Data Dictionary: Census 1980
you are here: choose a survey survey data set table details
Survey: Census 1980
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T54. Race By Years Of School Completed [41]
Universe: Persons 25 Years Old And Over
Table Details
T54. Race By Years Of School Completed
Universe: Persons 25 Years Old And Over
Variable Label
T054_001
T054_002
T054_003
T054_004
T054_005
T054_006
T054_007
T054_008
T054_009
T054_010
T054_011
T054_012
T054_013
T054_014
T054_015
T054_016
T054_017
T054_018
T054_019
T054_020
T054_021
T054_022
T054_023
T054_024
T054_025
T054_026
T054_027
T054_028
T054_029
T054_030
T054_031
T054_032
T054_033
T054_034
T054_035
T054_036
T054_037
T054_038
T054_039
T054_040
T054_041
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
Race
All persons wore asked to identify themselves according to the following race categories on the 1980 questionnaire: White, Black or Negro, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian, Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, and Other. The "Other" category includes Malayan, Polynesian, Thai, and other groups not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

The concept of race as used by the Census bureau reflects self-identification by respondents; it does not denote any clear-cut scientific definition of biological stock. Since the 1980 census obtained information on race through self-identification, the data represent self-classification by people according to the race with which they identify themselves. For persons with parents of different races who could not provide a single response to the race question, the race of the person's mother was used; however, if a single response could not be provided for the person's mother, the first race reported by the person was used.

Counts of the population by race in complete-count tabulations are provisional. Final counts for race will be determined after the sample data have been processed. The sample counts will first appear on tape on STF 3 and in print in Characteristics of the Population, General Social and Economic Characteristics (PC80-1-C) reports.

Limited edit and review operations were performed during the complete-count operations; write-in responses were reviewed in an attempt to classify entries to specific categories, where appropriate. For instance, if the "Other" circle was marked with a write-in entry "Caucasian," then the response was recoded as White. (Additional examples are noted below.) However, all such cases were not identified in the complete-count processing. During the processing of sample questionnaires, a more thorough review and additional editing was done to resolve inconsistent or incomplete responses. Also, during the processing of sample questionnaires, write-in entries for the "Other" category were assigned specific codes, which is included on the person's basic record in the census sample detailed tape files.

Asian and Pacific Islander write-in entries, such as Indo-Chinese, Cambodian, or Polynesian, included in the "Other" category during 100-percent processing, are collectively tabulated and shown as "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" in the census sample tabulations; this group, "Other Asian and Pacific Islanders," will be included in the broader Asian and Pacific Islander category in all sample tabulations by race. This shift of "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" entries out of the "Other races" category in sample tabulations and the recoding of write-in entries in the "Other" category to specific categories where appropriate Will affect the comparability between complete-count and sample data for some groups.

Persons who indicated their race as White, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories listed on the questionnaire but entered a response such as Canadian, German, Italian, Lebanese, or Polish. (Persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specified race categories but wrote in entries such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Mexican, or Dominican were included in the "Other races" category; in the 1970 census most of these persons were included in the "White" category.)

Persons who indicated their race as Black or Negro, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Black Puerto Rican, Haitian, Jamaican, Nigerian, or West Indian.

American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut
American Indian
Persons who indicated their race as "Indian (American)" or who did not indicate a specific race category but reported the name of an Indian tribe.

Eskimo
Persons who indicated their race as "Eskimo."

Persons who indicated their race as "Aleut."

Asian and Pacific Islander
In complete-count tabulations, includes all of the groups listed below except "Other Asian and Pacific Islander." In sample tabulations, it includes all of the groups listed below.

Japanese
Persons who indicated their race as Japanese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Nipponese or Japanese American.

Chinese
Persons who indicated their race as Chinese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Cantonese, Formosan, Taiwanese, or Tibetan.

Filipino
Persons who indicated their race as Filipino, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Filipino American or Philippine.

Korean
Persons who indicated their race as Korean, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Korean American.

Asian Indian
Persons who indicated their race as Asian Indian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Bengali, Bharati, Dravidian, East Indian, Goanese, Hindu Indic, Kashmiri, or South Asian.

Vietnamese
Persons who indicated their race as Vietnamese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Vietnam.

Hawaiian
Persons who indicated their race as Hawaiian. In the State of Hawaii, al1 persons who reported "Part-Hawaiian" were included in this category. Guamanian. Persons who indicated their race as Guamanian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the race categories, but reported an entry such as Chamorro or Guam.

Samoan
Persons who indicated their race as Samoan, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as American Samoan or Western Samoan.

Other Asian and Pacific Islander
In sample tabulations only, persons who reported Cambodian, Hmong, Indo-Chinese, Laotian, Pakistani, Polynesian, Fiji Islander, Tahitian, Thai, or similar responses. Census basic records include codes for over 50 separate race group s within this category. In complete-count tabulations, this group is part of the "Other races" category below.

