Documentation: Census 1970
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Publisher: U.S. Census Bureau
Survey: Census 1970
Document: 1970 Census Users' Guide - Part I
citation:
Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; 1970 Census Users’ Guide; U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1970.
1970 Census Users' Guide - Part I
The 1970 Census: Finding the Facts
This section summarizes the steps involved in taking the 1970 census from questionnaire design to data production. Users who want to fully understand census data and use them to best advantage will benefit from this background information on collection and processing procedures going into the final product.

Which Facts
The items included in Census questionnaires are selected only after a lengthy process of consultation with census users, discussion with a council of federal agency representatives established by the Bureau of the Budget, review by advisory panels of subject matter experts, and careful deliberation by the Bureau staff.

Neither the Bureau of the Census, nor any other Federal agency, is free to ask any question it chooses. Each question must conform to the guidelines established by Congress in the Federal Reports Act of 1942. Briefly, this act, which is administered by the Bureau of the Budget under its reports control program, has both a positive and negative or preventive side. The preventive side results in the avoidance of duplicate, unnecessary, or burdensome reports.

Equally as important, however, is the acts positive objective of insuring that the informational needs of government, and through it, of the public, are adequately met in the most efficient manner. Accordingly, each potential census question must be submitted to the Bureau of the Budget by the Census Bureau for approval and review to insure that the data obtained are valid and appropriate to the purpose intended. Questions are eligible for inclusion on the final census questionnaires only after they have gone through this formal clearance procedure. Final authority for determining which approved questions will be included is lodged with the Secretary of Commerce by Title 13 of the U.S. Code, the basic legislation governing the censuses.

In choosing questions, the Census Bureau decides which ones are most important by consulting people who need the statistics. The needs of government agencies receive top priority, but those of businessmen, labor groups, research workers, and others are also considered--often through the use of advisory committees. These committees, which average about a dozen members each and meet several times a year, are established by professional organizations such as the American Statistical Association, or by the Bureau itself, e.g., a committee of population specialists drawn largely from universities. The advisory committees provide an organized and regular channel of communication between the Bureau staff and professional experts. The committee members receive no salary from the Bureau. Their role is advisory, not decision-making.

In 1966, the Bureau also obtained suggestions and comments through intensive discussion with many individuals, organizations, and Federal agency representatives in a series of locally sponsored public meetings in 23 cities across the country. The Bureau necessarily relies on this organized and regular flow of information in evaluating users needs as a means for guiding future program development. Studies are made in an effort to determine both current uses and likely future needs for census data in existing local, State, and Federal programs. The questions which were proposed for 1970 are too numerous to present here fully. Many were ruled out as not being in the broad public interest, which is the first criterion for possible inclusion. Others were vetoed as too complex or too personal, as more appropriate for a National sample survey than the census, or for other equally relevant reasons. After the list was initially reduced, further cuts had to be made on a priority basis in order to remain within the limits of the available resources and to avoid imposing an unreasonable burden on the respondent.

Among the proposals rejected for one or more of the above-mentioned reasons were questions on exterior building material, amount of taxes paid, auto accidents, religion, union membership, ownership of musical instruments, smoking, multiple job holding, distance to shopping areas, stock ownership, and expected family size.

The final format of the 1970 census questionnaire represents a balance between meeting the needs of users for data to carry out program and research responsibilities and the cost to the citizen and the government resulting from a too complex and lengthy questionnaire. Figure 1 presents the questions contained in the questionnaire and indicates whether a particular question was asked on a 100-percent, 20-percent, 15- percent, or a 5-percent basis.

1970 Population questions [All]
1. WHAT IS THE NAME OF EACH PERSON
who was living here on Wednesday, April 1, 1970 or who was staying or visiting here and had no other home?
Print names in this order:
Head of the household
Wife of head
Unmarried children, oldest first
Married children and their families
Other relatives of the head
Persons not related to the head
________
Last name
________
First name Middle Initial

"In Question 1 ... please list each person who was living here on Wednesday, April 1, 1970, or who was staying or visiting here and had no other home.

"LIST IN QUESTION 1: Family members living here, including babies still in the hospital; Relatives living here; Lodgers or boarders living here; Servants or hired hands living here; Other persons living here; College students who stay here while attending college, even if their parents live elsewhere; Persons who usually live here but are temporarily away (including children in boarding school below the college level); Persons with a home elsewhere but who stay here most of the week while working.

"DO NOT LIST IN QUESTION 1: Any person away from here in the Armed Forces; Any college student who stays somewhere else while attending college; Any person who usually stays somewhere else most of the week while working there; Any person away from here in an institution such as a home for the aged or mental hospital; Any person staying or visiting here who has a usual home elsewhere.

"Note: If everyone here is staying only temporarily and has a usual home elsewhere, please fill this circle O and give their names ... in the space for question 12. [Questions 9 to 12 were asked to ensure a complete count. We omit them below.] Do not answer any other questions. Mail back the form on Wednesday, April 1."

[All]
2. HOW IS EACH PERSON RELATED TO THE HEAD OF THIS HOUSEHOLD?
Fill one circle.
If "Other relative of head," also give exact relationship, for example, mother-in-law, brother,
niece, grandson, etc.
If "Other not related to head," also give exact relationship, for example, partner, maid, etc.
O Head of household
O Wife of head
O Son or daughter of head
O Other relative of head - Print exact relationship _
O Roomer, boarder, lodger
O Patient or inmate
O Other not related to head - Print exact relationship ____________________________
"If two or more unrelated people live together and share the rent, mark the first one you list Head of household. Mark the rest Other not related to head and print "partner" in the space. A stepchild or legally adopted child of the head should be marked Son or daughter."

[All]
3. SEX
Fill one circle
O Male
O Female
[All]
4. COLOR OR RACE
Fill one circle.
If "Indian (American)," also give tribe.
If "Other," also give race.
O White
O Negro or Black
O Indian (Amer.) Print tribe ____
O Japanese
O Chinese
O Filipino
O Hawaiian
O Korean
O Other - Print race __________
[On the questionnaires used in Alaska, the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo" were substituted for "Hawaiian" and "Korean" in question 4.]

[All]
DATE OF BIRTH
5. Month and year of birth and age last birthday
Print
Month __________
Year ____________
Age ____________
"If the month or year of birth, or the age, is not known, give your best estimate."

6. Month of birth
Fill one circle
O Jan. - Mar.
O Apr. - June
O July - Sept.
O Oct. - Dec.
7. Year of birth
Fill one circle for first three numbers
O 186- O 192-
O 187- O 193-
O 188- O 194-
O 189- O 195-
O 190- O 196-
O 191- O 197-
Fill one circle for last number
O 0 O 5
O 1 O 6
O 2 O 7
O 3 O 8
O 4 O 9
[All]
8. WHAT IS EACH PERSON'S MARITAL STATUS?
Fill one circle
O Now married
O Widowed
O Divorced
O Separated
O Never married
"If the person's only marriage was annulled, mark Never married."

[All]
13a. Where was this person born? If born in hospital, give State or country where mother lived. If born outside U.S., see instruction sheet; distinguish Northern Ireland from Ireland (Eire).
O This State
OR _____________________
(Name of State or foreign country; or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.)
"Mark the circle for This State if he now lives in the same State as he was born in. If born in a different State, print name of State. If born outside U.S., print name of country, U.S. possession, etc. Use international boundaries as now recognized by the U.S."

[Only on Form 1]
b. Is this person's origin or descent - (Fill one circle)
O Mexican O Central or South American
O Puerto Rican O Other Spanish
O Cuban O No, none of these
[Only on Form 2]
14. What country was his father born in?
O United States
OR _____________________
(Name of foreign country; or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.)
[Only on Form 2]
15. What country was his mother born in?
O United States
OR ____________________
(Name of foreign country; or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.)
[Only on Form 1]
16. For persons born in a foreign country -
a. Is this person naturalized?
O Yes, naturalized
O No, alien
O Born abroad of American parents
b. When did he come to the United States to stay?
O 1965 to 70 O 1950 to 54 O 1925 to 34
O 1960 to 64 O 1945 to 49 O 1915 to 24
O 1955 to 59 O 1935 to 44 O Before 1915
"Mark one circle in part and one circle in part b for persons born outside the 50 States, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canal Zone, Guam, or Virgin Islands of U.S."

[Only on Form 2]
17. What language, other than English, was spoken in this person's home when he was a child? Fill one circle.
O Spanish O Other -
O French Specify ________
O German O None, English only
"If more than one language other than English was spoken, mark principal language."

[Only on Form 2]
18. When did this person move into this house (or apartment)?
Fill circle for date of last move.
O 1969 or 70 O 1965 or 66 O 1949 or earlier
O 1968 O 1960 to 64 O Always lived in this house or apartment
O 1967 O 1950 to 59
"Mark the date for the last time he moved into this particular house or apartment."

[Only on Form 2]
19a. Did he live in this house on April 1, 1965? If in college or Armed Forces in April 1965, report place of residence there.
O Born April 1965 or later }
O Yes, this house .............. } Skip to 20
O No, different house
"Mark Yes if he lived in this same house or apartment on April 1, 1965, even if he moved away and came back between then and now. Mark No if he lived in the same building but in a different apartment on April 1, 1965."

b. Where did he live on April 1, 1965?
(1) State, foreign country, U.S. possession, etc. _________
(2) County
__________
(3) Inside the limits of a city, town, village, etc.?
O Yes O No
(4) If "Yes," name of city, town, village, etc. __________

"If he lived somewhere else on April 1, 1965, give the address of his usual residence at that time.
Part (2)
For addresses in Louisiana, print the parish name.
For addresses in Alaska, print the borough name.
For addresses in independent cities, print the name of the city and word "city," for example "Baltimore city."
Part (3)
Mark Yes if you know that the address is now inside the limits of a city, town, village, or other
incorporated place, even if it was not inside the limits on April 1, 1965."

[Only on Form 2]
20. Since February 1, 1970, has this person attended regular school or college at any time? Count nursery school, kindergarten, and schooling which leads to an elementary school certificate, high school diploma, or college degree.
O No
O Yes, public
O Yes, parochial
O Yes, other private
"Do not count trade or business school, company training, or tutoring unless you think he could get credit for it at a regular school or college."

