000 2 120 2 190
5,000,000                         3 540 4 470
10,000,000                           5 480


Footnote:
1For estimated totals larger than 10,000,000, the standard error is somewhat larger than the table values. The formula given below should be used to calculate the standard error.

2The total count of persons in the area if the estimated total is a person characteristic, or the total count of housing units in the area if the estimated total is a housing unit characteristic.



Table B. Unadjusted Standard Error in Percentage Points for Estimated Percentage [Based on a 1 in-6 simple random sample]
Estimated percentage Base of percentage1
500 750 1,000 1,500 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000
2 or 98 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
5 or 95 2.2 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
10 or 90 3.0 2.4 2.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
15 or 85 3.6 2.9 2.5 2.1 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
20 or 80 4.0 3.3 2.8 2.3 1.8 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
25 or 75 4.3 3.5 3.1 2.5 1.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
30 or 70 4.6 3.7 3.2 2.6 2.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1
35 or 65 4.8 3.9 3.4 2.8 2.1 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2
50 5.0 4.1 3.5 2.9 2.2 1.6 1.3 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2


Footnote:
1For a percentage and/or base of percentage not shown in the table, the formula given below may be used to calculate the standard error. This table should only be used for proportions, that is, where the numerator is a subset of the denominator.



Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Mortgage Status
The data on mortgage status were obtained from questionnaire items H23a and H24a, which were asked at owner-occupied one-family houses, condominiums, and mobile homes. "Mortgage" refers to all forms of debt where the property is pledged as security for repayment of the debt. It includes such debt instruments as deeds of trust, trust deeds, contracts to purchase, land contracts, junior mortgages and home equity loans.

A mortgage is considered a first mortgage if it has prior claim over any other mortgage or if it is the only mortgage on the property. All other mortgages, (second, third, etc.) are considered junior mortgages. A home equity loan is generally a junior mortgage. If no first mortgage is reported, but a junior mortgage or home equity loan is reported, then the loan is considered a first mortgage.

In most census data products, the tabulations for "Selected Monthly Owner Costs" and "Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income in 1989" usually are shown separately for units "with a mortgage" and for units "not mortgaged." The category "not mortgaged" is comprised of housing units owned free and clear of debt.

Comparability
A question on mortgage status was included in the 1940 and 1950 censuses, but not in the 1960 and 1970 censuses. The item was reinstated in 1980 along with a separate question dealing with the existence of second or junior mortgages. In 1980, the mortgage status questions were asked at owner-occupied one-family houses on less than 10 acres. Excluded were mobile homes, condominiums, houses with a business or medical office, houses on 10 or more acres, and housing units in multi-unit buildings. In 1990, the questions were asked of all one-family owner-occupied housing units, including houses on 10 or more acres. They were also asked at mobile homes, condominiums, and houses with a business or medical office.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Selected Monthly Owner Costs
The data on selected monthly owner costs were obtained from questionnaire items H20 through H26 for a sample of owner-occupied one-family houses, condominiums, and mobile homes. Selected monthly owner costs is the sum of payments for mortgages, deeds of trust, contracts to purchase, or similar debts on the property (including payments for the first mortgage, second or junior mortgages, and home equity loans); real estate taxes; fire, hazard, and flood insurance on the property; utilities (electricity, gas, and water); and fuels (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.). It also includes, where appropriate, the monthly condominium fee for condominiums and mobile home costs (personal property taxes, site rent, registration fees, and license fees) for mobile homes.

In certain tabulations, selected monthly owner costs are presented separately for specified owner-occupied housing units (owner-occupied one-family houses on fewer than 10 acres without a business or medical office on the property), owner-occupied condominiums, and owner-occupied mobile homes. Data usually are shown separately for units "with a mortgage" and for units "not mortgaged."

Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs
This measure is rounded to the nearest whole dollar.

Comparability
The components of selected monthly owner costs were collected for the first time in 1980. The 1990 tabulations of selected monthly owner costs for specified owner-occupied housing units are virtually identical to 1980, the primary difference was the amounts of the first and second mortgages were collected in separate questions in 1990, while the amounts were collected in a single question in 1980. The component parts of the item were tabulated for mobile homes and condominiums for the first time in 1990.

In 1980, costs for electricity and gas were collected as average monthly costs. In 1990, all utility and fuel costs were collected as yearly costs and divided by 12 to provide an average monthly cost.