Documentation: Census 1970
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Publisher: U.S. Census Bureau
Survey: Census 1970
Document: 1970 Census Users' Guide - Part I
citation:
Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; 1970 Census Users’ Guide; U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1970.
Chapter Contents
1970 Census Users' Guide - Part I
Part Ill. Housing Census Concepts (Concepts 150 through 250)
Introduction
This part of the Census Users Dictionary defines the subject concepts recognized in 1960 and/or 1970 housing census tabulations. Concepts and their categories and subcategories are included which appear in tabulations the Census Bureau makes generally available to users through printed publications, summary tapes, and microfilm or microfiche. Housing Census Concepts (Part III) is subdivided into three sections: Basic Housing Concepts, Components of Inventory Change (CINCH) Survey, and Survey of Residential Finance. The last two sections include introductory material specifically relevant to the programs involved.

Concepts in the Basic Housing Concepts section are organized under broad headings such as Financial Characteristics, Household Equipment, etc. Concept definitions indicate or are affected by:

Census questions from which the concept is derived
All concepts (tabulation categories) in this section are derived from responses to one or more census questions. In most cases, the concepts are directly comparable to specific response categories. This is true for year structure built, value of unit, rooms in unit, etc. In other cases, concepts are derived by combining answers to two or more questions to obtain recodes, for instance in the determination of plumbing facilities or gross rent. Two questions (H-12 and H-14) include an other category where respondents can write in replies, which Census Bureau personnel then code into one of the specified categories.

Concept categories carried on basic records, but not on summary tapes
For reasons of cost, report size, usefulness, and reliability, fewer categories may be tabulated than are included in the basic records. For instance, sample basic records carry specific dollar amounts of contract rent, but contract rent tabulations are commonly by ten-dollar intervals. Users may request special tabulations on a contract basis which recognize the full range of concept categories carried on the basic records. However, no information will be furnished which violates the confidentiality of the individual.

The universe to which the concept applies
Not every concept is tabulated (or carried on basic records) for every housing unit. Tenure, for instance, is only tabulated for occupied housing units, and value is only tabulated for single-family, owner-occupied and vacant for sale units which are on lots of less than 10 acres and with no business on the property.

The census(es) to which the concept applies (year)
Most concepts apply to both the 1960 and 1970 housing censuses. A few 1960 concepts have been dropped for 1970; a few new concepts have been added.

Whether related questions are complete count or sample
Some of the questions are asked about each unit and are called complete count or 100-percent items. These are necessary because of the need for housing data on a city block basis where a sample would not be reliable because of the small number of cases.

All other items about housing units are obtained from samples. Sampling permits collection of data about an area which reflect the characteristics of the housing inventory at a much lower cost than complete enumeration. Sample cases are weighted to reflect the sampling percentages. In a tabulation based on the 20-percent sample, for example, all cases have weights which average 5; that is, all figures are multiplied by approximately 5 so the final figures will be estimates for the total housing inventory in an area rather than just 20 percent of it. Control totals for the multiplication are obtained from the 100-percent items.

In 1960, there was a 25-percent sample (although some items asked of the entire 25-percent sample were processed onto basic record tapes for only a 20- or 5-percent sample); in 1970, there will be a 15-percent sample and a 5-percent sample (in order to reduce the length of the questionnaire for any one household). Certain questions common to both samples will result in a 20-percent sample. Whether a question is asked for every housing unit or only a sample depends primarily on the size of the area for which statistics are to be tabulated and published. Information needed for city blocks is collected on a 100-percent basis; that which is considered important for areas as small as census tracts and minor civil divisions is to be on a 15- or 20-percent sample basis. The 5-percent sample includes items needed for larger cities, counties, standard metropolitan statistical areas, and States.

The sample percentages for housing items included in the 1970 census schedules in comparison with items in the 1960 census are shown below.

Housing Items Complete-count or sample percentage
1960 1970
Number of units at this address - 1100
Telephone available 25 2100
Access to unit 100 100
Kitchen or cooking facilities 100 -
Complete kitchen facilities - 100
Condition of housing unit 100 -
Rooms 100 100
Water supply 100 100
Flush toilet 100 100
Bathtub or shower 100 100
Basement 20 100
Tenure 100 100
Commercial establishment on property 3100 100
Value 3100 100
Contract rent 3100 100
Vacancy status 100 100
Months vacant 25 100
Heating equipment 25 20
Components of gross rent 25 20
Year structure built 25 20
Number of units in structure and whether a trailer 20 20
Farm residence (acreage and sales of farm products) 425 20
Land used for farming 525 -
Source of water 420 15
Sewage disposal 420 15
Bathrooms 20 15
Air conditioning 5 15
Automobiles 620 15
Stories, elevator in structure 720 5
Fuel--heating, cooking, water heating 5 5
Bedrooms 5 5
Clothes washing machine 5 5
Clothes dryer 5 5
Dishwasher - 5
Home food freezer 5 5
Television 5 5
Radio 5 5
Second home - 5


Footnotes:

1Collected primarily for coverage check purposes.
2Required on 100-percent basis for field follow-up purposes in mail areas.
3100-precent in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants, 25-percent elsewhere.
4Omitted in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants.
5For renter-occupied and vacant-for-rent units outside places of 50,000 or more inhabitants.
720-percent in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants, 5-percent elsewhere.
8Collected only in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants.

Instructions for respondents in mail census areas
The meaning of concepts and categories derived from replies on mailed-back questionnaires (except where Census editing procedures change the replies) depends on respondent s interpretation of the questions, which may or may not be as Census intended. Some interpretive instructions are included with the questionnaire; these are reflected in the concept definitions included in this dictionary.
In the housing census there is the special problem that people are being asked to supply information not about themselves but about the housing unit they occupy. In some cases, the questions apply to the entire structure in which the housing unit is located; for instance, heating equipment, year structure built, or fuels. Where respondents live in a large apartment building for example, they may be less than familiar with these items for their building. There is also the problem that vacant units as well as occupied units are included in the housing inventory. Enumerators must obtain information about these units from landlords, owners, neighbors, etc

Editing and allocation procedures
Extensive efforts are made to ensure that data collected in the decennial housing censuses are complete and accurate. Checking for completeness and consistency of replies begins at the local district offices which receive the mailed-back questionnaires. The questionnaires are then microfilmed and fed into a FOSDIC machine which reads the information onto magnetic computer tapes. A computer edit program operates on these tapes to check further for completeness and consistency of the data. Certain entries are changed or edited according to fixed instructions. For example, if a housing unit is enumerated as having no piped water but having bathing and toilet facilities, the computer changes water supply to hot and cold piped water. Where single entries or whole questionnaires are missing, information is allocated for those units from other information reported on the questionnaire or from information reported for a similar unit in the immediate neighborhood.

Housing inventory
Total housing units (housing inventory)
Total housing units in a geographic area recognized in census tabulations (see Part 1, Geographic Areas) comprise all living quarters located in that area which are determined to be housing units, including occupied and vacant units.

Living arrangements: Definition of a housing unit
Living quarters
All structures occupied or intended for occupancy as living quarters are classified as housing units or group quarters. Group quarters are not included in the housing inventory; no housing information is collected about them.

Housing units
Housing units comprise houses, apartments, groups of rooms, or single rooms, which are occupied, or vacant but intended for occupancy, as separate living quarters. Specifically, there is a housing unit when the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the structure and there is either (1) direct access to the unit from the outside or through a common hall, or (2) in 1960, a kitchen or cooking equipment for the occupants exclusive use: in 1970, complete kitchen facilities for the occupants exclusive use.
Structures intended primarily for business or other non-residential use may contain housing units; for example, the living quarters of a merchant in back of his shop. Separate living quarters occupied by staff personnel (but not inmates) in institutions which meet the definitional criteria constitute housing units; as do separate living quarters of supervisory staff in dormitories, nursing homes, etc. Any separate living quarters, which meet the above criteria, in rooming or boarding houses are classified as housing units, as are entire rooming or boarding houses where there are four or fewer roomers unrelated to the person in charge. Trailers, tents, boats, railroad cars, hotel and motels occupied by usual residents which meet the definitional criteria constitute housing units; as do vacant rooms or suites in hotels where 75 percent or more of the accommodations are occupied by usual residents.

Group quarters
Living arrangements for other than ordinary household life. Includes institutions such as mental hospitals, homes for the aged, prisons, etc., plus other quarters containing 6 or more persons where five or more are unrelated to the head. Such quarters are most commonly found in dormitories, military barracks, etc.; but may also be in a house or apartment used as a rooming house or occupied on a partnership basis, if five or more of the occupants are unrelated to the head. Group quarters are not included in the housing inventory.

Access (entrance to unit)
Living quarters are classified as having direct access or access through other living quarters as indicated below.