[All]
21. What is the highest grade (or year) of regular school he has ever attended?
Fill one circle. If now attending, mark grade he is in.
O Never attended school - Skip to 23
O Nursery school
O Kindergarten

Elementary through high school (grade or year)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
O O O O O O O O O O O O

College (academic year)
1 2 3 4 5 6 or more
O O O O O O
"Mark the highest grade he attended even if he did not finish it. If he is still in school, mark the grade he is in now. If he skipped or repeated grades, mark the highest grade ever attended, regardless of how long it took to get there. If he finished high school, but did not go to college, mark 12. For college, mark the highest academic year attended."

[All]
22. Did he finish the highest grade (or year) he attended?
O Now attending this grade (or year)
O Finished this grade (or year)
O Did not finish this grade (or year)
"Mark Finished this grade (or year) only if he finished the entire grade or year shown in question 21."

[All]
23. When was this person born?
O Born before April 1956 - Please go on with questions 24 through 41.
O Born April 1956 or later - Please omit questions 24 through 41 and go to the next page for the next person.
[Only on Form 1]
24. If this person has ever been married -
a. Has this person been married more than once?
O Once O More than once
b. When did he get married? When did he get married for the first time?
____________________ ____________________
Month Year Month Year
"If exact dates of marriage are unknown, estimate as closely as possible."

c. If married more than once - Did the first marriage end because of the death of the husband (or wife)?
O Yes O No
[All]
25. If this is a girl or a woman - How many babies has she ever had, not counting still births? Do not count her stepchildren or children she has adopted.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 or more None
O O O O O O O O O O O O O
"Count all the children the girl or woman has ever had, even if some of them have died or no longer live with her."

[Only on Form 2]
26. If this is a man -
a. Has he ever served in the Army, Navy, or other Armed Forces of the United States?
O Yes O No
"Mark Yes if he was ever on active duty in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, no matter how short a time he served. Count only active duty in National Guard or Reserves. Mark No if he had only civilian duty in the Armed Forces or merchant marine. Mark No if he was in the National Guard or Reserves, but was not called to active duty. Mark No if his only military service in the Armed Forces of another country."

b. Was it during - (Fill the circle for each period of service.)
Vietnam Conflict (Since Aug. 1964) ........................... O
Korean War (June 1950 to Jan. 1955) ..................... O
World War II (Sept. 1940 to July 1947) ................... O
World War I (April 1917 to Nov. 1918) ................... O
Any other time ........................................................... O
[Only on Form 1] 27a. Has this person ever completed a vocational training program?
For example, in high school; as apprentice; in school of business, nursing or trades; technical institute; or Armed Forces schools.
O Yes O No - Skip to 28
"Count only programs that he finished. Do no count courses which are not part of an organized program of study. Do not count training he got on-the-job, in company schools, in college after the second year, or by correspondence."

b. What was his main field of vocational training? Fill one circle.
O Business, office work
O Nursing, other health fields
O Trades and crafts (mechanic, electrician, beautician, etc.)
O Engineering or science technician; draftsman
O Agriculture or home economics
O Other field - Specify ________________
[Only on Form 1]
28a. Does this person have a health or physical condition which limits the kind or amount of work he can do at a job?
If 65 years old or over, skip to question 29.
O Yes
O No
"Health condition. This is a serious illness, or a serious handicap (impairment) affecting some part of the body or mind, which interferes with his ability to work at a job. Answer No for pregnancy, common colds, etc."

b. Does his health or physical condition keep him from holding any job at all?
O Yes
O No
c. If "Yes" in a or b - How long has he been limited in his ability to work?
O Less than 6 months O 3 to 4 years
O 6 to 11 months O 5 to 9 years
O 1 to 2 years O 10 years or more
QUESTIONS 29 THROUGH 41 ARE FOR ALL PERSONS BORN BEFORE APRIL 1956 INCLUDING HOUSEWIVES, STUDENTS, OR DISABLED PERSONS AS WELL AS PART-TIME OR FULL-TIME WORKERS.

[All]
29a. Did this person work at any time last week?
O Yes - Fill this circle if this person did full- or part-time work. (Count part-time work such as a Saturday job, delivering papers, or helping without pay in a family business or farm; and active duty in the Armed Forces.

O No - Fill this circle if this person did not work, or did only own housework, school work, or volunteer work. Skip to 30
"Mark Yes if he worked on any day Sunday through Saturday of last week.

Count as work
Work for someone else for wages, salary, piece rate, commission, tips, or payment "in kind"
Work in own business, professional practice, or farm
Any work in a family business or farm, paid or not
Any part-time work
Active duty in the Armed Forces

Do not count as work
Housework or yard work at own home
Unpaid volunteer work.
Work done as an inmate of an institution."

[All]
b. How many hours did he work last week (at all jobs)?
Subtract any time off and add overtime or extra hours worked.
O 1 to 14 hours O 40 hours
O 15 to 29 hours O 41 to 48 hours
O 30 to 34 hours O 49 to 59 hours
O 35 to 39 hours O 60 hours or more
"Give the actual number of hours he worked at all jobs last week, even if that was more or fewer hours than he usually works."

[Only on Form 2]
c. Where did he work last week?
If he worked in more than one place, print where he worked most last week.
If he travels about in his work or if the place does not have a numbered address, see instruction sheet.
(1) Address (Number and street name) ______________
(2) Name of city, town, village, etc.

(3) Inside the limits of this city, town, village, etc.?
O Yes
O No
(4) County
(5) State ______________________
(6) Zip Code ____________________

"For a person who travels about in his work or who works in more than one place -- If he usually checks in or out at the same place every day, give the address of that place. If he does not check in or out at the same place, give the address of the place where he worked the most hours last week.

"Give the exact address of the location or branch where he works if his employer operates in more than one location (such as a grocery store chain or public school system). When you cannot give the number or street name, print the name of the building, if any, or the name of the company for which he works."

[Only on Form 2]
d. How did he get to work last week? Fill one circle for chief means used on the last day he worked at the address given in 29c.
O Driver, private auto O Taxicab
O Passenger, private auto O Walked only
O Bus or streetcar O Worked at home
O Subway or elevated O Other means -- Specify ¯
O Elevated ______
After completing question 29d, skip to question 33.
"Mark Worked at home for a person who worked on a farm where he lives or in an office or shop in his home."

[All]
30. Does this person have a job or business from which he was temporarily absent or on layoff last week?
O Yes, on layoff
O Yes, on vacation, temporary illness, labor dispute, etc.
O No
"Mark No if he works only during certain seasons or is "on call" to work when needed."

[All]
31a. Has he been looking for work during the past 4 weeks?
O Yes O No - Skip to 32
"Mark Yes if he tried to get a job or to start a business or profession at any time in the past four weeks; for example, if he registered at an employment office, went for a job interview, or did anything toward starting a business. Mark Yes if he was waiting to hear from places he had applied to or registered with within the past four weeks."

b. Was there any reason why he could not take a job last week?
O Yes, already has a job
O Yes, because of this person's temporary illness
O Yes, for other reasons (in school, etc.)
O No, could have taken a job
"Mark Yes, already has a job if he was on layoff or was expecting to report to a job within 30 days. Mark Yes, because of this person's temporary illness if he expects to be able to work within 30 days. Mark Yes, for other reasons for reasons such as going to school or taking care of children."

[All]
32. When did he last work at all, even for a few days?
O In 1970 O 1964 to 1967 O 1959 or earlier } Skip
O In 1969 O 1960 to 1963 O Never worked } to 36
O In 1968
"Look at the instruction for 29a to see what work means. Mark Never worked if he: (1) never worked at any kind of job or business, either full or part-time, (2) never did any unpaid work in a family business or farm, and (3) never served in the Armed Forces."

[All]
33-35. Current or most recent job activity
Describe clearly this person's chief job activity or business last week, if any. If he had more than one job, describe the one at which he worked the most hours. If this person had no job or business last week, give information for last job or business since 1960.

[All]
33. Industry
a. For whom did he work? If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, print "AF" and skip to question 36.
_______________________
(Name of company, business, organization, or other employer)

"If he worked for company, business, or government agency, print the name of the company, not the name of his supervisor. If he worked for a person or a small business that has no company name, print the name of the person he worked for."

b. What kind of business or industry was this?
Describe activity at location where employed.
_______________________
(For example: Junior high school, retail supermarket, dairy farm, TV and radio service, auto assembly plant, road construction)

"Write two or more words to tell what the business, industry, or person named in 33a does. Write what it makes or what it sells or what service it gives. Some examples of acceptable answers are shown on the Census form and here."
Acceptable Unacceptable
Cattle ranch Ranch
Wholesale grocery store Grocery store
Retail gas station Oil company
Metal furniture manufacturing Furniture company
If a company does more than one thing (like make household electrical appliances and electric generators) describe only the major activity at the place where he works. If, however, he works at a warehouse, repair shop, etc., that is part of and used only by a larger organization, give the major activity of the larger organization; for example, department store warehouse - report department store."

c. Is this mainly - (Fill one circle)
O Manufacturing O Retail trade
O Wholesale trade O Other (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)
"Mark Manufacturing if the factory, plant, mill, etc. makes things, even if it also sells them. Mark Wholesale trade if a business does not make things but buys them to sell to stores or other companies. Mark Retail trade if the business mostly sells things (not services) to individuals. Mark Other if the main purpose of the employer is not making or selling things. Some examples of "Other" are services, such as those given by hotels, dry cleaners, repair shops, schools, and banks. Farming and building houses, bridges, roads, are also examples of "Other" kinds of businesses."

[All]
34. Occupation
a. What kind of work was he doing?
_______________________
(For example: TV repairman, sewing machine operator, spray painter, civil engineer, farm operator, farm hand, junior high English teacher)

"Write two or more words to tell the kind of work he does. If he is a trainee, apprentice, or helper, write that down too. See examples of acceptable answers on the Census form and here.
Acceptable Unacceptable
Sales clerk Clerk
Carpenter's helper Helper
Practical nurse Nurse
b. What were his most important activities or duties?
_______________________
(For example: Types, keeps account books, files, sells cars, operates printing press, cleans buildings, finishes concrete)

"Write the most important things that he does on the job. Some examples are shown on the Census form."

c. What was his job title?
_______________

"Print his job title (what his employer calls his job). If he has no job title, print None."

[All]
35. Was this person - (Fill one circle)
Employee of private company, business, or
individual, for wages, salary, or commissions .............. O
Federal government employee ................................... O
State government employee ....................................... O
Local government employee (city, county, etc.) ......... O
Self-employed in own business,
professional practice, or farm -
Own business not incorporated ................................... O
Own business incorporated ......................................... O
Working without pay in family business or farm ............ O
"If he was an employee of a private non-profit organization, mark the first circle. Mark Local government employee for a teacher in a local public school."