Other (Race n.e.c. "not elsewhere classified")
Includes all other races (except "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" groups) which were not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. For example, persons reporting in the "Other" race category and providing write-in entries such as Eurasian, Cosmopolitan, Inter-racial, or a Spanish origin group (e.g., Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican) were included in Race, n.e.c. Other Asian and Pacific Islanders are included in the "Other" category in 100-percent tabulations. Persons who did not report a specific race but wrote in entries such as "Mexican," "Cuban," "South American, "Chicano," or "La Raza" remained in the "Other races" category for complete-count tabulations, and in the "Race, n.e.c." category for sample tabulations. (STF 3, STF 4, and public-use microdata samples separately identify, as a subcategory within "Race. n.e.c.," persons who wrote in an entry implying Spanish origin. Such entries are not necessarily consistent with responses in the Spanish origin question.)

In a few tables in which data for American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Asian and Pacific Islander are not presented separately, the "Other" category encompasses all race categories not shown separately.

In some tabulations, the "Other" or "Race, n.e.c." category is omitted to save space; data for this category are derivable by subtracting the sum of the specified race categories from the total.

In certain printed tables, where space is limited, data for persons of Spanish origin are presented alongside data for up to four major race groups. In such situations, users should not be misled by the proximity of these two types of data. Spanish origin is not a race category, and persons of Spanish origin may be of any race. Tabulations in a number of sources present data separately for race categories (e.g., White, Black, and "Other") for persons not of Spanish origin. In addition, the number of Spanish-origin persons is given by race.

Limitations
In previous censuses, undercoverage of the population has been associated with race. The 1970 census missed Blacks at a much higher rate than Whites. The Bureau has not prepared undercoverage rates for races other than White or Black, because vital records and other sources of relevant statistics do not consistently distinguish among other races.

Historical comparability
Questions on "race" or "color" have been asked in each census since 1790. In 1970, when persons with parents of different races were in doubt 8s to their classification, the race of the father was used. In 1980, the race of the mother was used for persons who could not provide a single response. The 1970 category "Negro or Black" has been retitled "Black or Negro. Individual categories for Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Guamanian, and Samoan have been added. In 1970, the categories Eskimo and Aleut appeared only on questionnaires used in Alaska; they were replaced by Hawaiian and Korean in all other States. In 1980, all four categories appeared on the questionnaire. As a result of the additions, the 1980 questionnaire had 14 specific race categories instead of 8 as in 1970.

In 1970, persons who did not report a specific race but wrote in Hispanic categories such as "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" in the race question were assigned to White; for 1980 these persons remain in the "Other races" category.

See also: "Ancestry;" "Race of Householder;" "Spanish Origin".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
School Years Completed
Data on years of school completed are derived from two questions, one identifying the highest grade attended in regular school (see School Enrollment); the second determining whether the respondent finished the grade specified. These data were collected on a sample basis.

Those persons who passed a high school equivalency examination (such as GED) were marked "12" under the highest grade attended (if they had not completed or were not enrolled in a higher grade). Schooling received in foreign schools was to be reported as the equivalent grade or year in the regular American school system.

The number tabulated in each category of years of school completed includes (a) persons who reported that they had attended the indicated grade and had finished it, (b) those who had attended but did not complete the next higher grade and (c) those still attending the next higher grade. Most tabulations of years of school completed are restricted to persons 25 years old and over, although some include persons 18 to 24 years old. Tabulations include persons in school as well as those who have completed their schooling. A typical way of reporting years of school completed is as follows:

Elementary:
       0 to 4 years
       5 to 7 years
       8 years

High School:
       1 to 3 years
       4 years

College:
       1 to 3 years
       4 or more years

High school graduates
Persons who have completed 4 years of high school (grade 12) or any higher level of education. Therefore, to obtain a count of high school graduates from the breakdown illustrated above, the categories "High school: 4 years, "College: 1 to 3 years," and "College: 4 or more years" are to be ridded together.

Median school years completed
Calculated as divides the value which the population in half. Years-of-school-completed statistics are converted into a continuous series: the first year of high school becomes grade 9, the first year of college, grade 13, etc. Persons who have completed a given year are assumed to be evenly distributed from .O to .9 of the year. For example, persons rho have completed the 12th grade are assumed to be evenly distributed between 12.0 and 12.9. Note that this assumption is different than that applicable to other discrete variables. Actually, at the time of enumeration, most of the enrolled persons had attended at least three-fourths of a school year beyond the highest grade completed, whereas a large majority of persons who were not enrolled had not attended any part of a grade beyond the highest one completed. The effect of the assumption is to place the median for younger persons slightly below, and for older persons, slightly above, the true median.

Historical comparability
Questions on years of school completed have been asked in censuses since 1940, as a replacement for the literacy question which had been asked from 1840 to 1930.

See also: "School Enrollment;" "School Level".