Direct access
Living quarters have direct access if the entrance to the unit is direct from the outside of the structure or through a common or public hall, lobby, or vestibule used by occupants of more than one housing unit. (The common hall must not be part of any unit, but clearly separate from all units in the structure. )

Access through other living quarters
Living quarters have access through another housing unit when the only entrance is through a hall or room which is part of the other unit.

Kitchen facilities
The 1960 concept of kitchen facilities was a kitchen or cooking equipment. A kitchen was a room used primarily for cooking and meal preparation; cooking equipment was defined as a range or stove, whether or not regularly used, or other equipment such as a hotplate regularly used to prepare meals.
The 1970 concept of kitchen facilities is complete kitchen facilities, defined as including a sink with piped water, a range or cook stove (excluding portable cooking equipment), and a refrigerator (excluding ice boxes). These facilities must be located in the same building as the living quarters but need not be all in the same room.
Kitchen facilities are further classified as indicated below.

This unit only
Kitchen facilities used or, in the case of vacant units, intended for use only by the occupants of the unit.

Also used by another household
The kitchen facilities also used or intended for use by someone else in the building not a member of the respondents household.

In 1970, means that one or more of the specified equipment items is lacking.

Location of housing units
Urban-rural location
This is one of the more important breakdowns of the housing inventory by geographic location. The determination of urban-rural location is made after census results have been tabulated. Geographic areas are classified as urban or rural on the basis of certain criteria as to their population size or density at the time of the census. (See Concept No. 12, urban-rural areas.)

Urban housing units
Generally units located in areas determined to be urbanized areas or urban places outside urbanized areas.

Rural housing units
Units not classified as urban comprise rural units.

Rural farm housing units
Rural occupied units located on farms, as ascertained from questions on acreage of place where located and gross dollar sales of farm products. In 1960, occupied units located on farms where the occupants reported paying cash rent for the house and yard only were not classified as rural farm units. (In 1970, there was no question on whether rent paid includes any land used for farming.) Vacant rural units are classified as nonfarm.

Farms are places of 10 acres or more from which sales of crops, livestock, and other farm products amounted to $50 or more in the previous calendar year, or places of less than 10 acres (other than city or suburban lots) from which sales of farm products amounted to $250 or more.

In 1970, rural farm housing units are classified by five classes of dollar sales of farm products : $50-249 (places of 10 or more acres only), $250-2,499, $2,500-4,999, $5,000-9,999, $10,000 or more,

Rural nonfarm housing units
All other rural units, including occupied units located in rural territory but not on farms, and all vacant rural units.

Metropolitan location
This is another important breakdown of the housing inventory by geographic location.

Metropolitan housing units
Units located in standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAS).

Nonmetropolitan housing units
Units located outside SMSAs.

Occupancy status
Occupancy status
All housing units are classified as occupied or vacant.

Occupied housing units (Households)
A unit is considered occupied if it was the usual place of residence of the person(s) living in it at the time of enumeration. (See Concept No. 52, place of residence.) Included are units occupied by persons only temporarily absent (on vacation, etc. ) and units occupied by persons with no usual place of residence (for example, migratory workers).

Vacant housing units
Generally a unit is considered vacant if no persons were living in it at the time of enumeration. However, units temporarily occupied by persons having a usual place of residence elsewhere are classified as vacant; whereas units where the usual residents were only temporarily absent are not classified as vacant.

Newly constructed vacant units are included in the housing inventory if all exterior doors and windows and final usable floors were in place. Vacant units under construction, units being used for nonresidential purposes, units unfit for human habitation, condemned, or scheduled for demolition, and vacant trailers excluded from the housing inventory.

Occupancy characteristics of occupied housing units
Population in units
Total number of persons living in quarters, located in a specific geographic area, which are classified as housing units, excluding persons living in group quarters .
Persons per unit is also calculated. Occupied housing units are classified by the number of persons in the unit from 1 to 8 persons or more in 1960 and 1 to 9 persons or more in 1970. 1960 census basic records carried number of persons in the unit up to 29; 1970 records up to 35.

Median number of persons per occupied unit is calculated as the value which divides the distribution in half. In computing the median, a continuous distribution is assumed, with the whole number of persons as the midpoint of the class interval (for example, 3 as the midpoint of the interval 2.5 to 3.5 persons per unit).
Average number of persons per occupied unit is also calculated.

Persons per room
Occupied housing units are classified by the number of persons per room, calculated by dividing the number of persons by the number of rooms in each unit. In 1960, categories of persons per room tabulated were: 0.50 or less, 0.51 to 0.75, 0.76 to 1.00, 1.01 to 1.50, 1.51 or more; in 1970, the terminal category is broken down into 1.51 to 2.00, 2.01 or more. Persons per room data are used to determine overcrowding in housing units.

In 1960, the highest category for number of rooms was 10 or more, this was given an assumed mean value of 11. In 1970, the highest category is 9 rooms or more, given an assumed value of 10 in calculating averages.

Characteristics of persons in occupied housing units
It is possible on a special tabulation basis to associate any and all characteristics of persons in households with characteristics of the housing units they occupy. Characteristics of occupied housing units are cross-tabulated in standard data products by a limited number of person characteristics, most commonly for the household head, as indicated below. (See Part II, Population Census Concepts, for detailed definitions. )

Age group of household head , and (primary) family head is shown in some housing census tabulations. Number of own children under 18, under 6, and 6 to 17 is shown in some housing census tabulations. In 1960, extensive tabulations of senior citizen housing (persons 60 and over and 65 and over) were made.

Race of household head
The race of household head is reflected in some census tabulations. In 1960 counts were presented for units with white and nonwhite household heads; in 1970 for units with white and Negro household heads. Separate tabulations were Presented for nonwhite-occupied units in 1960; in 1970, for Negro-occupied units. Selected tabulations are also prepared for the Spanish-American population (see Concept No. 64).

Household (head) type and household relationship
Type of household head is shown in some housing tabulations as (primary) family head, further broken down by family type (husband-wife, other male head, female head); and as primary individual (male, female).

Household relationship is shown in some tabulations as households or families with or without nonrelatives,
Number of persons per family and per household is also shown in some housing census tabulations.

Income
Total income by several income intervals and median income of (primary) families, primary individuals, and household heads, are shown in some housing census tabulations.
-- Year moved into (occupied) unit -- Determined from information reported for the household heads most recent move by one of several time period categories. (The question was the same as used to determine year moved into present house for the total population in population census tabulations, concept No. 57. ) In 1960, these categories were: 1959 to 1960, 1958, 1957, 1954 to 1956, 1950 to 1953, 1940 to 1949, 1939 or earlier, and always lived here. In 1970, the questionnaire categories are 1969 or 1970, 1968, 1967, 1965 or 1966, 1960 to 1964, 1950 to 1959, 1949 or earlier, and always lived in this house or apartment.
Respondents who moved back into the same house or apartment where they lived previously were asked to give the year when they began the present occupancy. Respondents who moved from one apartment to another in the same building were asked to give the year they moved into the present apartment.

Tenure
For occupied housing units.

Owner-occupied housing units
A housing unit is owner-occupied if respondent living in the unit reported that it was owned or being bought (i.e., owned outright, mortgaged, or being bought on land contract) by someone in the household. (The owner need not be the head of the household and may be either the sole owner or co-owner. )

Cooperatives or condominiums
In 1960, cooperative apartments or houses owned or being bought by someone in the household were classed as part of the owner-occupied category. In 1970, cooperatives or condominiums constitute a separate category from other owner-occupied units.

Renter-occupied housing units
All occupied housing units which were not owner-occupied are classified as renter-occupied.

Occupied units rented for cash
Includes units where respondents reported that money rent was paid or contracted for. The rent may have been paid by persons who were not members of the household; for example friends, relatives, a welfare agency, etc.

Occupied units rented without payment of cash
Includes units where respondents reported the unit was occupied without payment of cash rent and was not being owned or bought; for example, houses or apartments provided free of rent by friends or relatives who owned the property but lived elsewhere, parsonages or houses or apartments occupied by janitors or caretakers in full or partial payment for services, units occupied by tenant farmers or share-croppers who paid no cash rent.

Second Homes
There was a 1970 question on whether any member of the household owned a second home which he occupied sometime during the year. Second homes included single family homes, vacation cottages, hunting cabins, etc. Respondents were to exclude vacant trailers, tents, or boats, and second homes used only for investment purposes. Note that this question obtained information about the number of households with second homes and not the number of second homes itself.

Vacancy characteristics of vacant units
Vacancy status
Vacant housing units were classified by vacancy status as of the time of enumeration. Vacancy status classification was based on whether the unit was for year-round or seasonal occupancy, and if year-round the purpose for which the unit was being held (sale, rent, etc.). Vacancy status, as other characteristics of vacant units, was determined by enumerator questioning of landlords, owners, neighbors, rental agents, etc.