[Only on Form 1]
36. In April 1965, what State did this person live in?
O This State
OR ____________
(Name of State or foreign country; or Puerto Rico, etc.)
"Mark This State if he now lives in the same State as he did in April 1965."

[All]
37. In April 1965, was this person - (Fill three circles)
a. Working at a job or business (full or part-time)?
O Yes O No
b. In the Armed Forces?
O Yes O No
c. Attending college?
O Yes O No
"If he had two or more activities during the same period, mark Yes for each of these activities."

[Only on Form 1]
38. If "Yes" for "Working at a job or business" in question 37 -
Describe this person's chief activity or business in April 1965.

a. What kind of business or industry was this?
________________________
b. What kind of work was he doing (occupation)?
________________________
________________________

c. Was he -
An employee of a private company or government agency ..... O
Self-employed or unpaid family worker ................................. O [All]
39a. Last year (1969), did this person work at all, even for a few days?
O Yes O No - Skip to 41
b. How many weeks did he work in 1969, either full-time or part-time?
Count paid vacation, paid sick leave, and military service.
O 13 weeks or less O 40 to 47 weeks
O 14 to 26 weeks O 48 to 49 weeks
O 27 to 39 weeks O 50 to 52 weeks
"Look at the instruction for question 29a to see what work means. Count every week in which he did any work at all, even for a few hours."

[All]
40. Earnings in 1969 - Fill parts a, b, and c for everyone who worked any time in 1969 even if he had no income. (If exact amount is not known, give best estimate.)

a. How much did this person earn in 1969 in wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs? (Before deductions for taxes, bonds, dues, or other items.)
$ ____________.00 OR O None
(Dollars only)
b. How much did he earn in 1969 from his own nonfarm business, professional practice, or partnership? (Net after business expenses. If business lost money, write "Loss" above amount.)
$ ____________.00 OR O None
(Dollars only)
c. How much did he earn in 1969 from his own farm? (Net after operating expenses. Include earnings as a tenant farmer or sharecropper. If farm lost money, write "Loss" above amount.)
$ ____________.00 OR O None
(Dollars only)
"Enter the amount or fill the None circle in a, b, and c. Part 40a includes "sick leave" pay. Part 40a excludes military bonuses, reimbursement for business expenses, and pay "in kind." The owner of an unincorporated nonfarm business should include his net earnings in part 40b. If the business or farm is incorporated, his earnings should be included in part 40a."

[All]
41. Income other than earnings in 1969 - Fill in parts a, b, and c.
(If exact amount is not known, give best estimate.) "Enter the amount or fill the None circle in a, b, and c."

a. How much did this person receive in 1969 from Social Security or Railroad Retirement?
$ ____________.00 OR O None
(Dollars only)
"Social Security or Railroad Retirement - include U.S. Government payments to retired persons, to dependents of deceased insured workers, or to disabled workers. Include "Medicare" premiums; exclude receipts."

b. How much did he receive in 1969 from public assistance or welfare payments?
Include aid for dependent children, old age assistance, general assistance, aid to the blind or totally disabled. Exclude separate payments for hospital or other medical care.
$ ____________.00 OR O None
(Dollars only)
"Public assistance or public welfare payments - include amounts received from Federal, State, or local public programs. Exclude private welfare payments."

c. How much did he receive in 1969 from all other sources?
Include interest, dividends, veterans' payments, pensions, and other regular payments.
(See instruction sheet.)
$ ____________.00 OR O None
(Dollars only)
"Interest, dividends - include amounts received or credited to your account.
Veterans' payments - include money paid for service-connected disabilities, to survivors of deceased veterans, for education and on-the-job training subsistence allowances, and for 'refunds' on 'GI' insurance premiums.
Retirement pensions - include amounts paid by former private employers and by unions, and amounts paid by Federal, State, county, or other governmental agencies.
Other regular payments - include such periodic income as net rental income, unemployment insurance benefits, workmen's compensation, private welfare payments, alimony or child support, Armed Forces allotments, and regular contributions from persons who are not members of your household.
Exclude receipts from the sale or personal property, capital gains, lump-sum insurance or inheritance payments, or pay 'in kind.'"

[1970 Housing questions.]

"If you live in an apartment building and you do not know the answers to questions H14, H15, H16, and H25, ask the person who runs your building (for example, the manager, rental agent, superintendent, janitor, etc.).

[All]
A. How many living quarters, occupied and vacant, are at this address?
O One
O 2 apartments or living quarters
O 3 apartments or living quarters
O 4 apartments or living quarters
O 5 apartments or living quarters
O 6 apartments or living quarters
O 7 apartments or living quarters
O 8 apartments or living quarters
O 9 apartments or living quarters
O 10 or more apartments or living quarters
O This is a mobile home or trailer
"Mark only one circle. This address means the house or building number where your living quarters are located.

[All -- this question filled out by enumerators, not respondents; for IPUMS purposes, the only significant distinctions are between occupied, vacant, and group quarters units.]
B. Type of unit or quarters
Occupied
O First form
O Continuation
Vacant
O Regular
O Usual residence elsewhere
Group quarters
O First form
O Continuation
For a vacant unit, also fill C, D, A, H2 to H8, and H10 to H12

[All -- this question filled out by enumerators, not respondents]
C. Vacancy status
Year round --
O For rent
O For sale only
O Rented or sold, not occupied
O Held for occasional use
O Other vacant
O Seasonal
O Migratory

[All -- this question filled out by enumerators, not respondents]
D. Months vacant
O Less than 1 month
O 1 up to 2 months
O 2 up to 6 months
O 6 up to 12 months
O 1 year up to 2 years
O 2 years or more
[All]
H1. Is there a telephone on which people in your living quarters can be called?
O Yes What is the number? _________________
O No Phone number
"Mark Yes and enter telephone number, even if the telephone is in another apartment or building."

[All]
H2. Do you enter your living quarters --
O Directly from the outside or through a common or public hall?
O Through someone else's living quarters?
"Mark the second circle only if you must go through someone else's living quarters to get to your own."

[All]
H3. Do you have complete kitchen facilities?
Complete kitchen facilities are a sink with piped water, a range or cook stove, and a refrigerator.
O Yes, for this household only
O Yes, but also used by another household
O No complete kitchen facilities for this household
"The kitchen sink, stove, and refrigerator do not have to be in the same room. Also used by another household means that someone else who lives in the same building, but is not a member of your household, also uses the equipment. Mark this circle also if the occupants of living quarters now vacant would also use the equipment."

[All]
H4. How many rooms do you have in your living quarters?
Do not count bathrooms, porches, balconies, foyers, halls, or half-rooms.
O 1 room O 6 rooms
O 2 rooms O 7 rooms
O 3 rooms O 8 rooms
O 4 rooms O 9 rooms or more
O 5 rooms
"Count only whole rooms used for living purposes, such as living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, finished recreation rooms, family rooms, etc. Do not count kitchenettes, strip or pullman kitchens; utility rooms; or unfinished attics, basements, or other space used for storage."

[All]
H5. Is there hot and cold piped water in this building?
O Yes, hot and cold piped water in this building
O No, only cold piped water in this building
O No piped water in this building
"Mark hot water even if you have it only part of the time."

[All]
H6. Do you have a flush toilet?
O Yes, for this household only O Yes, but also used by another household
O No flush toilet
"See instructions for H3 for meaning of Also used by another household."

[All]
H7. Do you have a bathtub or shower?
O Yes, for this household only.
O Yes, but also used by another household
O No bathtub or shower
"See instructions for H3 for meaning of Also used by another household."

[All]
H8. Is there a basement in this building?
O Yes
O No, build on a concrete slab
O No, build in another way (include mobile homes and trailers)
"A house has a basement if there is enclosed space in which persons can walk upright under all or part of the building. A house on a concrete slab has no basement and no air or crawl space below it. A house built in another way is one directly on the ground or resting on a foundation or posts to provide crawl space."

[All]
H9. Are your living quarters -
O Owned or being bought by you or by someone else in this household? Do not include cooperatives and condominiums here.
O A cooperative or condominium which is owned or being bought by you or by someone else in your household?
O Rented for cash rent?
O Occupied without payment of cash rent?
"Owned or being bought means that the living quarters are owned outright or are mortgaged. Also mark Owned or being bought if the living quarters are owned but the land is rented. Mark Rented for cash rent if any money rent is paid. Rent may be paid by persons who are not members of your household. Occupied without payment of cash rent includes, for example, a parsonage, a house or apartment provided free of rent by the owner, or a house or apartment occupied by a janitor or caretaker in exchange for services."

[All]
H10a. Is this building a one-family house?
O Yes, a one-family house
O No, a building for 2 or more families or a mobile home or trailer
b. If "Yes" -- Is this house on a place of 10 acres or more, or is any part of this property used as a commercial establishment or medical office?
O Yes, 10 acres or more
O Yes, commercial establishment or medical office
O No, none of the above
"A commercial establishment is easily recognized from the outside; for example, a grocery store or barber shop. A medical office is a doctor's or dentist's office regularly visited by patients. If your house is on a place of 10 acres or more and also contains a commercial establishment or medical office, mark Yes, 10 acres or more."

[All]
H11. If you live in a one-family house which you own or are buying --
What is the value of this property; that is, how much do you think this property (house and lot) would sell for if it were for sale?
If this house is on a place of 10 acres or more, or if any part of this property is used as a commercial establishment or medical office, do not answer this question.
O Less than $5,000
O $5,000 to $7,499
O $7,500 to $9,999
O $10,000 to $12,499
O $12,500 to $14,999
O $15,000 to $17,499
O $17,500 to $19,999
O $20,000 to $24,999
O $25,000 to $34,999
O $35,000 to $49,999
O $50,000 or more
"Include the value of the house, the land it is on, and any other structures on the same property. If the house is owned but the land is rented, estimate the combined value of the house and the land."

[All]
H12. Answer this question if you pay rent for your living quarters.

"Report the rent agreed to or contracted for, even if the furnishings, utilities, or services are included."

a. If rent is paid by the month --
What is the monthly rent?
Write amount here $ ____________.00 (Nearest dollar)
and
Fill one circle
O Less than $30
O $30 to $39
O $40 to $49
O $50 to $59
O $60 to $69
O $70 to $79
O $80 to $89
O $90 to $99
O $100 to $119
O $120 to $149
O $150 to $199
O $200 to $249
O $250 to $299
O $300 or more
"If you pay rent by the month, write in the amount of rent and fill one circle."

b. If rent is not paid by the month -
What is the rent, and what period of time does it cover?
$ ____________.00 per ______________________________
(Nearest dollar) (Week, half-month, year, etc.)

