The data on age were derived from answers to questionnaire item 5, which was asked of all persons. The age classification is based on the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 1990. The age response in question 5a was normally used to represent a person's age. However, when the age response was unacceptable or unavailable, a person's age was derived from an acceptable year of birth response in question 5b.
Data on age are used to determine the applicability of other questions for a person and to classify other characteristics in census tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and examine many programs and policies. Therefore, age is tabulated by single years of age and by many different groupings, such as 5-year age groups.
Some tabulations are shown by the age of the householder. These data were derived from the age responses for each householder. (For more information on householder, see the discussion under "Household Type and Relationship.")
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Generally, median age is computed on the basis of more detailed age intervals than are shown in some census publications; thus, a median based on a less detailed distribution may differ slightly from a corresponding median for the same population based on a more detailed distribution. (For more information on medians, see the discussion under "Derived Measures.")
Counts in 1970 and 1980 for persons 100 years old and over were substantially overstated. Improvements were made in the questionnaire design, in the allocation procedures, and to the respondent instruction guide to attempt to minimize this problem in 1990.
Review of detailed 1990 information indicated that respondents tended to provide their age as of the date of completion of the questionnaire, not their age as of April 1, 1990. In addition, there may have been a tendency for respondents to round their age up if they were close to having a birthday. It is likely that approximately 10 percent of persons in most age groups are actually 1 year younger. For most single years of age, the misstatements are largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age 0 because persons lost to age 1 may not have been fully offset by the inclusion of babies born after April 1, 1990 and because there may have been more rounding up to age 1 to avoid reporting age as 0 years. (Age in completed months was not collected for infants under age 1.)
The reporting of age 1 year older than age on April 1, 1990 is likely to have been greater in areas where the census data were collected later in 1990. The magnitude of this problem was much less in the three previous censuses where age was typically derived from respondent data on year of birth and quarter of birth. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the section below that discusses "Comparability.")
Age data have been collected in every census. For the first time since 1950, the 1990 data are not available by quarter year of age. This change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth. In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, persons of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as "imputation." The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see Appendix C, Accuracy of the Data.)
All persons not living in households are classified by the Census Bureau as living in group quarters. Two general categories of persons in group quarters are recognized: (1) institutionalized persons and (2) other persons in group quarters (also referred to as "noninstitutional group quarters").
Includes persons under formally authorized, supervised care or custody in institutions at the time of enumeration. Such persons are classified as "patients or inmates" of an institution regardless of the availability of nursing or medical care, the length of stay, or the number of persons in the institution. Generally, institutionalized persons are restricted to the institutional buildings and grounds (or must have passes or escorts to leave) and thus have limited interaction with the surrounding community. Also, they are generally under the care of trained staff who have responsibility for their safekeeping and supervision.
The type of institution was determined as part of census enumeration activities. For institutions which specialize in only one specific type of service, all patients or inmates were given the same classification. For institutions which had multiple types of major services (usually general hospitals and Veterans' Administration hospitals), patients were classified according to selected types of wards. For example, in psychiatric wards of hospitals, patients were classified in "mental (psychiatric) hospitals"; in hospital wards for persons with chronic diseases, patients were classified in "hospitals for the chronically ill." Each patient or inmate was classified in only one type of institution. Institutions include the following types:
Includes prisons, federal detention centers, military stockades and jails, police lockups, halfway houses, local jails, and other confinement facilities, including work farms.
Where persons convicted of crimes serve their sentences. In some census products, the prisons are classified by two types of control: (1) "Federal" (operated by the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice) and (2) "State." Residents who are criminally insane were classified on the basis of where they resided at the time of enumeration: (1) in institutions (or hospital wards) operated by departments of correction or similar agencies; or (2) in institutions operated by departments of mental health or similar agencies.
Federal Detention Centers
Operated by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and the Bureau of Prisons. These facilities include detention centers used by the Park Police; Bureau of Indian Affairs Detention Centers; INS Centers, such as the INS Federal Alien Detention Facility; INS Processing Centers; and INS Contract Detention Centers used to detain aliens under exclusion or deportation proceedings, as well as those aliens who have not been placed into proceedings, such as custodial required departures; and INS Detention Centers operated within local jails, and State and Federal prisons.
Military Stockades, Jails
Operated by military police and used to hold persons awaiting trial or convicted of violating military laws. Local Jails and Other Confinement Facilities--Includes facilities operated by counties and cities that primarily hold persons beyond arraignment, usually for more than 48 hours. Also included in this category are work farms used to hold persons awaiting trial or serving time on relatively short sentences and jails run by private businesses under contract for local governments (but not by State governments).
Temporary-holding facilities operated by county and city police that hold persons for 48 hours or less only if they have not been formally charged in court.
Operated for correctional purposes and include probation and restitution centers, pre-release centers, and community-residential centers.
Other Types of Correctional Institutions
Privately operated correctional facilities and correctional facilities specifically for alcohol/drug abuse.