Vacant year-round units
Vacant units which were intended for occupancy at any time of the year, even if used only occasionally throughout the year.

Vacant year-round units
Vacant units intended for year- round occupancy which were offered for sale or rent. In 1960, the concept of available vacant units was used. A unit for rent or for sale was classified as available if it was in sound or deteriorating condition, but not if in dilapidated condition. In 1970, the item on housing condition was not included in the census, so the concept of available unit was not utilized.

Vacant units for sale only
Vacant year-round units offered for sale only, usually one-family houses, but also including vacant units in a cooperatively owned apartment building which were for sale only, and vacant units in a multi-unit structure which was for sale as an entire structure, if the particular unit was intended to be occupied by the new owner and was not also for rent.

Vacant units for rent
Vacant year-round units offered for rent or for rent or sale at the same time; including vacant units in a multiunit structure which was for sale as an entire structure if the particular unit is intended for rent.

Vacant year-round units rented or sold awaiting occupancy
Vacant units moved in as of the time of enumeration. (In 1960, included only sound or deteriorating vacant units. )

Vacant year-round units held for occasional use
Vacant units for year-round occupancy which were held for weekend or other occasional use. (In 196C, included only sound or deteriorating vacant units). In 1960, the intent of this category was to identify homes reserved by their owners as second homes .

Because of the difficulty of distinguishing between this category and seasonal vacancies, it is possible that some units which should be included in the occasional use category are classified as seasonal.

Vacant year-round units held for other reasons
Vacant units for year-round occupancy which were held off the market for reasons not specified above; for example, units held for a janitor or caretaker, settlement of an estate, pending repairs or modernization, or personal reasons of the owner. (In 1960, included only sound or deteriorating units.)

Vacant seasonal units
Vacant units intended for occupancy during only a season of the year; for example, units for summer or winter recreational use, units for herders or loggers.

In 1970, complete-count and sample housing characteristics are tabulated only for year-round units; i.e., occupied units plus vacant year-round units , excluding vacant seasonal and migratory units. This is because not reported rates for sample housing items are extremely high for seasonal and migratory vacancies.

Vacant migratory units
Units for migratory workers employed in farm work during the crop season. In 1970, vacant migratory units are identified as a category separate from vacant seasonal units, and counts of each are included in the tabulations. (1960 census basic records also carried such units as a separate category. )
In 1970, complete-count and sample housing characteristics are tabulated only for year-round units; i.e., occupied units plus vacant year-round units , excluding vacant seasonal and migratory units. This is because not reported rates for sample housing items are extremely high for seasonal and migratory vacancies.

Vacancy rates
Vacancy rates for the homeowner housing inventory and the rental housing inventory are calculated as indicated below.

Homeowner vacancy rate
Calculated as the number of vacant units for sale as a percentage of the total homeowner inventory (owner-occupied units plus vacant units for sale).

Rental vacancy rate
Calculated as the number of vacant units for rent as a percentage of the total rental inventory (renter-occupied units plus vacant units for rent).

Duration of vacancy
The length of time from the date the last occupants moved away from the unit to the date of enumeration. For newly constructed units which have never been occupied, duration of vacancy was the time period from the date construction was completed to the date of enumeration. In 1960, the basic record for duration of vacancy was categorized as: less than 1 month, 1 up to 2 months, 2 to 4 months, 4 to 6, 6 or more. In 1970, the categories are: less than one month, 1 up to 2 months, 2 up to 6 months, 6 months up to 1 year, 1 up to 2 years, 2 years or more.

Financial characteristics of housing units
166. Value of unit -- The respondents estimate of how much the property would sell for on the current market or (for vacant units) the asking price at the time of enumeration. Value was collected only for one-family houses (one-unit structures), detached and attached, which were owner-occupied or vacant for sale, and which were not on places of 10 or more acres, or on properties which also had a business establishment (a retail store, gasoline station, etc.) or a medical or dental office. Cooperatives, condominiums, mobile homes, and trailers were excluded from the value tabulations.

One-family houses on places (lots) of 10 acres or more, or with a business establishment or medical office on the property, were identified by a separate question on the schedule. No estimate of the value of such units was obtained.

A property is defined as the house and land on which it stands. Respondents were to estimate the value of the entire property even if the occupant owned the house but not the land or owned the property jointly with another owner.

Respondents were to indicate estimated value by several categories. In 1960, these were: less than $5,000, $5,000-7,400, $7,500-9,900, 10,000-$12,400, $12,500-14,900, $15,000- 17,400, $17,500-19,900, $20,000-24,900, $25,000-34,900, $35,000 or more. In 1970 the categories ended in 99, e.g., $5,000- 7,499, and the following categories were added: $35,000-49,999 and $50,000 or more.

Total value, median value, and average value of housing units are calculated. (Midpoints of intervals are used in calculating average values, In 1960, values under $5,000 were assigned a mean of $3,500, and values of $35,000 or more a mean of $42,000; in 1970 values of $50,000 or more are assigned a mean of $60,000.)

Rent was asked only for renter occupied housing units rented for cash rent and vacant units, for rent, excluding one-family houses on places of 10 or more acres. Respondents were to indicate rent only for the housing unit being enumerated and to exclude any rent paid for additional units or for business premises.

Contract rent
The monthly dollar rent agreed upon or (for vacant units) the monthly dollar rent asked at the time of enumeration, regardless of any furnishings, utilities, or services that were included. Respondents were to indicate monthly contract rent to the nearest dollar. (If rent was paid by the week or some other time period, respondents were to indicate the amount and the time period so that their monthly contract rent can be entered by census employee' s.)

Contract rent is tabulated by several distributions; for example, less than $30, $30-39, $90-99, $100-119, $120-149, $150-199, $200-249, $250-299, $300 or more. The category no cash rent is also included in tabulations of contract rent for all renter-occupied units. (Census samples basic records carry dollar amounts on contract rent from $1 to $999. )

Total, median, and average contract rents are calculated for rental units.

Vacant units for rent are also classified as with all utilities included in rent and with some or no utilities included in rent.

Gross rent
Gross rent is calculated for renter-occupied units rented for cash rent (with the exclusions noted above for rent). It represents the contract rent plus the average monthly cost of utilities (water, electricity, gas, ) and fuels, to extent that these are paid for by the renter (or paid for by a relative, welfare agency, or friend) in addition to the rent. Gross rent thus eliminates differentials which result from varying practices with respect to the inclusion of utilities and fuel in contract rent.
In 1960, respondents were to indicate if they paid for electricity, gas, water or fuels (oil, coal wood, kerosene) in addition to rent; and if yes, to indicate the estimated average monthly dollar cost for electricity, gas, water, and the total yearly cost for fuel. In 1970, respondents were to answer similarly but further specify if they did not use particular utilities or fuels.

Gross rent is calculated from this information. Gross rent is tabulated by several distributions; for example, less than $30, $30-39... $90-99, $100-119, $120-149, $150-199, $200-249, $250-299, $300 or more. (Census basic records carry dollar amounts ' of gross rent up to $999.)
Total, median, and average gross rent are calculated.

Ratios of income to value and rent
Value-income ratio
Calculated for owner-occupied units (with the exclusion noted in the discussion of value of unit. Concept No. 166). Value-income ratio is the value of the unit in relation to the total income reported by the (primary) family or primary individual for the preceding year.

Value-income ratio is tabulated as follows: value as less than 1.5 times income, 1.5 to 1.9, 2.0 to 2.4, 2.5 to 2.9, 3.0 to 3.9, 4.0 or more, and not computed. (The category not computed includes units occupied by families or primary individuals who report no income or a net loss.)

Rent-income ratio (Gross Rent as Percentage of Income)
Calculated for renter occupied units for which gross rent is tabulated. Rent-income ratio is the yearly gross rent expressed as a percentage of the total income reported by the (primary) family or primary individual for the preceding year.

Rent-income ratio is commonly tabulated as follows: yearly gross rent as less than 10 percent of total income, 10 to 14 percent 15 to 19, 20 to 24, 25 to 34, 35 or more, and not computed. (The category not computed includes renter-occupied units rented without payment of cash rent and units occupied by families or primary individuals who report no income or a net 10ss. )

Structural characteristics
Units in structure (type of structure)
Housing units are classified by the number of units (including occupied and vacant , excluding business units or group quarters) in the structure in which they are located, as indicated below. Data are tabulated only in terms of housing units. Except for one-family houses (detached and attached), there is no information regarding number of structures. In 1960, determination of units in structure was by enumerator observation or, by inquiring of the landlord, the janitor, etc.; in 1970, by respondent replies to a question on whether this is a building for one family, 2 families, etc. (Categories which respondents could specify are indicated below.)