"If rent is not paid by the month, answer both parts of b. For example, $20 per week, $1,500 per year, etc."

[All]
H13. Answer question H13 if you pay rent for your living quarters.
In addition to the rent entered in H12, do you also pay for -

"If exact costs are not known, estimate as closely as possible. Report amounts even if bills are unpaid or are paid by someone else. If the bills include utilities or fuel used also by another apartment or a business establishment, estimate the amounts for your own living quarters. If gas and electricity are billed together, enter the combined amount on the electricity line and bracket ({) the two utilities."

a. Electricity?
O Yes, average monthly cost is $___________________.00
O No, included in rent Average monthly cost
O No, electricity not used
b. Gas?
O Yes, average monthly cost is $___________________.00
O No, included in rent Average monthly cost
O No, gas not used
c. Water?
O Yes, yearly cost is $____________.00
O No, included in rent or no charge (Yearly cost)
d. Oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.?
O Yes, yearly cost is $____________.00
O No, included in rent (Yearly cost)
O No, these fuels not used
[All]
H14. How are your living quarters heated?
Fill one circle for the kind of heat you use most.
O Steam or hot water system
O Central warm air furnace with ducts to the individual rooms, or central heat pump
O Built-in electric units (permanently installed in wall, ceiling, or baseboard)
O Floor, wall, or pipeless furnace
O Room heaters with flue or vent, burning gas, oil, or kerosene
O Room heaters without flue or vent, burning gas, oil, or kerosene (not portable)
O Fireplaces, stoves, or portable room heaters of any kind

In some other way--Describe ____________________

O None, unit has no heating equipment
"This question refers to the type of heating equipment and not to the fuel used. A heat pump is sometimes known as a reverse cycle system. A floor, wall, or pipeless furnace delivers warm air to the room right above the furnace or to the room(s) on one or both sides of the wall in which the furnace is installed. These furnaces do not have ducts leading to other rooms. Any heater that you plug into an electric outlet should be counted as a portable room heater -- not a built-in electric unit."

[All]
H15. About when was this building originally built?
Mark when the building was first constructed, not when it was remodeled, added to, or converted.
O 1969 or 1970 O 1950 to 1959
O 1965 to 1968 O 1940 to 1949
O 1960 or 1964 O 1939 or earlier
[All]
H16. Which best describes this building?
Include all apartments, flats, etc., even if vacant.
O A one-family house detached from any other house
O A one-family house attached to one or more houses
O A building for 2 families
O A building for 3 or 4 families
O A building for 5 to 9 families
O A building for 10 to 19 families
O A building for 20 to 49 families
O A building for 50 or more families
O A mobile home or trailer
Other -- Describe____________________
"Count all occupied and vacant living quarters in the house or building, but not stores or office space. Detached means there is open space on all sides, or the house is joined only to a shed or garage. Attached means that the house is joined to another house or building by at least one wall which goes from ground to roof."

[All]
H17. Is this building --
O On a city or suburban lots? - Skip to H19
O On a place of less than 10 acres?
O On a place of 10 acres or more?
"A city or suburban lot is usually located in a city, a community, or any built-up area outside a city or community, and is not larger than the house and yard. All living quarters in apartment buildings, including garden-type apartments in the city or suburbs, are considered on a city or suburban lot. A place is a farm, ranch, or any other property, other than a city or suburban lot, on which this residence is located."

[All]
H18. Last year, 1969, did sales of crops, livestock, and other farm products from this place amount to --
O Less than $50 (or None) O $2,500 to $4,999
O $50 to $249 O $5,000 to $9,999
O $250 to $2,499 O $10,000 or more
"Fill the circle for the total (gross) amount of money received from the sales of crops, livestock, and other farm products produced on this place during the calendar year 1969."

[Only on Form 2]
H19. Do you get water from --
O A public system (city water department, etc.) or private company?
O An individual well?
O Some other source (a spring, creek, river, cistern, etc.)?
"If a well provides water for six or more houses or apartments, mark a public system. If a well provides water for five or fewer houses or apartments, mark an individual well."

[Only on Form 2]
H20. Is this building connected to a public sewer?
O Yes, connected to public sewer
O No, connected to septic tank or cesspool
O No, use other means
"A public sewer is operated by a government body or a private organization. A septic tank or cesspool is an underground tank or pit used for disposal of sewage."

[Only on Form 2]
H21. How many bathrooms do you have?
A complete bathroom is a room with flush toilet, bathtub or shower, and wash
basin with piped water.
A half bathroom has at least a flush toilet or bathtub or shower, but does not have
all the facilities for a complete bathroom.
O No bathroom, or only a half bathroom
O 1 complete bathroom
O 1 complete bathroom, plus half bath(s)
O 2 complete bathrooms
O 2 complete bathrooms, plus half bath(s)
O 3 or more complete bathrooms
[Only on Form 2]
H22. Do you have air-conditioning?
O Yes, 1 individual room unit
O Yes, 2 or more individual room units
O Yes, a central air-conditioning system
O No
"Count only equipment with a refrigeration unit to cool the air. Mark an individual room unit for air conditioners which are installed in a window or in an outside wall and are used to cool one or more rooms. Mark a central system for a central installation which cools the entire house or apartment."

[Only on Form 2]
H23. How many passenger automobiles are owned or regularly used by members of your household?
Count company cars kept at home.
O None
O 1 automobile
O 2 automobiles
O 3 automobiles or more
"Do not count cars permanently out of working order. Also do not count taxicabs, pickups, or larger trucks."

[Only on Form 1]
H24a. How many stories (floors) are in this building?
O 1 to 3 stories
O 4 to 6 stories
O 7 to 12 stories
O 13 stories or more
"Do not count a basement as a story."

b. If 4 or more stories --
Is there a passenger elevator in this building?
O Yes O No
"Do not count elevators used only for freight."

[Only on Form 1]
H25. "Gas from underground pipes is piped in from a central system such as a public utility company or a municipal government. Bottled, tank, or LP gas is stored in tanks which are refilled or exchanged when empty. Other fuel includes any fuel not separately listed, for example, purchased steam, fuel briquettes, waste material, etc."

a. Which fuel is used most for cooking?
Gas... Coal or coke........ O
From underground pipes serving the neighborhood........ O Wood.................. O
Bottled, tank, or LP...................................................... O Other fuel............ O
Electricity.......................................................................... O No fuel used........ O
Fuel oil, kerosene, etc........................................................ O

b. Which fuel is used most for house heating?
Gas... Coal or coke........ O
From underground pipes serving the neighborhood...... O Wood.................. O
Bottled, tank, or LP..................................................... O Other fuel............ O
Electricity........................................................................ O No fuel used........ O
Fuel oil, kerosene, etc...................................................... O

c. Which fuel is used most for water heating?
Gas... Coal or coke........ O
From underground pipes serving the neighborhood........O Wood.................. O
Bottled, tank, or LP..................................................... O Other fuel............ O
Electricity........................................................................ O No fuel used........ O
Fuel oil, kerosene, etc...................................................... O

[Only on Form 1]
H26. How many bedrooms do you have?
Count rooms used mainly for sleeping even if used also for other purposes.
O No bedroom O 3 bedrooms
O 1 bedroom O 4 bedrooms
O 2 bedrooms O 5 bedrooms or more
[Only on Form 1]
H27.
"Mark the Yes circle whether you own the appliance or it is provided as part of the equipment in your living quarters. Do not count coin-operated equipment or appliances in storage."

a. Do you have a clothes washing machine?
O Yes, automatic or semi-automatic
O Yes, wringer or separate spinner
O No
b. Do you have a clothes dryer?
O Yes, electrically heated
O Yes, gas heated
O No
c. Do you have a dishwasher (built-in or portable)?
O Yes O No
d. Do you have a home food freezer which is separate from your refrigerator?
O Yes O No
[Only on Form 1]
H28a. Do you have a television set? Count only sets in working order.
O Yes, one set
O Yes, two or more sets
O No
b. If "Yes" -- Is any set equipped to receive UHF broadcasts, that is, channels 14 to 83?
O Yes O No
"Count any set equipped to receive UHF (ultra high frequency) broadcasts, even if there are no such broadcasts in your area. Include sets that can be tuned directly to channels 14 to 83 and sets that receive UHF broadcasts by means of a converter. Also include sets that receive UHF broadcasts through a community antenna (CATV) or master antenna."

[Only on Form 1]
H29. Do you have a battery-operated radio?
Count car radios, transistors, and other battery-operated sets in working order or needing only a new battery for operation.
O Yes O No
"A battery-operated radio is one that can be run on batteries and does not need to be plugged into an electric socket. Include batter-operated sets owned by any member of the household."

[Only on Form 1]
H30. Do you (or any member of your household) own a second home or other living quarters which you occupy sometime during the year?
O Yes O No
"Do not count vacation trailers, tents, or boats. Also do not count second homes used only for investment purposes."

ENDNOTES:

1 FOSDIC=Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers. FOSDIC forms have small circles which respondents have to fill in with a Number 2 lead pencil.

1970 Census of Puerto Rico
FACSIMILE OF THE 1970 CENSUS QUESTIONNAIRE PAGE SHOWING THE 100-PERCENT HOUSING QUESTIONS
HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONS

HA. How many housing units, occupied or vacant, are there in this structure?
O 1 unit. detached from any other unit
O 1 unit. attached to one.or more other units
O 2 units
O 3 or 4 unit
O S to 9 unit
O 10 to 19 unit
O 20 to 49 units
O 5O or more unit
O Mobile home or trailer


H1. Is there a telephone on which people who live here can be called?
O Yes ------> What is the number?
O No
_______ (Phone number)

H2. Do you enter your living quarters --
O Directly from the outside or through a common or public hill?
O Through someone else's living quarters?


H3. Do you have cooking facilities? (Include a range, stove, or portable cooking facilities if used regularly in the preparation of meals.)
O Yes. for this household only
O Yes. but also used by another household
O No cooking facilities


H4. How many rooms do you have In your living quarters? (Count bedrooms, kitchen, living room, etc. but not the bathroom.)
0 1 room O 6 rooms
O 2 rooms O 7 rooms
O 3 rooms O 8 rooms
O 4 rooms O 9 rooms or more
0 5 rooms


H5. Is there hot and cold piped water in this structure?

