Data Dictionary: Census 1980
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Survey: Census 1980
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T62. Race By Sex By Labor Force Status [66]
Universe: Persons 16 Years And Over
Table Details
T62. Race By Sex By Labor Force Status
Universe: Persons 16 Years And Over
Variable Label
T062_001
T062_002
T062_003
T062_004
T062_005
T062_006
T062_007
T062_008
T062_009
T062_010
T062_011
T062_012
T062_013
T062_014
T062_015
T062_016
T062_017
T062_018
T062_019
T062_020
T062_021
T062_022
T062_023
T062_024
T062_025
T062_026
T062_027
T062_028
T062_029
T062_030
T062_031
T062_032
T062_033
T062_034
T062_035
T062_036
T062_037
T062_038
T062_039
T062_040
T062_041
T062_042
T062_043
T062_044
T062_045
T062_046
T062_047
T062_048
T062_049
T062_050
T062_051
T062_052
T062_053
T062_054
T062_055
T062_056
T062_057
T062_058
T062_059
T062_060
T062_061
T062_062
T062_063
T062_064
T062_065
T062_066
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
Race
All persons wore asked to identify themselves according to the following race categories on the 1980 questionnaire: White, Black or Negro, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian, Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, and Other. The "Other" category includes Malayan, Polynesian, Thai, and other groups not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

The concept of race as used by the Census bureau reflects self-identification by respondents; it does not denote any clear-cut scientific definition of biological stock. Since the 1980 census obtained information on race through self-identification, the data represent self-classification by people according to the race with which they identify themselves. For persons with parents of different races who could not provide a single response to the race question, the race of the person's mother was used; however, if a single response could not be provided for the person's mother, the first race reported by the person was used.

Counts of the population by race in complete-count tabulations are provisional. Final counts for race will be determined after the sample data have been processed. The sample counts will first appear on tape on STF 3 and in print in Characteristics of the Population, General Social and Economic Characteristics (PC80-1-C) reports.

Limited edit and review operations were performed during the complete-count operations; write-in responses were reviewed in an attempt to classify entries to specific categories, where appropriate. For instance, if the "Other" circle was marked with a write-in entry "Caucasian," then the response was recoded as White. (Additional examples are noted below.) However, all such cases were not identified in the complete-count processing. During the processing of sample questionnaires, a more thorough review and additional editing was done to resolve inconsistent or incomplete responses. Also, during the processing of sample questionnaires, write-in entries for the "Other" category were assigned specific codes, which is included on the person's basic record in the census sample detailed tape files.

Asian and Pacific Islander write-in entries, such as Indo-Chinese, Cambodian, or Polynesian, included in the "Other" category during 100-percent processing, are collectively tabulated and shown as "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" in the census sample tabulations; this group, "Other Asian and Pacific Islanders," will be included in the broader Asian and Pacific Islander category in all sample tabulations by race. This shift of "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" entries out of the "Other races" category in sample tabulations and the recoding of write-in entries in the "Other" category to specific categories where appropriate Will affect the comparability between complete-count and sample data for some groups.

Persons who indicated their race as White, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories listed on the questionnaire but entered a response such as Canadian, German, Italian, Lebanese, or Polish. (Persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specified race categories but wrote in entries such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Mexican, or Dominican were included in the "Other races" category; in the 1970 census most of these persons were included in the "White" category.)

Persons who indicated their race as Black or Negro, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Black Puerto Rican, Haitian, Jamaican, Nigerian, or West Indian.

American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut
American Indian
Persons who indicated their race as "Indian (American)" or who did not indicate a specific race category but reported the name of an Indian tribe.

Eskimo
Persons who indicated their race as "Eskimo."

Persons who indicated their race as "Aleut."

Asian and Pacific Islander
In complete-count tabulations, includes all of the groups listed below except "Other Asian and Pacific Islander." In sample tabulations, it includes all of the groups listed below.