A structure is defined as a separate building that either has open space on all four sides (detached), or is separated by dividing walls that extend from ground to roof (attached). Tabulations of this and other structural characteristics are in terms of number of housing units rather than number of structures.

1-Unit
Structures containing only one housing unit, further classified as indicated below. (1-unit structures may contain business units.)

1-Unit Detached
1-unit structures detached from any other house, i.e., with open space on all four sides. Such structures are considered detached even if they have an adjoining private garage or contain a business unit.

Trailers
Occupied trailers or mobile homes are shown separately from other 1-unit detached structures in some tabulations. In 1960, trailers were further classified as mobile (resting on wheels or on a temporary foundation, such as blocks or posts), or on permanent foundation (mounted on a regular foundation of brick or concrete, etc.). In 1970, this breakdown was omitted.

1-Unit attached
1-unit structures which have one or more walls extending from ground to roof separating them from adjoining structures; for example, a row house.

2 or More Units
Structures containing 2 or more housing units; further broken down as 2-units, 3 or 4-units, 5 to 9-units, 10 to 19, 20 to 49, 50 or more units.
In 1970, to reflect the wording on the questionnaire, tabulations of units in structure are sometimes in terms of buildings for two families, 3-4 families, etc.

Type of foundation
Housing units are classified by the type of foundation of the structure or building in which they are located, as indicated below.

With a basement
Structures are considered to have basements if they have an enclosed space beneath all or part of the structure, are accessible to the occupants, and are of sufficient depth so that an adult can walk upright. The basement floor must be below ground level on all or part of its perimeter.

On a concrete slab
Structures built on a concrete slab have no basement and no crawl space or air space below the first floor.

Structures built with other types of foundations include structures supported on piers or posts, built on a continuous masonry foundation (without abasement), built directly on the ground, or built in unconventional ways, such as with a central supporting mast.

Number of stories in structure
Housing units are classified by the number of stories in the structure in which they are located. In 1960, the categories were 1 to 3 stories or floors and 4 or more; in 1970, 1 to 3 stories, 4 to 6, 7 to 12, 13 or more. Respondents were not to count basements as stories.

In 1960, number of stories was collected only for housing units located in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants; in 1970 for all units.

Elevator in structure
Only for housing units in structures with four stories or more. In 1960, elevator in structure was obtained only for such housing units located in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants; in 1970, for all such units.

With passenger elevator
4 or more story structures have elevators if there is an elevator which passengers may use.

Walkup
4 or more story structures where there is no passenger elevator.

Year structure built
Housing units are classified by the year the structure in which they are located was built, i.e., the date the original construction was completed (not the date of any later remodeling, addition, or conversion).

In 1960, the categories were: 1959 to March 1960, 1955 to 1958, 1950 to 1954, 1940 to 1949, 1930 to 1939, 1929 or earlier. The 1970 categories were updated by ten years.

Tabulations on the number of units built during a given period relate to the number of units in existence at the time of enumeration, which may not be the same as the original number. Year built data are particularly susceptible to response errors and nonreporting, since respondents must rely on their memory or estimates of persons who have lived in the neighborhood a long time, etc.

Rooms in unit
The categories were from. 1 room to 10 rooms or more in 1960 and from 1 to 9 or more in 1970, Respondents were to count only whole rooms used for living purposes, such as living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, finished recreation rooms, etc.; and to exclude kitchenettes, strip or pullman kitchens, bathrooms, porches, balconies, foyers, halls, half-rooms, utility rooms, unfinished attics or basements, or other space used for storage.

Total, median, and average number of rooms for all (or certain kinds of) housing units are calculated. Persons per room is also calculated.

Bedrooms in unit
Number of bedrooms, from 1 bedroom to 4 bedrooms or more in 1960 and from 1 to 5 or more in 1970. Respondents were to count rooms used mainly for sleeping even if used also for other purposes; for example, dens, enclosed porches, and rooms reserved for sleeping, such as guest rooms, even though used infrequently. They were not to count rooms used incidentally for sleeping, such as a living room with a hideaway bed.

Substandard housing
Substandard housing
Statistics on substandard housing are tentatively scheduled for publication in 1973 in Housing, Volume VI, Estimates of Substandard Housing. The estimates of substandard housing are based on the number of units lacking some or all plumbing facilities in 1970, plus updated 1960 proportions of dilapidated units with all plumbing facilities applied to units with all plumbing facilities in 1970.

Plumbing characteristics
Plumbing facilities
Plumbing facilities include toilet facilities, bathing facilities, and water supply. Tabulations of plumbing facilities are considered a measure of housing quality.
Housing units are classified by plumbing facilities as follows.

With all plumbing facilities
Housing units which have piped hot and cold water inside the structure, flush toilet and bathtub or shower inside the structure for use only by the occupants of the unit (including roomers, boarders, and other non-relatives) are considered to have all plumbing facilities.

Lacking some or all plumbing facilities
Housing units which lack one or more plumbing facilities; i.e., which lack piped hot and/or cold water, lack toilet or bathtub or have a toilet or bathing facilities used also by occupants of another unit.

Lacking hot water only
Units which have all facilities except hot water.

Lacking other plumbing facilities
Units which lack one or more of the following: piped water, a flush toilet used only by the occupant household, or a bathtub or shower used only by the occupant household.

Use of plumbing facilities
For this household only
Describes plumbing (flush toilet, or bathtub or shower) used only by the occupants of one housing unit or, in the case of vacant units, plumbing intended only for the use of future occupants.

Also used by other household
Describes plumbing used by the occupants of more than one housing unit or, in the case of vacant units, plumbing intended for use by more than one unit.

Toilet facilities
Housing units are classified by toilet facilities as follows.

Flush toilet
Housing units have flush toilets (supplied with piped water) if they are inside the structure and available for the use of the occupants. Flush toilets are classified according to whether they are used only by the occupant household or are used also by occupants of another unit.

No flush toilet facilities
Includes privies, chemical toilets, outside flush toilets, as well as no toilet on the property.

Bathing facilities
Housing units are classified by bathing facilities as follows.

Bathtub or shower
Housing units have a bathtub or shower if either facility is supplied with piped water (not necessarily hot), is located inside the structure and available for the use of the occupants of the unit. Bathing facilities are classified according to whether they are used by the occupant household only or are also used by occupants of another unit.

No bathtub or shower
Includes units with only portable facilities as well as units with no bathing facilities inside the structure and available for the use of the occupants.

Water supply
Housing units are classified by water supply in terms of piped hot or cold versus no piped water as indicated below.

Hot and cold piped water inside structure
Water must be available to the occupants of the unit. The hot water need not be supplied continuously.

Only cold piped water inside structure
Water must be available to the occupants of the unit.

No piped water
In 1960, units with no piped water inside structure but piped water outside structure available on the same property (either outdoors or in another structure) constituted a separate category from units with no piped water available at all (i.e., the only source of water was a hand pump, open well, spring, cistern, etc., or the occupants obtained water from a source not on the same property).

In 1970, all units with no piped water available inside the building are treated as a single category, regardless of whether piped water is available outside the building on the same property.

Bath rooms
Housing units are classified by the number of complete and partial or half bathrooms in the unit. In 1960, the categories were 1 (complete) bathroom, 1 plus partial, 2 or more, and none or only a partial bathroom (including shared). In 1970, the categories were 1 complete bathroom, 1 plus half, 2 complete, 2 plus half, 3 or more complete, and none or only a half bathroom (including a bathroom also used by another household).

Complete bathroom
A bathroom with all plumbing facilities, including hot piped water, a flush toilet, bathtub or shower, and wash basin for the use of only the occupant household. The facilities must be located inside the structure and located in one room.

Partial or half bathroom
A partial (1960 terminology) or half (1970 terminology) bathroom has toilet facilities (flush toilet) or bathing facilities for exclusive use but not both. Units with partial or half bathrooms are included under units with more than 1 bathroom,1 plus partial, etc., if the unit also has a complete bathroom. Units with only a partial or half bathroom are included under units with none or only a half bathroom,

None or only a half bathroom
Includes units with no bathroom, units with only a partial or half bathroom, and units with bathroom facilities also used by occupants of another unit.

Source of water
Housing units are classified by the source of their water supply as indicated below. In 1960, source of water was not collected for housing units in places of 50,000 or more. In 1970, source of water was obtained for all units.

Public system or private company
A common source supplying running water to more than five units. This source may be a city or county water department, a water district, a private water company, cooperative or partnership group, or a well which supplies 6 or more houses or apartments.

Individual well
A source serving five or fewer units from a well on the property of the unit being enumerated or on a neighboring property.

Water coming directly from springs, creeks, rivers, etc., and all other sources.

Sewage disposal
Housing units are classified by the sewage disposal system for the structure in which the unit is located as indicated below. In 1960, sewage disposal was not collected for housing units in places of 50,000 or more, but in 1970 this item was collected and tabulated for all units.