O Yes. hot and cold piped water in this structure
O No. only cold piped water in this structure
O No piped water in this structure


H6. Is there a flush toilet in this structure?
O Yes. for this household only
O Yes. but also used by another household
O No flush toilet


H7. It there a bathtub or shower in this structure?
O Yes. for this household only
O Yes. but also used by another household
O No bathtub or shower


H8. Is your housing unit -
O Owned or being bought by you of someone else in this household (Include all housing units that are owned or being bought. ??? Do not inlude cooperatives or condominiums here)
O A cooperative or condominium which is owned or being bought by you or someone else in this household?
O Rented for cash rent?
O Occupied without payment of cash rent?


H9a. Is this building a one-family house?
O Yes. a one-family house
O No. a building for 2 or more families or a mobile home or trailer (Skip to H11)


H9b. If "YES" - Is this home on a place of 3 cuerdas or more, or it any part of this property used as a commercial establishment or medical office?
O Yes. 3 cuerdas or more
O Yes, commercial establishment or medical office
O No. none of these


H10. If you live in a one-family home which you own or are buying--
What is the value of this property: that is, how much do you think this property (house and land) would sell for if it were for sale? (If land is rented, estimate the value of the land and combine it with the value of the house.
O Less than $500
O $500 to $999
O $1,000 to $1,999
O $2,000 to $2,999
O $3,000 to $4,999
O $5,000 to $7,499
O $7,500 to $9,999
O $10,000 to $14,999
O $15,000 to $19,999
O $20,000 to $29,999
O $30,000 or more


H11. Answer this question if you pay rent for your housing unit.
a. If you pay rent by the month-
What is your monthly rent?
Write the amount here -->___________.00

AND
Fill one circle here
O Less than $10
O $10 to $19
O $20 to $29
O $30 to $39
O $40 to $49
O $50 to $59
O $60 to $69
O $70 to $79
O $80 to $89
O $90 to $99
O $100 to $119
O $120 to $149
O $150 to $199
O $200 or more
b. If you do not pay monthly rent-
What is your rent, and what period of time does it cover?

$________________.00 per ________________________
(Nearest dollar) (Week, half month, year)
.00

FOR CENSUS TAKER'S USE ONLY

a4. Black |a5. Serial
number | number
0 O O O 0 O O O 0
1 O O O 1 O O O 1
2 O O O 2 O O O 2
3 O O O 3 O O O 3
4 O O O 4 O O O 4
5 O O O 5 O O O 5
6 O O O 6 O O O 6
7 O O O 7 O O O 7
8 O O O 8 O O O 8
9 O O O 9 O O O 9

C. Type of housing unit or living quarters

Occupied
O First form
O Continuation

Vacant
O Regular
O Usual residence elsewhere

Group Quarters
O First form
O Continuation


For vacant housing units also answer questions D, E, A, H2 to H7, and H9 to H11.


D. Vacancy status-
Year round
O For rent
O For sale only
O Rented or sold. not occupied
O For occasional use
O Other vacant


E. Months vacant
O Less than 1 month
O From 1 to 2 months
O From 2 to 6 months
O From 6 to 12 months
O From 1 year to 2 years
O 2 years or more


====================================================================
FACSIMILE OF THE 1970 CENSUS QUESTIONNAIRE PAGE SHOWING THE SAMPLE HOUSING QUESTIONS

Ask questions H12 to H14 if housing unit it owned or being bought.

H12. Is the owner of the housing unit also owner of the land or does he rent the land?
O Owner or buying the land
O Pays rent for the land
O Does not pay rent for use of the land

H13. If the land is rented-
What is the monthly rent for the land?
$________________.00
(nearest dollar)

H14. It there a mortgage on this property?
O Yes
O No

Ask question H15 if rented for cash.

H15. In addition to the rent (entered in H11), do you also pay for-

a. Electricity?
O Yes, average monthly cost is $_______________.00
O No, included in rent
O No, electricity not used

b. Gas?
O Yes, average monthly cost is $_______________.00
O No. induded in rent
O No, gas not used

c. Water?
O Yes, yearly cost is $_______________.00
O No. included in rent or no charge

d. Oil, kerosene, charcoal, wood, etc.?
O Yes, yearly cost is $_______________.00
O No, included in rent
O No. these fuels not used

H16. Location and type of toilet
O Flush toilet inside structure
O Flush toilet outside structure, for this household only
O Flush toilet outside structure, also used by another household
O Privy
O No flush toilet or privy

H17. Location of piped water
O Inside structure
O Outside structure, on property
O Outside structure. on street, road, or highway
O No piped water

H18. Does this housing unit have a kitchen sink with piped water?
O Yes
O No

H19. What type of refrigerator do you have?
O Mechanical (electric or gas)
O Ice
O No refrigerator

H20. Type of cooking facilities.
O Range or cookstove
O Portable cooking facilities
O No cooking facilities

H21. Location of cooking facilities.
O In this structure
O In another structure
O Outdoors
O No cooking facilities

H22. Which fuel is used most for cooking?
O Wood
O Charcoal
O Utility gas
O Bottled or tank gas
O Electricity
O Kerosene, fuel oil, etc.
O Other fuel
O No fuel used

H23. How many bedrooms are there in this housing unit?
(Count the rooms used mainly for sleeping even if used for other purposes.)
O No bedrooms
O 1 bedroom
O 2 bedrooms
O 3 bedrooms
O 4 bedrooms
O 5 bedrooms or more

H24. Type of construction.
Masonry walls (poured concrete, concrete blocks, stone, ornamental blocks, etc.)
O With concrete slab roof
O With wood frame roof
Wood frame walls
O With masonry foundation, poured concrete, etc.
O With wood base foundation
O Other type of construction

H25. About when was this structure originally built?
Mark when this structure was constructed for the first time, not when it was remodeled, added to, etc.)
O 1969 or 1970
O 1965 to 1968
O 1960 to 1964
O 1950 to 1959
O 1940 10 1949
O 1939 or earlier

H26. Determine from the Address Register- is this house on a farm?
O Yes, on a farm (Skip to H28)
O No, not on a farm

H27. If not on a farm-
Do you produce any fruits or vegetables or keep any livestock on this place for home consumption?
O Yes
O No

H28. Does this housing unit have electric lighting?
O Yes
O No

H29. What means do you use to obtain water for your housing unit?
O Public system
O Individual well
O Cistern, tanks, or drums
O Irrigation canal
O Spring or other source (river, etc)

H30. Is this structure connected to a public sewer?
O Yes
O No, use septic tank
O No, use other means

H31. Do you have a television set?
(Count sets in working order)
O 1 set
O 2 or more sets
O None

H32a. Do you have a radio? (Include car radio)
O 1 or more
O None (skip to H33)

H32b. Is any of these battery-operated?
O Yes
O No

H33. How many passenger cars are owned or used regularly by members of this household?
O None
O 1 automobile
O 2 or more automobiles

H34. Condition of this housing unit--
Original construction adequate
O Sound
O Deteriorating
O Dilapidated
O Original construction inadequate


====================================================================
FACSIMILE OF THE POPULATION QUESTIONS ON THE 1970 CENSUS QUESTIONNAIRES
(Questions on this page appeared on both the 80-percent and 20-percent questionnaires)
PERSON QUESTIONS

P1. WHAT IS THE NAME OF EACH PERSON who was living here on Wednesday, April 1. 1970 or who was staying or visiting here and had no other home?
Print names in this order:
Head of the household
Wife of head
Unmarried children, oldest first
Married children and their families
Other relatives of the head
Persons not related to the head
Last name ______________________________
First name ______________________________
Middle initial ____


P2. HOW IS EACH PERSON RELATED TO THE HEAD OF THIS HOUSEHOLD?
Fill one circle.
It "Other relative of head," also give exact relationship, for example, mother-in-law, brother, niece, grandson, etc.
It "Other not related to head," also give exact relationship, for example, partner, roomer's wife, maid, boarder's daughter, etc.
O Head of household
O Wife of head
O Son or daughter of head
O Other relatives of head - Print exact relationship _____________________
O Roomer, boarder, lodger
O Patient or inmate
O Other not related to head- Print exact relationship _____________________


P3. SEX
Fill one circle
O Male
O Female


DATE OF BIRTH

P4. Month and year of birth and age last birthday
Print
Month _____ Year _____ Age _____

P5. Month of birth
Fill one circle
O January-March
O April-June
O July-September
O October-December

P6. Yeor of birth
Fill one circle for first three numbers
O 186-
O 187-
O 188-
O 189-
O 190-
O 191-
O 192-
O 193-
O 194-
O 195-
O 196-
O 197-
Fill one circle for last number
O 0
O 1
O 2
O 3
O 4
O 5
O 6
O 7
O 8
O 9

P7. MARITAL STATUS
Is this person now-
O Married?
O Consensually married?
O Widowed?
O Divorced?
O Separated?
O Single?


RESPONDENT INSTRUCTIONS FOR POPULATION QUESTIONS 1 TO 7
Question 1. If you are not sure about whether to list a person,???
Question 2. If two or more unrelated people live together and share the rent, mark the first one you list "Head of the household." Mark the best "Other not related to head" and print "partner" in the space.
A stepchild or legally adopted child of the head should be marked "son or daughter of the head."
Question 4. If the month or year of birth, or the age, is not known give your best answer.
Questions 5, 6. If you are not sure how to fill the circles, look at the examples shown above.
Question 7. ???


====================================================================
FACSIMILE OF THE POPULATION QUESTIONS ON THE 1970 CENSUS QUESTIONNAIRES
(Questions on this page appeared only on the 20-percent questionnaires)

Name of person on line (1) of page 2
Last name ________________________ First name ________________________ Initial ______

P12. Where was this person born?
It born in a hospital, give residence of the mother, not location of hospital
If born in Puerto Rico, mark the circle, or write the name of the monicipio. If born outside of Puerto Rico, give State or territory of tha United States or foreign country.
O This mtinicipio
Other: __________________________________
(Municipio, State, territory, or foreign country)

P13. Where was his father born?
O P.R.
Other: __________________________________
(Municipio, State, territory, or foreign country)

P14. Where was his mother born?
O P.R.
Other: __________________________________
(Municipio, State, territory, or foreign country)

P15. Does this person know how to read and write? (in any language)
O Yes
O No

P16. Can this person speak English?
O Yes
O No

P17. When did this person move into this house (or apartment)?
(Mark circle for date of last move.) .
O 1969 or 1970
O 1968
O 1967
O 1965 or 1966
O 1960 to 1964
O 1950 to 1959
O 1949 or earlier
O Always lived here

P18a. Was this person living here on April 1, 1965?
(If in college or Armed Forces in April 1965, report place of residence there.)