Japanese
Persons who indicated their race as Japanese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Nipponese or Japanese American.

Chinese
Persons who indicated their race as Chinese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Cantonese, Formosan, Taiwanese, or Tibetan.

Filipino
Persons who indicated their race as Filipino, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Filipino American or Philippine.

Korean
Persons who indicated their race as Korean, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Korean American.

Asian Indian
Persons who indicated their race as Asian Indian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Bengali, Bharati, Dravidian, East Indian, Goanese, Hindu Indic, Kashmiri, or South Asian.

Vietnamese
Persons who indicated their race as Vietnamese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Vietnam.

Hawaiian
Persons who indicated their race as Hawaiian. In the State of Hawaii, al1 persons who reported "Part-Hawaiian" were included in this category. Guamanian. Persons who indicated their race as Guamanian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the race categories, but reported an entry such as Chamorro or Guam.

Samoan
Persons who indicated their race as Samoan, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as American Samoan or Western Samoan.

Other Asian and Pacific Islander
In sample tabulations only, persons who reported Cambodian, Hmong, Indo-Chinese, Laotian, Pakistani, Polynesian, Fiji Islander, Tahitian, Thai, or similar responses. Census basic records include codes for over 50 separate race group s within this category. In complete-count tabulations, this group is part of the "Other races" category below.

Other (Race n.e.c. "not elsewhere classified")
Includes all other races (except "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" groups) which were not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. For example, persons reporting in the "Other" race category and providing write-in entries such as Eurasian, Cosmopolitan, Inter-racial, or a Spanish origin group (e.g., Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican) were included in Race, n.e.c. Other Asian and Pacific Islanders are included in the "Other" category in 100-percent tabulations. Persons who did not report a specific race but wrote in entries such as "Mexican," "Cuban," "South American, "Chicano," or "La Raza" remained in the "Other races" category for complete-count tabulations, and in the "Race, n.e.c." category for sample tabulations. (STF 3, STF 4, and public-use microdata samples separately identify, as a subcategory within "Race. n.e.c.," persons who wrote in an entry implying Spanish origin. Such entries are not necessarily consistent with responses in the Spanish origin question.)

In a few tables in which data for American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Asian and Pacific Islander are not presented separately, the "Other" category encompasses all race categories not shown separately.

In some tabulations, the "Other" or "Race, n.e.c." category is omitted to save space; data for this category are derivable by subtracting the sum of the specified race categories from the total.

In certain printed tables, where space is limited, data for persons of Spanish origin are presented alongside data for up to four major race groups. In such situations, users should not be misled by the proximity of these two types of data. Spanish origin is not a race category, and persons of Spanish origin may be of any race. Tabulations in a number of sources present data separately for race categories (e.g., White, Black, and "Other") for persons not of Spanish origin. In addition, the number of Spanish-origin persons is given by race.

Limitations
In previous censuses, undercoverage of the population has been associated with race. The 1970 census missed Blacks at a much higher rate than Whites. The Bureau has not prepared undercoverage rates for races other than White or Black, because vital records and other sources of relevant statistics do not consistently distinguish among other races.

Historical comparability
Questions on "race" or "color" have been asked in each census since 1790. In 1970, when persons with parents of different races were in doubt 8s to their classification, the race of the father was used. In 1980, the race of the mother was used for persons who could not provide a single response. The 1970 category "Negro or Black" has been retitled "Black or Negro. Individual categories for Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Guamanian, and Samoan have been added. In 1970, the categories Eskimo and Aleut appeared only on questionnaires used in Alaska; they were replaced by Hawaiian and Korean in all other States. In 1980, all four categories appeared on the questionnaire. As a result of the additions, the 1980 questionnaire had 14 specific race categories instead of 8 as in 1970.

In 1970, persons who did not report a specific race but wrote in Hispanic categories such as "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" in the race question were assigned to White; for 1980 these persons remain in the "Other races" category.