Public sewer
Includes units connected to a city, county, sanitary district, neighborhood, or subdivision sewer system.

Septic tank or cesspool
An underground tank or pit into which sewage flows from the plumbing fixtures in the building.

Other or none
Includes on individual sewer line running to a creek, lake, swamp, etc., units with a privy, and other arrangements.

Heating equipment and fuels
Heating equipment
All housing units are classified by type of heating equipment used. Vacant units are classified by the type of heating equipment available for use or used by the previous occupants (if the unit is without heating equipment). Respondents were to report only the principal kind of equipment. Respondents indicated heating equipment by one of the following categories; or they described the means, in which case their response is coded into an appropriate category.

Steam or hot water system
A central heating system which supplies steam or hot water to conventional radiators, baseboard radiators, heating pipes embeded in walls or ceilings, heating coils or equipment which are part of a combined heating ventilating or heating-air conditioning system.

Central warm air furnace with ducts or central heat pump
A central warm air furnace is a system which provides warm air through ducts (passageways for air movement) leading to the various rooms. In 1970, central heat pumps or reverse cycle systems were specified as part of this category.

Built-in electric units
Electric heating units permanently installed in floors, walls, or ceilings. Does not include electric heaters plugged into an electric outlet.

Floor, wall, or pipeless furnaces
Floor and pipeless furnaces deliver heated air to the room in which the furnace is located, or, in some types of floor furnaces, to two adjoining rooms on either side of a partition. Wall furnaces, installed in walls or partitions, deliver heated air to the room(s) on one or both sides. None of the three types of furnaces have ducts leading to other rooms.

Other means with flue
In 1960, included circulating heaters, radiant and other gas room heaters, freestanding room heaters, parlor stoves, ranges or cook stoves used for heating, and fireplaces, regardless of fuel, if equipped with a flue, vent or chimney for removal of smoke, fumes, and combustion gases.

In 1970, this category is termed room heaters with flue or vent, burning gas, oil, or kerosene. It consists of circulating heaters, convectors, radiant gas heaters that burn gas, oil, kerosene or other liquid fuel, and which are connected to a flue, vent, or chimney. The category excludes fireplaces or stoves burning coal or wood.

Other means without flue
In 1960, included any of the following, if used as the principal source of heat: room heaters that burn gas, kerosene, or any other fuel, but do not have a flue or chimney; electric heaters that get current through a cord plugged into an ordinary electrical outlet; portable heaters.

In 1970, the category is termed room heaters without flue or vent, burning gas, oil, or kerosene. It consists of unvented room heaters (circulating and radiant) burning gas or liquid fuel. The category excludes portable heaters.

Fireplaces, stoves, or portable room heaters of any kind
This category is new in 1970, and consists of heating devices transferred from the two other means categories of 1960. Fireplaces as the principal source of heat is self-explanatory; in 1960 they were included in other means with flue . Stoves means room heaters that burn coal or wood--parlor stoves, circulating heaters, cookstoves also used for heating, etc. These must be vented if the rooms in which they are located are to be usable when they are burning; they also were included in other means with flue in 1960. Portable heaters (classified in 1960 as other means without fuel ) can be picked up and moved around at will, either without limitation (kerosene, oil, gasoline heaters) or within the radius allowed by a flexible gas hose or an electric cord (gas, electric heaters). This classification includes all electric heaters that get current through a cord plugged into a convenience outlet.

Not heated
Consists of units without heating equipment-most common among units in warmest part of the country (Hawaii, southern Florida, etc.) and seasonal units not intended for winter occupancy.

Heating fuel
For occupied housing units only . Respondents are to indicate the fuel most used for heating the unit by one of the following categories.

Coal or coke
May be salvage wood as well as trees felled by users and purchased wood. In some tabulations wood is not shown separately but included in the category other fuel .

Utility gas
Gas from underground pipes serving the neighborhood supplied by a public utility company, municipal government, etc.

Bottled, tank, or LP gas
Bottled, tank, or liquefied petroleum gas stored in tanks which are replaced or refilled as necessary.

Electricity
Fuel oil, kerosene, etc.
Fuel oil, distillate, residual oil, kerosene, gasoline, alcohol, and other combustible liquids and semi-fluids.

Other fuel
All other fuels not specified elsewhere, including purchased steam, fuel briquettes, waste materials such as corncobs, etc.

No fuel used or none
Cooking fuel
For occupied housing units only; the fuel most used for cooking. The same categories as for heating fuel ; respondents who eat all meals elsewhere were to report no fuel.

Water heating fuel
For occupied housing units only; the fuel most used for heating water. The same categories as for heating and cooking fuel ; units which reported no hot piped water are classified as using no fuel for heating water.

Household equipment*
(*household equipment items are only collected for occupied housing units)

Clothes washing machine
In 1960, respondents were to report only washing machines owned by a member of the household (whether located in the unit or elsewhere on the property). In 1970, respondents could also report machines provided as part of the equipment in their living quarters, but not coin-operated machines or machines in storage.

Wringer or spinner
A power-operated washing machine which requires handling of the laundry between washing and rinsing.

Automatic or semi-automatic
In 1960, a machine which washes, rinses, and damp dries in the same tub, without intermediate handling, Housing units with both automatic and wringer washing machines were included in the automatic washing machine category. In 1970, washer-dryer combinations were also included.

Washer-Dryer Combination
In 1960, a single machine which washes and fully dries the laundry in the same tub. Combined with automatic or semi-automatic in 1970.

The housing unit has no washing machine.

Clothes dryer
Basis for inclusion the same as for clothes washing machines. Occupied housing units are classified as having gas heated clothes dryer, electrically heated clothes dryer, or no clothes dryer (none).
In 1960, units with washer-dryer combination were not included in the clothes dryer category; in 1970, such units are tabulated as having a clothes dryer.

Home food freezer
Basis for inclusion the same as for clothes washing machines. Occupied housing units are classified as having 1 or more home food freezers (separate from the refrigerator) or as having none.

Dishwasher
Not collected in earlier censuses. Basis for inclusion the same as for clothes washing machines. Occupied housing units are classified as having a dishwasher (built-in or portable) or as having no dishwasher.

Telephone available
Occupied housing units are classified as having a telephone available, if there is a telephone on which the occupants can receive calls. The telephone may be located in the housing unit or elsewhere, as in the hall of an apartment building. in another apartment, or in another building entirely.

Automobiles available
Occupied housing units are classified by the number of passenger automobiles owned or regularly used by any member of the household (including nonrelatives, such as lodgers) as follows: 1 automobile available, 2, 3 or more, none.
Respondents were to include company cars kept at home and to exclude taxicabs, pickups, larger trucks, cars being junked or permanently out of working order.

Air conditioning
For occupied housing units by the following categories. Respondents were to include only equipment with a refrigeration unit to cool air and to exclude evaporative coolers and fans or blowers not connected to a refrigerating apparatus.

1 room unit
An individual window or through-the-wall air conditioner unit designed to deliver cooled air to the room in which it is located.

2 or more room units
Central system
An installation designed to deliver cooled air to each principal room of a house or apartment.

No air conditioning or none
Television sets
Categories the same as in 1960: 1, 2 or more, none. Respondents were to include sets of all kinds that were located in the unit and were in working order--floor models, built-in, table, portable, combination with radio or phonograph.

In 1970, a further question asked whether the household had a television set equipped to receive UHF broadcasts (i.e., channels 14 to 83). Respondents were to include sets which could be tuned directly to channels 14 to 83, sets which could receive UHF broadcasts by means of a converter, or through a community (CATV) or master antenna which receives incoming UHF signals and transfers them to a vacant VHF channel (2 to 13).

Radio sets
In 1960, occupied housing units were classified by the number of radio sets located in the unit: 1, 2 or more, and none. Respondents were to include floor models, built-in, table, combination with TV or phonograph or clock, and to include sets being repaired as well as sets in working order. Respondents were to exclude ham radio sets automobile radios, and sets not in working order which were not being repaired.

In 1970, occupied housing units are classified only by the number of battery operated radios owned by any member of the household as follows: 1 or more, and none. Respondents were to include only sets in working order and sets needing only new batteries; specifically included were car radios, transistor sets, and battery-operated sets which can also operate on house current.

Components of Inventory Change (CINCH) Survey
During the early 1950s, pressures developed from many sources for more sophisticated and useful data on the dynamics of the housing inventory than that provided by the decennial census of housing. There was a need to analyze the changes in the national housing inventory by type of addition, loss, new construction, demolition, conversion, and merger. This need was first met by the Census Bureau through data collection in the 1956 National Housing Inventory. In 1959 a Components of Inventory Change survey was conducted as a part of the 1960 Census of Housing; this study provided information on the changes in the housing inventory for the decennial period April 1950 to December 1959 as well as on changes which had occurred since the December 1956 National Housing Inventory. Requests for data on changes in the housing inventory during the 1960s have resulted in the inclusion of the Components of Inventory Change Survey as part of the 1970 Census of Housing.