O Born in April 1965 or later (Skip to 19)
O Yes, in this house (Skip to 18c)
O No, in another house.

P18b. Where did he live on April 1, 1965?
OUTSIDE OF PUERTO RICO:
(1)__________________________________
(State, territory, or foreign country)

IN PUERTO RICO:
(2)__________________________________
(Municipio, barrio)

(3) Inside the limits of a city, town or village?
O Yes
O No
(4)__________________________________
(Name of city, town or village)

P18c. During the last 5 years, did he live in the United States at any time for 6 months or more?
O Yes
O No (Skip to 19)

P18d. What year did he return to Puerto Rico last time?
O 1965
O 1966
O 1967
O 1968
O 1969 or 1970

P18e. How long did he live in the United States (the last time)?
O 6 months to one year
O One or two years
O Three or four years
O Five years or more

P18f. When he lived in the United States, was he -
(Mark the appropriate circles)
O Working at a job or business (full or part-time)
O In the Armed Forces
O Attending school or college
O Doing something else (housework, retired, etc.)


P19. Since February 1,1970, has this person attended regular school or college at any time?
O No
O Yes, public school or college
O Yes, parochial school or college
O Yes, other private school


P20. What is the highest grade (or year) of regular school he has ever attended?
(If now attending, mark grade he is in)
O Never attended school (Skip to 22)
O Nursery school
O Kindergarten

Elementary through high school:
O O O O O O O O O O O O
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

College or university (Academic year)
O O O O O O
1 2 3 4 5 6 or more


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FACSIMILE OF THE POPULATION QUESTIONS ON THE 1970 CENSUS QUESTIONNAIRES
(Questions on this page appeared only on the 20-percent questionnaires)

P21. Did he finish the highest grade (or year) he attended?
O Now attending this grade
O Finished this grade
O Did not finish this grade


P22. When was this person born?
O Before April 1956
O Born April 1956 or later (Interview next person)


P23. If this is a girl or woman-
How many babies has she ever had, not counting stillbirths, stepchildren, or adopted children?

O O O O O O O O O O O O 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 or more None


P24. If this person is a man-
Has he at some time served in the Army, Navy, or other Armed Forces of the United States?
O Yes
O No

(Fill the circle for each period of service)
O Vietnam conflict (Since Aug. 1964)
O Korean War (June 1950 to Jan. 1955}
O World War II (Sept. 1940 to July 1947)
O World War 1 (April 1917 to Nov. 1918)
O Any other time


P25a. Has this person ever completed a vocational training program? (For example, in high school; as apprentice; in school of business, nursing, or industrial; technical institute, or Armed Forces schools).
O Yes
O No (Skip to 26)

P25b. What was his main field of training? (Fill one circle)
O Business, office work
O Nursing, other health field
O Trades and crafts (mechanic, electrician, barber, etc.)
O Engineering, draftsman
O Agriculture or home economics
O Other field -
(Specify)__________________________________

P26a. Did, this person work at any time last week? Include part-time work such as a Saturday job, home needlework, or helping without pay in a family business or farm, and active duty in the Armed Forces. Do not include own housework.
O Yes (Continue with 26b)
O No (Skip to 27)

P26b. How many hours did this person work last week? (at all jobs)
O 1 to 14 hours
O 15 to 29 hours
O 30 to 34 hours
O 35 to 39 hours
O 40 hours
O 41 to 48 hours
O 49 to 59 hours
O 60 hours or more

P26c. Where did he work last week? (If he worked at more than one place, indicate the place where he worked most last week.)
(1) Address - Number and street name
__________________________________
(2) Name of city, town, village, etc.
__________________________________
(3) Inside the limits of this city, town, village, etc.?
O Yes
O No
(4) Barrio __________________________________
(5) Municipio __________________________________
(6) Zip code __________________________________

P26d. What means of transportation did he use to get to work? (Mark the most recently used one.)
O Driver, private car
O Taxi
O Passenger, private car
O Walked only
O Bus
O Worked at home
O Public car
O Ferry boat
O Other means
Specify __________________________________


P27. Does this person have a job or business from which he was temporarily absent or on layoff last week?
O Yes, on layoff
O Yes, on vacation, temporary illness, labor dispute, etc.
O No


P28a. Has he been looking for work during the past 4 weeks?
O Yes
O No (Skip to 29)

P28b. Was there any reason why he could not take a job last week?
O Yes, already has a job
O Yes, due to this person's illness
O Yes, for other reasons
O No could have taken a job


P29. When did he last work at all, even for a few days?
O In 1970
O In 1969
O In 1968
O 1964-1967
O 1960-1963
O 1959 or earlier (Skip to 35)
O Never worked (Skip to 35)


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FACSIMILE OF THE POPULATION QUESTIONS ON THE 1970 CENSUS QUESTIONNAIRES
(Questions on this page appeared only on the 20-percent questionnaires)

30-32. Show in questions 30-32 this person's job or business during the last week. If he had no job or business last week, give information for most recent job or business since 1960.


P30a. For whom did he work?
______________________________________________
(Name of company, buiinea. organization, or other employer)

O Now serving in the Armed Forces (Skip to 33)

P30b. What kind of business or industry was this?
______________________________________________
(For example: Junior high school, retail supermarket. TV and radio service, dairy farm, sugar mill, etc)

P30c. Is this business or industry mainly -
O Manufacturing
O Wholesale trade
O Retail trade
O Other (agriculture, construction, government, service, etc.)


P31a. What kind of work was he doing?
______________________________________________
(For example: TV repairman, seamstress, civil engineer. farm operator, junior high school English teacher, etc.)

P31b. What were the most important activities or duties?
______________________________________________
(For example: Types, keeps account books, filing, selling cars, janitor, bricklayer, etc.)


P32. Class of worker: Mark from the information in 30-31. or ask if not clear.
O Employee of private company, business, or individual. for wages, salary, or commissions
O Employee of Federal government
O Employee of Commonwealth government
O Employee of municipal qovernment
Self-employed, in own business, farm, etc?
O Own business not incorporated
O Own business incorporated
O Work without pay in a family business or farm


P33a. During last year (1969), did this person work at all, even for a few days?
O Yes
O No (Skip to 35)

P33b. How many weeks did he work in 1969, either full-time or part-time?
(Count paid vacation, paid sick leave, and military service.)
O 13 weeks or less
O 14 to 26 weeks
O 27 to 39 weeks
O 40 to 47 weeks
O 48 to 49 weeks
O 50 to 52 weeks


P34a. How much did this person earn during 1969 in wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs?
(Before deductions for taxes, etc)
$__________________.00
(Nearest dollar)

O None

P34b. How much did he earn in 1969 from his own business. professional practice, or partnership?
(Net amount after Operating expenses.)
$__________________.00
(Nearest dollar)

O None

P34c. How much did he earn in 1969 from-his own farm?
(Net amount after operating expenses.)
$__________________.00
(Nearest dollar)

O None

P35a. How much did this person-receive in 1969 from Social Security or retirement?
$__________________.00
(Nearest dollar)

O None

P35b. How much money did he receive in 1969 from public assistance or welfare payments?
(Include aid to minors. old age assistance, general assistance, aid to the blind or totally disabled. Exclude separate payments for hospital or other medical care.)
$__________________.00
(Nearest dollar)

O None

P35c. How much did he receive in 1969 from other sources?
(Include interests, dividends, veterans' payments, pensions and other regular payments.)
$__________________.00
(Nearest dollar)

O None

Figure 1. 1970 Census Questionnaire








Table 1 provides a summarized comparison of the 1970 census items with the 1960 content. That the 1970 items do not differ strikingly from 1960 is not surprising. Although many new items were proposed, the dominant tone through most discussions of improvement of the 1970 product by users was for a greater exploitation of the existing (1960) items by more intensive cross-tabulation and by providing additional data for small areas. Thus, while a number of new items have been added on a sample basis (primarily to meet the program needs of Federal agencies), the subject needs which the decennial census serve have not changed greatly during the decade.

The stability of the census items stems from a desire to develop historical continuity in data series. This continuity is sometimes lost, however, and should be examined carefully on a case-by-case basis. A question asked for one census may not be asked for the next because it no longer yields useful data, or it is no longer important in most localities, or it may yield unreliable data. For example, the 1960 item on structural condition was dropped because it was based on a subjective rating made by the enumerators, which post-census evaluation studies found in many cases to be unreliable and inaccurate.

Table 1: 1970 Census Items Compared With 1960 Content
Population Items Complete-count or sample percentage
1960 1970
Relationship to head of household 100 100
Color or race 100 100
Age (month and year of birth) 100 100
Sex 100 100
Marital Status 100 100
State or country of birth 25 20
Years of school completed 25 20
Number of children ever born 25 20
Activity 5 years ago - 20
Employment Status 25 20
Hours worked last week 25 20
Weeks worked last year 25 20
Last year in which worked 25 20
Occupation, industry, and class of worker 25 20
Income last year:    
  Wage and salary income 25 20
  Self-employment income 25 120
  Other income 25 220
Country of birth of parents 25 15
Mother tongue 25 15
Year moved into this house 25 15
Place of residence 5 years ago 25 315
School or college enrollment (public or private ) 25 15
Veteran status 25 15
Place of work 25 415
Means of transportation to work 25 15
Mexican or Spanish origin or descent - 5
Citizenship - 5
Year of immigration - 5
Marital history 25 55
Vocational training completed - 5
Presence and duration of disability - 5
Occupation-industry 5 years ago - 5


Table 1: 1970 Census Items Compared With 1960 Content--Continued
Housing Items Complete-count or sample percentage
1960 1970
Number of units at this address - 6100
Telephone available 25 7100
Access to unit 100 100
Kitchen or cooking facilities 100 -
Complete kitchen facilities - 100
Condition of housing unit 100 -
Rooms 100 100
Water supply 100 100
Flush toilet 100 100
Bathtub or shower 100 100
Basement 20 100
Tenure 100 100
Commercial establishment on property 8100 100
Value 8100 100
Contract rent 8100 100
Vacancy status 100 100
Months vacant 25 100
Heating equipment 25 20
Components of gross rent 25 20
Year structure built 25 20
Number of units in structure and whether a trailer 20 20
Farm residence (acreage and sales of farm products) 925 20
Land used for farming 1025 -
Source of water 920 15
Sewage disposal 920 15
Bathrooms 20 15
Air conditioning 5 15
Automobiles 1120 15
Stories, elevator in structure 1220 5
Fuel--heating, cooking, water heating 5 5
Bedrooms 5 5
Clothes washing machine 5 5
Clothes dryer 5 5
Dishwasher - 5
Home food freezer 5 5
Television 5 5
Radio 5 5
Second home - 5


Footnotes
1Single item in 1960; two-way separation in 1970 by farm and nonfarm income.
2Single item in 1960: three-way separation in 1970 by social security public assistance, and all other receipts.
3This item is also in the 5-percent sample but limited to state of residence 5 years ago.
4 Street address included for 1970.
5 In 1960, whether married more than once and date of first marriage; in 1970 also includes whether first marriage ended by death of spouse.
6Collected primarily for coverage check purposes.
7Required on 100-percent basis for field follow-up purposes in mail areas.
8100-precent in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants, 25-percent elsewhere.
9Omitted in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants.
10For renter-occupied and vacant-for-rent units outside places of 50,000 or more inhabitants.
1120-percent in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants, 5-percent elsewhere.
12Collected only in places of 50,000 or more inhabitants.