See also: "Ancestry;" "Race of Householder;" "Spanish Origin".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
Labor Force Status
Persons 16 years old and over were classified as to their status in the labor force based on replies to several questions relating to work activity and status during the reference week. These items were asked on a sample basis.

Data on labor force status refer to the calendar week prior to the date on which respondents completed their questionnaires or were interviewed by enumerators. Since the week of enumeration was not the same for all persons, the reference week for labor force data is not entirely uniform. For many persons, however, the reference week for answering the 1980 census employment questions was the last week in March, 1980.

Labor force
Members of the Armed Forces and the civilian labor force as defined below.

Armed Forces
Persons 16 years old and over on active duty in the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard, (indicated in responses to the question on industry). Members of the merchant marine and civilian employees of the Department of Defense are not members of the Armed Forces. Service in a National Guard or reserve unit for short periods of active duty for training does not count as active duty in the Armed Forces.

Civilian labor force
Employed and unemployed civilians.

Employed
Civilians 16 years old and over who were either (a) "at work"--those who did any work at all as Paid employees or in their own business or profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers on a family farm or in a family business; or (b) "with a job but not at work"-those who did not work during the reference week but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, or other personal reasons. Excluded from the employed are persons whose only activity consisted of work around the house or volunteer work for religious, charitable, and similar organizations.

Employed persons are sometimes further classified as full time or part time based on whether they worked 35 or more hours during the reference week. (See Hours Worked Last Week.)

Unemployed
Civilians 16 years old and over who were neither "at work" nor "with a job, but not at work" and who were:

a) Looking for work during the last 4 weeks, and b) available to accept a job.

Examples of jobseeking activities are: (1) registering at a public or private employment office, (2) meeting with prospective employers, (3) checking with friends or relatives, (4) placing or answering advertisements, (5) writing letters of application, and (6) being on a union or professional register.

Also included as unemployed are persons who did not work at all during the reference week and were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off.

The concept of experienced unemployed is discussed below under Experienced Civilian Labor Force.

Not in labor force
Persons 16 years old and over who are not classified as members of the labor force. This category consists mainly of students, housewives, retired workers, seasonal workers enumerated in an "off" season who were not looking for work, inmates of institutions, disabled persons, and persons doing only incidental unpaid family work (fewer than 15 hours during the reference week). Also included are so called "discouraged workers" who do not have a job and have not been actively looking for work during the last four weeks. Inmates of institutions are occasionally presented as a subcategory within "not in labor force." Tasks performed by inmates of institutions are not considered "work" for the purposes of the census.

In addition to the above classification, the concept of Experienced Civilian Labor Force appears in certain detailed tabulations.

Experienced Civilian Labor Force
Employed persons and those unemployed persons who have worked at any time in the past, i.e., "experienced unemployed." (See Year Last Worked.) This concept serves as the universe for certain tabulations of occupation and industry where unemployed persons are to be included. (Occupation and industry data were not collected for persons who have never worked, or who have not worked since 1974.)

Comparability with data from other sources
Because employment data from the census are obtained from respondents in households, they differ from statistics based on reports from individual business establishments, farm enterprises, and certain government programs. Persons employed at more than one job are counted only once in the census and are classified according to the job at which they worked the greatest number of hours during the reference week. In statistics based on reports from business and farm establishments, persons who work for more than one establishment may be counted more than once. Moreover, other series, unlike those presented here, may exclude private household workers, unpaid family workers, and self-employed persons, but may include workers less than 16 years of age.

Historical comparability
In 1940, 1950, and 1960, labor force data were published for persons 14 years old and over. In 1970, most labor force data were for persons 16 years old and over to comply with the official Government definition of employed and unemployed instituted in 1967, although data on 14- and 15-year olds were furnished in 1970 to provide a comparability bridge with earlier censuses.

See also: "Hours Worked Last Week;" "Industry;" "Occupation;" "Labor Force Status In 1979," "Year Last Worked".