The components of change. The basic components of housing inventory change are additions, losses, conversions, mergers, and sames. With reference to the 1970 survey, they are defined as follows.

Additions are those units which did not exist in 1960 and have been newly constructed, moved to site, created from group quarters, or created from space previously used for nonresidential purposes.

Losses comprise those units which existed in 1960 but do not exist now. These include units now used as group quarters, changed to nonresidential use, demolished, moved from site, destroyed by fire or flood, etc.

Conversions cover those units created by division of a 1960 unit into two or more 1970 units. Mergers are those 1970 units resulting from merger of two or more 1960 units.

Sames are the great bulk of the 1960 units which were not affected by these changes. That is, they are living quarters enumerated as one housing unit in 1960 and as one housing unit in 1970.

Note: For operational definitions see concepts 200-203 below.

The 1970 CINCH program. The CINCH program gathers and reports information on the demographic and housing characteristics pertaining to the various components. Among such characteristics are the following: number of rooms, year built, condition and plumbing facilities, tenure, value, rent, household composition, and family income. In addition, selected 1970 and 1960 characteristics such as tenure, value, rent, and family income will be cross-tabulated for units found to be the same. Such information will reflect changes occurring to these units during the decade. Information on recent movers (i.e., heads of households who moved after January 1, 1969) will also be provided. This will be done in cross-tabulations relating characteristics of the present and previous units occupied by recent movers.

The 1970 survey will be conducted in the fall and winter of 1970-71. It will be based on a sample of housing units located in the 357 PSU (primary sampling unit) areas designated for Bureau of the Census current survey programs plus non-PSU counties in the 15 selected standard metropolitan statistical areas. The data will be summarized for the U. S., for the four geographic regions, and for 15 SMSAs. As in 1960, the surveys finding will be published as Volume IV in the series of 1970 publications from the census of housing.

Use of the data. CINCH data is widely used by analysts in business and government. The major value of the information is the basis it provides for projecting future housing requirements for the various sectors of our population. The home building industry needs the information to estimate the extent to which the overall demand for new houses is being met, while bankers and mortgage lenders use it as a guide to lending practices. Producers of building materials and home equipment are aided by information on changes in the housing inventory in their planning for volume and type of production; public utility companies use the information to plan their rate of expansion.

The Federal government, as well as State and local governments, is concerned with changes in both the housing supply and its characteristics because housing construction constitutes an important part of the Nations economy and credit structure. Various departments and agencies use information on housing trends to establish policies for regulating the flow of mortgage credit, maintaining high levels of employment, planning, and developing housing programs and goals.

Description of the 1970 Survey
Unit of Enumeration. The unit of enumeration, or measurement, will be the housing unit. The definition of a housing unit is the same as the one used in the 1970 census and is essentially the same as the 1960 census definition.

The sample. The sample for measuring counts of the components will consist of about 320,000 units. A subsample of about 120,000 units will be used for compiling the detailed demographic and housing characteristics.

One part of the sample will be selected from 1960 census addresses of those housing units in the 25 percent sample. The 1960 sample will provide counts and characteristics for all components except new construction and whole structure additions such as changes from nonresidential to residential use, moved to site, etc.

The count and most of the characteristics for new construct ion are obtained from the 1970 census tabulations for units reported built in the 1960-70 period. However, several items which will not be obtained in the census will come from the 1970 CINCH sample. These include condition of unit and detailed information on recent movers. The 1970 CINCH sample will also provide information on the counts and characteristics for whole structure additions.

Procedures. The procedures for interviewing will largely be determined by the adequacy or inadequacy of the addresses for the sample units. After the sample units have been selected, the areas in which the units are located will be screened according to the criteria used for current surveys in order to determine the adequacy of the addresses. The results of the screening operation will then determine the procedures.

1.Areas with adequate addresses (urban areas).
In areas where the addresses are sufficiently specific, interviewers will visit the specific addresses of the 1960 sample units and will determine the components for all units in the building. If the building is no longer standing, interviewers will determine the disposition (e. g., demolished or moved from site) from neighbors or other reliable respondents. For buildings still containing living quarters, interviewers will make a unit-by-unit comparison based on information from the 1960 census. This procedure will provide the counts for the following components: sames, conversions, mergers, part structure additions and losses, and whole structure losses such as demolitions, moved from site, etc.
For the 1970 sample the addresses of units will be matched with the 1960 census enumerators listing books. All non- matching units will be checked for additional characteristics of new construction and for the count and characteristics of whole structure additions.

2. Areas with inadequate addresses (rural areas).
In these areas, a sample of units in small land area segments will be used. Interviewers will list selected characteristics for all 1970 units located on the segments and make a unit-by-unit comparison with information from the 1960 census to determine the following components: sames, conversions, mergers, part structure additions and losses and whole structure additions. A sub-sample of the existing units will be interviewed for more detailed characteristics. The 1970 sample units in these areas will be matched against the 1970 census schedules. All units built in 1960 or later will be interviewed for the additional items which are not collected in the 1970 census.

Timing. The enumeration is tentatively scheduled for the fall and winter of 1970-71. The information for the first SMSA is scheduled to be published in late fall 1972 with the publications for the remaining SMSAs and the United States following very closely.

Scope. For the 1970 program, separate data will be published for the United States, four geographic regions, and fifteen individual standard metropolitan statistical areas. In response to requests from users of the data, reports for each SMSA will present data separately for the total SMSA, the central city, and possibly the area outside the central city.
The SMSAs, by region, are: Northeast Region--Boston, Buffalo, New York, Philadelphia; North Central Region--Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, St. Louis; South--Atlanta, Houston, Miami, Washington; West-Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle.

All the above SMSAs except Houston and Miami were included in the 1959 Components of Change Survey. The SMSAs not to be included in 1970 which were included in 1959 are: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Dallas. Of these, only Dallas was in both the 1956 National Housing Inventory and the 1959 survey.

Unpublished tabulations. It is currently planned to tabulate selected information for analytical purposes. These analytical tabulations will be available to the users at nominal cost. Some examples of these tabulations are: current use of site for 1960 buildings which are no longer in the inventory; a more detailed breakdown of other additions and losses; more detailed tables of the 1960 and 1970 characteristics for same units; and previous and present residences of recent movers; etc. Special tabulations can be obtained by users on a contract basis. It is not planned, however, to provide users with the computer tapes.

Components of Inventory Change Concepts
A majority of concepts in the Components of Inventory Change (CINCH) Survey are identical to those in the 1970 Census of Population and Housing. Some of the demographic characteristics will not, however, be collected or reported in as much detail as in the decennial census. There are no changes in definition of components of change from the 1960 program.

The following concepts (in alphabetical order) employed in CINCH are used in the same manner as in the census.

Age of persons in household
Bathtub or shower
Color or race of head of household
Gross rent
Contract rent
Duration of vacancy
Flush toilet
Group quarters
Heating equipment
Highest year of school completed by head
Hot and cold piped water
Housing unit
Income of primary families and individuals
Number of bathrooms
Number of bedrooms
Number of housing units in structure
Number of persons in unit
Number of rooms in unit
Relationship to head of unit
Sex
Tenure
Type of living quarters
Vacancy status
Value of property
Year head moved into unit
Year structure built

Concepts Unique to CINCH
The components of change
Same unit
A unit which existed in 1960 in the same form as it does in 1970. Living quarters enumerated in 1970 as one housing unit are same if they were classified as one and only one housing unit in 1960. A same unit may have a different number of rooms, changes in architecture, changes in plumbing equipment, or other changes in characteristics.

Different unit
A unit which has been altered in some way since 1960 to create either more or less units in 1970. The housing unit was created by dividing (converting) one 1960 unit into two or more or by combining (merging) two or more 1960 units into one. A 1970 unit may have more or less space than in 1960 because of remodeling or a Iterations, but this does not necessarily make it a different unit. Only if the alteration or remodeling changes the number of units is it a different unit.

Conversion
Conversion is the creation of two or more 1970 housing units from fewer 1960 units through structural alteration or change in use. Structural alteration includes such changes as adding a room or installing partitions to form another housing unit. Change in use is a simple rearrangement in the use of space without structural alteration, such as locking a door which closes off one or more rooms to form a separate housing unit. Each unit involved in the change is a converted unit.

Merger
Merger is the opposite of conversion. It is the combining of two or more 1960 housing units into fewer 1970 units through structural alteration or change in use. Structural alteration includes such changes as the removal of partitions or the dismantling of kitchen facilities. Change in use maybe a simple rearrangement in the use of space without structural alteration, such as unlocking a door which formerly separated two housing units. In other instances, a household on the first floor may occupy both the first and second floors which formerly constituted separate housing units.