Sampling
People
Only five questions are asked of all individuals. The complete count or 100-percent items on relationship to household head, sex, race, age, and marital status permit an accurate count of persons in each area as required by the Constitution to determine representation in Congress. These facts about a person together with his name and address are used to establish his identity and insure against double counting. However, the basic record tapes and summary tapes do not contain names or addresses, because these items are never used in Census Bureau tabulations. The complete-count tabulations provide only totals and cross-tabulations of the five items listed above.

All other information concerning individuals is obtained from questions asked of only a sample of the population. Sampling permits the collection of data about an area which reflect the characteristics of all persons in the area even though only a small number of individuals were actually questioned. This process allows the data to be obtained at a much lower cost. The sample cases are weighted to reflect the sampling percentages. For example, in a tabulation based on the 20-percent sample, the average case will have a weight of 5, that is, all figures are multiplied by approximately 5 so the final results will provide estimates for all people in an area. Thus, if the sample indicated that 51 families have an income between $5,000 and $6,000, and that 40 families have an income between $7,000 and $8,000, tabulations for that area would show that there are 255 families which have an income between $5,000 and $6,000, and 200 families which have an income between $7,000 and $8,000. This aspect of sample tabulations makes identification of particular individuals impossible. As an additional protection, the sampling procedures used a random start to select those households which were asked to answer the sample questions.

There was a 15-percent and a 5-percent sample in the 1970 census, and certain questions common to both samples resulted in a 20-percent sample (see Table 1). Whether a question was asked of everyone or of a sample of people depends in part on the size of the area for which statistics are to be tabulated and published. Information required for apportionment purposes and that which is to be tabulated for city blocks was collected on a 100-percent basis; that which is to be tabulated for larger areas, the smallest being a census tract, was asked on a 15 or 20 percent sample basis. The 5-percent sample will provide reliable data for all large counties, and States. Although the average census tract has a population of about 4000 persons, tracts having a population of as few as 1000 persons are not unusual. A tract with just 1000 inhabitants would be expected to have perhaps 300 households (and household heads). For a 5-percent sample this would mean 15 households, of which 10 might be owner-occupied and 5 renter-occupied. When combined for larger areas, such as an entire SMSA, 5 percent data could be expected to be fairly reliable. However, it should be noted that 5-percent sample data for census tracts, available on census summary tapes, can be used for statistical analysis only with great caution.

Housing units
The basic unit in census sampling is the housing unit. Therefore, the sample percentages (20, 15, and 5) are the same for housing units as for people. For example, in a household where each person answers 15-percent sample population questions, 15-percent sample housing data is also obtained. There are more complete-count housing unit questions (15) than population questions because of the need for housing data on a city block basis where a sample would not be reliable because of the small number of cases. These block data are essential to public and private housing programs, renewal, city planning, and other work related to the physical characteristics of our environment.

Group quarters
In addition to the private living quarters or housing units, there are other living arrangements known as group quarters, Group quarters are institutions such as mental hospitals, homes for the aged, prisons, dormitories, military barracks, or any house or apartment with five or more occupants unrelated to the head of household. The population questions are asked either on a complete-count or a sample basis as explained above; however, no housing information is collected.

Geographic Preparation
Geographic identification is crucial to every stage in the taking and processing the decennial census. Census tabulations are always prepared in terms of specific geographic area--whether the entire United States or a city block. Geographic areas also provide the basis of administrative control in taking the census in the field and in processing the returned questionnaires.

The Bureau engages in substantial geographic work preparatory to the census such as determining boundaries, mapping, and geographic coding. These activities result in geographic products -- maps, code schemes, etc. -- which are of value to users as well as the Bureau. These activities also determine which areas will be recognized in general census tabulations and which areas will require special procedures to produce data summaries. (See section on Data Products and Services.)

Boundary definitions
The Bureau of the Census is not responsible for establishing the boundaries of most geographic areas for which it generally tabulates data. Political boundaries for States, counties, minor civil divisions, cities, and wards are established by appropriate authorities. In a number of States, however, the minor civil divisions (MCDs) are not satisfactory units for reporting statistics because they no longer serve any local administrative purpose (e. g., townships in Oklahoma), or are unsuitably small (e.g., some Georgia militia districts), or they have frequently shifting boundaries (e. g., election precincts in Washington and Oregon). To provide divisions with stable and meaningful boundaries in these States, the Bureau established, in cooperation with State and local groups, census county divisions (CCDs) as permanent statistical areas.

The Bureau also defines and delineates densely populated but unincorporated population centers. Data is tabulated for those unincorporated places with a population of 1000 or more inhabitants. Within urbanized areas, only those unincorporated places with a population of 5,000 or more are identified.

Statistical boundaries are determined by groups with special interests, often with the advice and assistance of the Bureau of the Census. The Bureau of the Budget, with the help of other Federal agencies, is responsible for defining standard metropolitan statistical areas. Local census tract committees determine tract boundaries. Several kinds of economic regions have been set up by specialists in regional economics.

Functional or administrative boundaries are established by the appropriate agencies. The Post Office defines ZIP code coverage, police departments define police precincts, marketing departments and firms draw sales territories, and so on. (With the exception of ZIP codes, census tabulations do not recognize these kinds of areas; however, special tabulations may be feasible on a contract basis.) For purposes of taking the census, the Bureau itself defines an administrative area known as an enumeration district (ED), which represents a work assignment for a single enumerator. An ED may range in size from a city block to several hundred square miles, but usually encompasses from 750 to 1,500 persons.

Boundary changes
A general problem for the Bureau in all its geographic work (and to users interested in historical analysis) is that boundaries change over time. Geographic areas of all sizes are affected.

While State and county boundaries remain relatively unchanged, MCD or CCD boundaries are altered by incorporation of new places or annexations to existing ones and in other ways. Records of such changes are kept by the Bureau and extensive footnotes on the changes that have occurred since the previous census are provided in the first series of population reports (PC(1)-A).

Census tracts are designed to permit comparison from census to census. However, changes in their boundaries do occur. Tracts are often subdivided because of an increase in population, tract boundaries which follow corporate limits may change with shifts in these limits, and boundaries can change with alterations to the street pattern. Comparability tables are prepared to aid users in recognizing changes in these boundaries. The tables are available with each printed tract report.

Because enumeration districts are created for administrative purposes and are based on population size, their boundaries are generally not comparable from census to census. Comparability is usually only possible where block data are available to aggregate to the earlier ED boundaries.
The point to be recognized is that a user wishing to compare areas at two points in time should design a plan permitting adjustments necessary to produce comparability.

Boundary identification and coding
Maps provide a means of showing the location of various types of geographic and political boundaries. The Bureau, working with the best sources available, prepares maps defining the boundaries of the areas recognized in the general tabulations: States, counties, standard metropolitan statistical areas, minor civil divisions, places, tracts, blocks, and other areas, such as wards.

For purposes of identifying the data for each of the geographic areas, the basic data record for each individual housing unit contains a series of codes, one code for each level in the geographic hierarchy down to the enumeration district or block in areas where block data are to be produced. These code numbers are derived from the maps and a geographic coding scheme prepared by the Bureau. The basic record tape (BRT) is put through a tallying program which aggregates each data item into totals for specified geographic areas using the identification codes as keys to the desired areas.

The geographic codes and associated place names (where relevant) for each political and statistical subdivision of the United States for which data will be tabulated will be contained in the 1970 Master Enumeration District List (MEDList). The MEDList will be an expanded version of the 1960 Geographic Identification Code Scheme and will be available either on tape or in printed form. A detailed description of the MEDList is found in the section on Data Products and Services.

Sources of geographic error and their correction
None of the mapping can be any better than the geographic material on which it is based. The Bureau obtains the best source maps it can locate in preparing its own maps. Local cooperation is sought to ensure accuracy; nevertheless, errors may be present in the final product.

These maps were one of the sources used in preparing the Address Coding Guide (ACG) for those areas to be covered by a mail-out/mail-back enumeration process (see below). Conflicts between the areal definition of the maps and the residential listings were resolved with local cooperation at this stage also.

At the time the census was taken, errors in the geographic descriptions were exposed. A record of geographic changes is kept to facilitate correction of the maps. Users depending on these maps for determination of user-defined small geographic areas should work with the postcensus versions of these maps.

Collecting the Data
In 145 of the larger SMSAs and some rural test counties (altogether including about 60 percent of the total U. S. population), householders were asked to fill in questionnaires and return them by mail to the local census field office (see Figure 2). Enumerators obtained the necessary information from households that either did not respond or returned incomplete questionnaires. For the balance of the country, the traditional house-to-house canvass was used, supplemented (as in 1960) by the distribution to all households shortly before Census Day of a questionnaire containing the 100-percent population and housing questions.

The major steps in the mail-out/mail-back system are as follows: Over a span of approximately 6 months in 1969, about 40 million individual address labels were printed out from a computer tape containing city-type residential addresses--the Address Register, (These addresses were derived from a commercial mailing list.) The labels contained apartment designation (in multiunit structures), house number, street name, city, and ZIP code; however, they did not contain the name of the householder. Each label was affixed to a card, and the cards were turned over to the Post Office Department for transmittal to their respective letter carriers. Each carrier checked his cards for completeness and accuracy, i.e., nonexistent addresses were marked for deletion, incorrect addresses were corrected, and addresses for which the carrier had not been given a card were listed for addition to the Address Register cards. Lists then were returned to the Census Bureau and the necessary revisions were made to the computer tape.

The corrected tape was then processed through an Address Coding Guide so that each address could be assigned the appropriate geographic identification codes, e.g., tract, block, ward, city, county, etc. (See previous section.) Finally, the addresses were identified by the Census field control codes for district office, enumeration district (ED), and serial number within ED; and each address was designated through a random-start serialization technique to receive one of the three types of questionnaires. The three types were (1) the short form which contained the 100-percent items and went to 80 out of every 100 housing units; (2) the 15-percent long form which contained the 5-percent long form which contained the 100, 20, and 5-percent items and went to 5 out of every 100 housing units.



From this corrected, geographically identified, field-coded, and sample-designated set of addresses, two primary sets of materials were printed. One was the individual address labels, which were affixed to the mailing pieces. Each mailing piece contained the appropriate type of questionnaire, an instruction booklet, and a return envelope. The second was a listing (or Address Register) of all the addresses in a particular ED which was used for control purposes.

Because addresses are, in a sense, individual information, the Address Registers will not be released to the public. The Address Coding Guides (ACG), however, are simply a record of address ranges for each blockface together with codes corresponding to the geographic areas of which a particular blockface is a part; block, tract, ward, 5-digit ZIP, congressional district, place, MCD or CCD, county or county equivalent, and State. The ACG in no way presents individual information. Therefore, ACG copies are available. (See section on Data Products and Services for further information).

This process did not cover the entire SMSA, but only the portion which received city delivery service from the Post Office Department. For the balance of the SMSA, temporary Census employees performed a special listing operation in late 1969 or early 1970. The listing procedure involved the location of each housing unit within an assigned enumeration district and the determination of its mailing address. The mail address for each housing unit (whether a city delivery type such as 121 Main Street or a rural delivery type such as Box 210, RFD #2) together with the name of the household head were recorded onto an Address Register listing sheet. Block numbers were also recorded if they appeared on the maps of the enumeration district.

The Address Registers which were developed in this manner were then used to prepare hand-addressed mailing pieces comparable to the computer generated ones discussed above.

About March 15, 1970, all mailing pieces were transmitted to local post offices. The carriers sorted the mailing pieces to recheck whether any residential address had been omitted. The missing addresses were sent to the appropriate local Census office where they were added to the Address Registers, and mailing pieces were prepared. About four days before Census Day--Wednesday, April 1, 1970--all the mailing pieces were delivered. During the delivery process, the carriers made a final check for missing addresses and informed the Census office accordingly.

Householders were requested to fill out and mail back their questionnaires on Census Day. This request was reinforced by a widespread publicity campaign.

Within a few days after Census Day, check in and review of the mail returns began. Incomplete questionnaires and nonresponse cases were followed up. The goal of the operation was to have a complete questionnaire for each address on the register, or an explanation on the register of why a listed address was not included in the census (e. g., it was really part of another housing unit, or it was not a residential address despite the letter carriers belief ).

The mail-out/mail-back system was developed after many years of study and field testing. The procedures developed for the 1970 census were successfully tested under as near census conditions as possible in 1968 in dress rehearsals in Dane County, Wisconsin and Trenton, New Jersey. The primary purposes of a mail census are to improve coverage, to improve the data from respondents, and to reduce the number of enumerators needed for the census. On the first point, by bringing the letter carriers knowledge of his delivery area into the census process and by the repeated checks which this system makes feasible, improvement in coverage was evidenced. In the test areas, the postal check virtually eliminated that portion of the under-enumeration which results from an enumerator skipping an entire structure and its residents. Mail enumeration gives each respondent a chance to answer questions for himself at his own speed and to check his records if necessary, thus assuring privacy and increasing the likelihood of accuracy. The mail census system also permits the Census Bureau to concentrate effort on hard-to-enumerate areas by reducing demands on employee's time in areas where cooperation in mailing back questionnaires is high.

With regard to reducing the total number of enumerators, the mail approach permitted a reduction in the number of field workers who would have been needed for a house-to-house canvass of the areas where the mail system was used. The reduction eased to some extent the intense problems of staff recruitment and retention in the large cities, and sped up the completion of the enumeration process.

Problems in acquiring a mailing list and in locating the addresses on the list to a particular physical area--Box 283, RFD #1, for example--dictated that the country's more rural areas be excluded from the mail enumeration system at this time. Certain tests however, were carried on during the 1970 operation to help determine whether the scope of the mail system could be extended in future censuses.

In the nonmail areas, a technique much like the 1960 single stage approach was used. Several days before Census Day, letter carriers left at every housing unit an unaddressed short form questionnaire identical in content with the one used in mail areas. This questionnaire was similar to the Advance Census Report of 1960, except that the 1970 form was a FOSDIC document and used for final processing, whereas in 1960 the information was transcribed by the enumerator into a FOSDIC book, ( FOSDIC stands for Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers, an optical scanning device which is capable of reading information from a microfilm copy of an appropriately designed and marked questionnaire and transferring the data to magnetic tape for processing on electronic computers. ) The purpose of this advance distribution was to obtain the advantages of self-enumeration for the 100-percent items. At every fifth unit, the 1970 enumerator completed the same long-form (15- or 5-percent) questionnaire as was used in mail areas.

Processing the Data
Figure 3 provides a greatly simplified diagram of the 1970 census data processing steps. The complete-count data handled separately from the sample data in the processing operations. Although both types of data undergo similar steps, the complete-count data are prepared on a priority time schedule while the sample data require a time-consuming hand-coding operation.

The questionnaires were specially designed for optical scanning by FOSDIC. Questions were answered by blackening in a limited number of circles. In preparation for processing, a breaker sheet, a geographic identification page in FOSDIC readable form, is prepared and placed at the beginning of each enumeration district grouping of questionnaires. Because the complete-count items do not require hand-coding, the short form together with the 100- percent portion of the sample questionnaires can be microfilmed for FOSDIC processing with a minimum of handling.

Several of the sample questions, such as those on income, occupation, and place-of-work have many possible answers, so the answers were hand-written. Because FOSDIC can read only darkened circles, a Bureau coder determines a code for each hand-written entry and then fills the appropriate circles. Therefore, after the 100-percent entries are accepted, the sample questionnaires are separated from the 100-percent forms and sent to the coding sections. After coding, the sample forms are microfilmed in their entirety for FOSDIC. When the microfilming is completed, the original questionnaires are destroyed, and the microfilm will ultimately be stored under security conditions in Pittsburg, Kansas.

The new FOSDIC machine (called FOSDIC-70 for the 1970 census) scans the microfilm, noted in each section the position of the darkened circles (light spots on the film negative), and converts these marks to bit patterns on magnetic tape. FOSDIC is also equipped with internal memory and programming capacity and performs some preliminary consistency checks and edits on the tape. The tape then will carry the information in a form that can be read and manipulated by electronic computers.

Instructions for the operations carried out by the computer are given in programs prepared for each major operation which are fed into the computer with the data from the census. Controlled by the stored program, the computer processes the data for each person (as coded by FOSDIC) through the editing, tallying, and cross-tabulating. An edit program checks the information on each record to determine whether any items are inconsistent or missing. For example, a record for a person identified as the wife of a household head but with a marital status of single is automatically changed to a marital status of now married.

Some missing information will be supplied by allocation. The allocation procedure begins with a set of items stored in the computer. Substitutions are then made for missing items using the most recent record processed containing the item. The stored information is then used to make allocations for missing data items. For example, in processing the 100-percent data, the stored information has an entry of age 25 for a male, white, head of household, with wife present. As another record with this set of characteristics comes through the computer with age reported as 26, the new age is substituted in the stored information for the original entry of 25. Now, if another record comes through for a person with the same characteristics but with age missing, the age of 26 is allocated to this individual. This procedure insures that the distribution of ages assigned by the computer for persons of a given set of characteristics will correspond closely to the reported age distribution of such persons in the current census.

Figure 3. The Processing of the 1970 Census Data Products

This is necessarily a simplified presentation. Dashed lines indicate separate processing operations.

The sample data are then processed through a sample weighting procedure in addition to the above processing. The goal of this procedure is to arrive at weights (multipliers) which, when applied to the sample respondents in a given small area, would match certain complete-count characteristics of that small area. In the 20-percent sample, for instance, a number close to 5 is found, which would produce an inflated population from the sample items that would be the same as the observed population in total and with respect to race, sex, age, family size, and housing characteristics. (See section on Sampling)

Edited data about individuals, together with associated geographic information, are contained on computer tapes known as the basic record tapes (BRTs). All complete-count and sample tabulations are made from these tapes. Because the BRTs contain information about individuals, they are confidential and may be tabulated for statistical purposes only by Census Bureau employees. Names and addresses of persons do not appear on the BRTs because there is no need for this information in statistical data summaries.

Data summaries are prepared on computer tapes from the BRTs for each of the geographic areas--blocks, tracts, places, counties, etc. The tapes containing these area tabulations are called census summary tapes. Summary tapes in turn are used to prepare more limited sets of tabulations which appear in the printed reports, complete with table headings, footnotes, etc. Some tabulations contained on the summary tapes and in the printed reports will also be released on microfilm. Other special tabulations of the basic record tapes may be prepared at user request and expense. (See section on Data Products and Services.)

All tabulations--general and special--pass through a variety of releasability analyses as they are prepared for delivery to the user. These analyses take many forms but their basic objective is to insure that no confidential data are released and that all data delivered are properly tabulated.

References
Richard C. Burt, How the Census Data Will be Collected, Final 1970 Census Plans, U.S. Bureau of the Census, GE 40, No. 6, pp. 3-7.
Morris Gorinson, How the Census Data Will be Processed, Final 1970 Census Plans, U.S. Bureau of the Census, GE 40, No. 6, pp. 8-11.
David Kaplan, Plans for the 1970 Census of Population and Housing, Demography (February 1970), pp. 1-18.
Masey Volk, Automated Input for the 1970 Census, The Journal of Micrographics (Winter 1969-70) pp. 57-62.
Emily T. White, ed., Controlling Federal Government Questionnaires, Statistical Reporter (July 1968), pp. 1-7.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Data Access Description, CEP- 1 Rev, (February 1970), Items Contained in the 1970 Census of Population and Housing.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Data Access Description, CG- 1 (December 1969), 1970 Census Geography.