Lost unit
A unit which existed in 1960 but does not exist as a housing unit in 1970,

To group quarters
A 1960 housing unit may have become a group quarters by 1970. For example, a large single housing unit structure may have become a lodging house.

To nonresidential
A 1960 housing unit may now be used for nonresidential purposes, such as for a store, office space, permanent storage, etc.

A housing unit which existed in 1960 and is now both vacant and unfit for human habitation is unfit. Unfit for human habitation is defined as a building intended for residential use where the roof, walls, windows, or doors no longer protect the interior from the elements.

Condemned
A housing unit which existed in 1960 and is now designated as condemned by a sign, notice, or mark on the building or in the neighborhood is in this category. The sign may show that the unit is condemned for reasons of health or safety.

Demolished
A housing unit in a building which has been torn down since 1960 is considered demolished. This category does not include units lost by fire, flood, etc.

Moved from site
A housing unit which has been moved from its 1960 site would be in this category. Included are mobile homes and trailers which have been moved from their 1960 sites.

Other (burned, etc.)
This includes all other recorded 1960 units which are no longer in existence. Examples are units which have been lost by fire, flood, wind, or hail, and vacant units which are scheduled for demolition.

Added unit
An added 1970 unit is a unit which did not exist in 1960 and has been newly constructed, moved to the site, created from group quarters or created from space previously used for nonresidential purposes.

From group quarters
Group quarters (rooming houses, dormitories, transient hotels, etc. ) which have been changed to housing units are in this category.

From nonresidential
These are housing units which have been created from nonresidential space such as a store, garage, barn, and the like.

Moved to site
A housing unit which has been moved to its present site since 1960 would be in this category. This includes mobile homes and trailers which have been moved to their present site since 1960, if they were occupied in 1960 and are occupied in 1970.

New construction
Any unit in a building which has been built since 1960 is new construction.

Condition
Condition of housing Unit
In the 1970 CINCH Survey, as in the 1960 Census of Housing, housing units will be classified by condition (categories indicated below) on the basis of enumerator observation. Enumerators are to look for specified visible defects relating to weather tightness, extent of disrepair, hazards to the physical safety of the occupants, and inadequate or makeshift construction.

Sound condition
Housing units are to be classified as sound if they have no visible defects or only slight defects that are normally corrected during the course of regular maintenance. Examples of slight defects are lack of paint, small cracks in the plaster, cracked windows, etc.

Deteriorating condition
Units are to be classified as deteriorating if they need more repair than would be provided in the course of regular maintenance. Deteriorating units have one or more defects such as several broken or missing window panes, a shaky or unsafe porch, holes or open cracks over a small area of a wall, etc.

Dilapidated conditions
Units are to be classified as dilapidated if they do not provide adequate shelter and in their present condition endanger the health and safety of their inhabitants. They might have such defects as holes, open cracks, etc., over a large area of the foundation or walls, substantial sagging of floors and roof, or extensive damage by storm, fire, or flood.

Recent movers
Recent mover
A household head who moved into his residence after January 1, 1969 is considered a recent mover.

Previous residence
The previous residence is the last housing unit in which the present head lived before moving into the present unit. If the household is in the recent mover category, a series of questions about the previous unit is asked: location, whether he was head there at the time of moving, the number of rooms, the year originally built, the number of units in the structure, tenure, value, disposition, contract monthly rent, main reason for moving, and number of times the head, moved since January 1, 1969.

1970 Residential Finance Program
The Residential Finance Survey is designed to provide data about the financing of nonfarm, privately-owned, residential properties. Similar surveys were conducted in 1950 and 1960, and, in a more limited fashion, in 1956.

The Residential Finance program makes a distinction between two types of properties-- homeowner properties, which have from one to four housing units, one of which is occupied by the owner, and all other properties.

Data are collected from the owner of the property, and, if the property is mortgaged, from the holder of the mortgage. The property owner is asked to provide information about the property itself, e.g., number of units, When it was built, when it was acquired, purchase price, current market value. Homeowners are also asked about their housing expenses and about themselves, e.g., age, income, color. Owners of rental property are also asked about some of their expenses and about their rental receipts. All owners are asked if their property is mortgaged, and if so, to whom they make their mortgage payments. The lender is then asked to provide information about the mortgage, e.g., interest rate, face amount, term, current outstanding debt.

The 1970 survey will be based on a national sample of approximately 65,000 properties, of which about half will be home-owner properties. Data will be available for the total United States and for the four Census regions. In addition, the U.S. data will be presented by size of place and by type of area (e. g,, inside central cities of SMSA s).
Tabulation plans are not final, but it is expected that the basic tables will provide all of the information collected by type of mortgage (FHA-insured, VA-guaranteed, or conventional) and by type of mortgage holder (commercial banks, life insurance companies, etc.). In addition, some analytical tables will be provided. Publication is planned for the middle of 1972.

The data compiled in the Residential Finance Survey are particularly useful to economists and financial analysts who guide and counsel home and apartment builders, financial institutions and institutional investors (pension funds, endowments, etc.), producers of building materials, real estate companies. community planners, and governmental agencies at the Federal, State, and local level.

In essence, the 1970 publications will be comparable to those from 1960. Persons desiring detailed information on the 1970 program are advised to address inquiries to the Housing Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

Residential finance concepts
In general the 1970 concepts and their definitions will be those used in 1960. Anyone needing detailed information should address inquiries to the Housing Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

Comparison of Printed Reports and Summary Tapes
A number of advantages and disadvantages of printed reports and summary tapes as data products have been described in the User's Guide . One of the advantages cited for 1970 census summary tapes is that they will include greater subject and geographical detail than will be available in printed reports. Since the data content of these products may be an important factor in deciding whether tapes or printed reports will be best suited to the users purposes, it is a subject which deserves further consideration.

Hundreds of tabulations for various geographical combinations and levels will be available on tape, and many of these, generally presented with declining amounts of detail in moving from larger to smaller areas, will appear in printed reports. As a result, it is not practical to attempt a presentation which details the differences in content. The objective here is to provide a summary of the content of these products to answer the more general questions which users are likely to have (see table 1).

The following material describes some data products not yet finalized. However, if changes occur, they should not be sufficient to significantly affect this summary.
Also, concerning printed materials, attention is limited to those final reports which are the primary printed source of data for small areas. Following the reporting pattern planned for the 1970 census, they are:

Census of the Population , Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Parts 2-57, Chapters A, B, C, and D. (Notation: PC(1)- 2A, PC(1)-5B, etc. )

Census of Housing , Vol. I, States and Small Areas, Parts 2-55. (Notation: HC(1)-2, HC(1)-3, etc. )

Census of Housing , Vol. II, Metropolitan Housing, Chapters 2-55. (Notation: HC(2)-2, HC(2)-3, etc. ) Census of Housing, Vol. III, Part A, Block Statistics, (Notation: HC(3)- 1A, HC(3)- 1B, etc.)

Censuses of Population and Housing , Census Tract Report, Number 1, 2, . . . . (Notation: PHC(1)-1, PHC(2)-2, etc. )

In considering the following material, users should keep two points in mind: (1) Tables in the published reports are shown in considerably less detail than the corresponding data on the summary tapes; and (2) small- area data presented on tapes can be combined to create summaries for larger, census-recognized areas when the summaries are omitted from the tape, However, because data items for small areas are often suppressed to preserve confidentiality, summaries for larger areas may be affected by this suppression.

1970 Population Census Data
I.First Count Date

A.Printed Reports (Census of Population, Vol. I, Parts 2-57, Chapter A).
1.Geographical areas represented: States (or outlying areas) and counties and their urban and rural parts; places grouped by size, urban-rural, SMSA - non SMSA, and incorporated- unincorporated categories; incorporated places; unincorporated places of 1,000 or more; annexed areas; minor civil divisions or census county divisions; component parts of urbanized areas and SMSAs.
2.Data published: Total population counts for the areas cited; also, selected data from past censuses, area in square miles for counties, and certain derivable percentages.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT- 2, First Count Summary Tape)
1.Geographical areas presented: States, counties, Congressional Districts, minor civil divisions or census county divisions, places, and enumeration districts or blockgroups. As noted earlier, tract data, for example, are accessible by aggregating appropriate blockgroups or enumeration districts. However, totals may be affected by suppression at the BG or ED level.
2.Data tabulated: Complete-count (100 percent) data for total population, age, sex, race, marital status, relationship to household head, family type, and combinations of these. Historical, percentage, and land area data are not included.

II.Second Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census Of Population, Vol. I, Parts 2-57, Chapter B; and Census Tract Reports ).
1.Geographical areas represented: (1) In Chapter B: States (or outlying areas) and counties and their urban and rural parts; places grouped by size, urban-rural, and metropolitan-nonmetropolitan categories; SMSAs, urbanized areas, places of 1,000 or more, and minor civil divisions or census county divisions; (2) in Census Tract Reports: SMSAS counties, places of 25,000 or more population, and tracts.
2.Data published: For all or part of the above areas counts are given by sex, race, age, marital status, relationship to head of household, type of family, and combinations of these. Table 2 shows the 100-percent population items included in tract reports, as well as sample items. The 100-percent items are drawn from the Second Count.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT- 3, Second Count Summary Tape)
1.Geographical areas represented: States, SMSAS, urbanized areas, counties, places, minor civil divisions or census county division, and tracts.
2.Data tabulated: Tabulations involve the same data types as for printed reports, but include more detail, e.g., more racial categories, single years of age through 99, and cross-tabulation by total, white, and Negro.

III.Third Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census of Housing, Vol. III, A Block Statistics,) (see table 5)
1.Geographical areas represented: Blocks and tracts within urbanized areas and within other areas that have contracted for block statistics.
2.Data published: Total population, and percent of total population which is (1) Negro, (2) in group quarters, (3) under 18 years old, and (4) 62 years old and over.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT- 4, Third Count Summary Tape).
1.Geographical ,areas represented: Blocks and tracts within urbanized areas and within other areas that have contracted for blocks statistics.
2.Data tabulated: Total population by race (white, Negro, and other) and sex, age and sex (21 age categories), and relationship to household head; population 14 and over by marital status and sex; population under 18 by relationship to household head and type of household.

IV.Fourth Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census of Population, Vol. I, Parts 2-57, Chapter C; and Census Tract Reports). (See tables 2, 3, and 4.)
1.Geographical areas represented: (1) In Chapter C: States and their urban and rural parts, SMSAs, urbanized areas, urban places, counties, and rural farm and rural nonfarm population of counties; (2) in Census Tract Reports: SMSAS, counties, places of 25,000 or more population, and tracts.
2.Data published: See table 2 for a listing of the characteristics shown for each geographical level. Each characteristic may represent more than one tabulation. Also, it should be kept in mind that the range of information presented generally contracts as the size of the areas decreases. For example, the means of transportation to work tabulation for tracts contains six response categories, instead of nine as presented for larger areas.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT-5, Fourth Count Summary Tape,)
1.Geographical areas represented: States, SMSAS and component parts, counties, places, minor civil divisions or census county divisions, and tracts.
2.Data tabulated: Characteristics described are the same as in printed reports (see table 2). Several additional tabulations appear. For example: Total population by citizenship status (native, naturalized, alien) for particular age categories, and total males 16 and over in the experienced civilian labor force by six occupational categories and their total for 13 income ranges. For all geographical levels, each item will be tabulated by total, white, Negro, Spanish-American; urban, rural nonfarm, and rural farm.

V.Fifth Count Data
A.No printed reports will be derived from the file.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, Fifth Count Summary Tapes).
1.Geographical areas represented: 5-digit level ZIP areas in SMSAS, and 3-digit level elsewhere.
2.Data tabulated: Population counts for areas cited given by sex, age, and race; income by race and size of family; characteristic of families by low income status.

VI.Sixth Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census of Population, Vol. I, Parts 2-57, Chapter D).
1.Geographical areas represented: SMSAs, central cities, and places of 50,000 or more population.
2.Data published: Sample population items presented in considerable detail and cross-tabulated by age, race, and other characteristics.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, Sixth Count Summary Tape).
1.Geographical areas represented: Metropolitan counties, nonmetropolitan counties of 50,000 or more population, cities of 100,000 or more, and SMSAs.
2.Data tabulated: The same sample population items as for printed reports, but using more extensive cross-tabulations by age, sex, race, and other characteristics. Data shown for Negro and Spanish-American.
1970 Housing Census Data1970 Housing Census Data
I.First Count Data
A.Printed Reports: An Advance Report of housing data for each State is planned for the fall of 1970. Most 100-percent housing characteristics, drawn from the First Count, would be printed for the State, SMSAs, and places of 10,000 or more, and counties. Complete-count (100 -percent) housing data for Housing, Vol. I, and Census Tract Reports will be drawn from second count tabulations (see II below).
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT- 2, First Count Summary Tape.)
1.Geographical segments represented: States, counties, Congressional Districts, minor civil divisions or census county divisions, places, and enumeration districts or blockgroups.
2.Data tabulated: Among the items included are housing units by number of rooms, persons per room, number of units with basement, value of owner occupied units (eight value categories), contract rent (nine rent categories), plumbing facilities, and crowded units by type of household.

II.Second Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census of Housing, Vol. I, Chapters 2-55; and Census Tract Reports). (See tables 3 and 4.)
1.Geographical areas represented: (1) In Housing: States by urban-rural and SMSA--non-SMSA; SMSAs and component parts, urbanized areas; places of 1,000 and more; and counties; (2) in Census Tract Reports: SMSAS, counties, places of 25,000 or more population, and tracts.
2.Data published: See table 3. The 100-percent items listed in that table are drawn from the Second Count tabulations.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT. 3, Second Count Summary Tape).
1.Geographical areas represented: States, SMSAS, urbanized areas, counties, places, minor civil divisions or census county divisions, and tracts. Also urban-rural designations for states, SMSAs and counties.
2.Data tabulated: Subjects tabulated are the same as for Housing, Vol. I reports. Greater detail is often available. For example, there are 14 cash rent ranges rather than 10 as in the printed reports. Also, tapes include such tabulations as owner-occupied units by household type and race of head for five value ranges, and owner-occupied units by number of rooms and race of head for five value ranges. Most Second Count summary tape items are cross- tabulated by tenure for total and Negro.

III.Third Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census of Housing, Vol. III, Block Statistics,). (See table 5.)
1.Geographical areas represented: Blocks and tracts within urbanized areas and within other areas that have contracted for block statistics.
2.Data published: See tables 5 which presents the planned outline for tables 1 and 2 of Block reports. Also shown is the outline for the tables which will appear in the reports for the contract block areas.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT-4, Third Count Summary Tape).
1.Geographical areas represented: Blocks and tracts within urbanized areas and within other areas that have contracted for block statistics.
2.Data tabulated: In addition to data items found in printed reports, the block tape includes such data as number of units with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or more rooms; total number of rooms in total, and Negro-owned and rented units; number of units with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or more persons; and total number of persons in total, and Negro-owned and rented units.

IV.Fourth Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census of Housing, Vol. I, Chapters 2-55; and Census Tract Reports). (See tables 3 and 4.)
1.Geographical areas represented: (1) In Housing: States by urban-rural nonfarm-rural farm and SMSA--non-SMSA; SMSAs and component parts, urbanized areas; places of 2,500 and more; and counties; (2) In Census Tract Reports: SMSAs, counties, places of 25,000 or more population, and tracts.
2.Data published: See tables 3 and 4. Spanish-American data are presented in a pattern similar to that for Negroes. However, no 5-percent sample data for places 2,500 to 10,000 are given for Spanish-American.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT- 5, Fourth Count Summary Tape).
1.Geographical areas represented: States, SMSAs and component parts, counties, places, minor civil divisions or census county divisions, and tracts. Also urban, rural nonfarm-rural farm designation.
2.Data tabulated: The summary tapes include a number of tabulations not found in the printed reports, such as: gross rent by number of rooms, value of owner-occupied unit by income, and plumbing facilities by household composition and age of head. Most data are tabulated by tenure for total, Negro, and Spanish-American.

V.Fifth Count Data
A.No printed reports will be derived from this file.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, CT-6, Fifth Count Summary Tape).
1.Geographic areas represented: 5-digit level ZIP areas in SMSAS, and 3-digit level elsewhere.
2.Data tabulated: Tenure and vacancy status, plumbing facilities, gross rent, value of property, telephone available, year structure built, automobiles available, rent-income ratios, and household equipment items.

VI.Sixth Count Data
A.Printed Reports (Census of Housing. Vol. II, Chapters 2-55, Metropolitan Housing).
1.Geographical areas represented: SMSAs, central cities, and places of 50,000 or more.
2.Data published: Cross-tabulations by principal housing and household subjects such as value of property, gross rent, income, plumbing facilities by persons per room, number of rooms, number of units in structure, and size of household.
B.Summary Tapes (see Data Access Description, Sixth Count Summary Tape to be published).
1.Geographical areas represented: SMSAs, central cities, places of 50,000 or more, metropolitan counties, and nonmetropolitan counties of 50,000 or more population.
2.Data tabulated: Extensive cross-tabulations including many three-way cross-tabulations such as household composition by age of head, by year structure built, and by value of property. Most of the data are tabulated by tenure and for Negro and Spanish-American households.