Comprises a heterogeneous group of places. The majority of patients are elderly, although persons who require nursing care because of chronic physical conditions may be found in these homes regardless of their age. Included in this category are skilled-nursing facilities, intermediate-care facilities, long-term care rooms in wards or buildings on the grounds of hospitals, or long-term care rooms/nursing wings in congregate housing facilities. Also included are nursing, convalescent, and rest homes, such as soldiers', sailors', veterans', and fraternal or religious homes for the aged, with or without nursing care. In some census products, nursing homes are classified by type of ownership as "Federal," "State," "Private not-for-profit," and "Private for profit."
Mental (Psychiatric) Hospitals
Includes hospitals or wards for the criminally insane not operated by a prison, and psychiatric wards of general hospitals and veterans' hospitals. Patients receive supervised medical/nursing care from formally-trained staff. In some census products, mental hospitals are classified by type of ownership as "Federal," "State or local," "Private," and "Ownership not known."
Hospitals for Chronically Ill
Includes hospitals for patients who require long-term care, including those in military hospitals and wards for the chronically ill located on military bases; or other hospitals or wards for the chronically ill, which include tuberculosis hospitals or wards, wards in general and Veterans' Administration hospitals for the chronically ill, neurological wards, hospices, wards for patients with Hansen's Disease (leprosy) and other incurable diseases, and other unspecified wards for the chronically ill. Patients who had no usual home elsewhere were enumerated as part of the institutional population in the wards of general and military hospitals. Most hospital patients are at the hospital temporarily and were enumerated at their usual place of residence. (For more information, see "Wards in General and Military Hospitals for Patients Who Have No Usual Home Elsewhere.")
Schools, Hospitals, or Wards for the Mentally Retarded
Includes those institutions such as wards in hospitals for the mentally retarded, and intermediate-care facilities for the mentally retarded that provide supervised medical/nursing care from formally-trained staff. In some census products, this category is classified by type of ownership as "Federal," "State or local," "Private," and "Ownership not known."
Schools, Hospitals, or Wards for the Physically Handicapped
Includes three types of institutions: institutions for the blind, those for the deaf, and orthopedic wards and institutions for the physically handicapped. Institutions for persons with speech problems are classified with "institutions for the deaf." The category "orthopedic wards and institutions for the physically handicapped" includes those institutions providing relatively long-term care to accident victims, and to persons with polio, cerebral palsy, and muscular dystrophy. In some census products, this category is classified by type of ownership as "Public," "Private," and "Ownership not known."
Hospitals, and Wards for Drug/Alcohol Abuse
Includes hospitals, and hospital wards in psychiatric and general hospitals. These facilities are equipped medically and designed for the diagnosis and treatment of medical or psychiatric illnesses associated with alcohol or drug abuse. Patients receive supervised medical care from formally-trained staff. Wards in General and Military Hospitals for Patients Who Have No Usual Home Elsewhere--Includes maternity, neonatal, pediatric (including wards for boarder babies), military, and surgical wards of hospitals, and wards for infectious diseases.
Includes homes, schools, and other institutions providing care for children (short- or long-term care). Juvenile institutions include the following types:
Homes for Abused, Dependent, and Neglected Children
Includes orphanages and other institutions which provide long-term care (usually more than 30 days) for children. This category is classified in some census products by type of ownership as "Public" and "Private."
Residential Treatment Centers
Includes those institutions which primarily serve children who, by clinical diagnosis, are moderately or seriously disturbed emotionally. Also, these institutions provide long-term treatment services, usually supervised or directed by a psychiatrist.
Training Schools for Juvenile Delinquents
Includes residential training schools or homes, and industrial schools, camps, or farms for juvenile delinquents.
Public Training Schools for Juvenile Delinquents
Usually operated by a State agency (for example, department of welfare, corrections, or a youth authority). Some are operated by county and city governments. These public training schools are specialized institutions serving delinquent children, generally between the ages of 10 and 17 years old, all of whom are committed by the courts.
Operated under private auspices. Some of the children they serve are committed by the courts as delinquents. Others are referred by parents or social agencies because of delinquent behavior. One difference between private and public training schools is that, by their administrative policy, private schools have control over their selection and intake.
Includes institutions providing short-term care (usually 30 days or less) primarily for delinquent children pending disposition of their cases by a court. This category also covers diagnostic centers. In practice, such institutions may be caring for both delinquent and neglected children pending court disposition.
Other Persons in Group Quarters (also referred to as "noninstitutional group quarters")
Includes all persons who live in group quarters other than institutions. Persons who live in the following living quarters are classified as "other persons in group quarters" when there are 10 or more unrelated persons living in the unit; otherwise, these living quarters are classified as housing units.
Includes persons residing in rooming and boarding houses and living in quarters with 10 or more unrelated persons.
Includes "community-based homes" that provide care and supportive services. Such places include homes for the mentally ill, mentally retarded, and physically handicapped; drug/alcohol halfway houses; communes; and maternity homes for unwed mothers.
Homes for the Mentally Ill
Includes community-based homes that provide care primarily for the mentally ill. In some data products, this category is classified by type of ownership as "Federal," "State," "Private," and "Ownership not known." Homes which combine treatment of the physically handicapped with treatment of the mentally ill are counted as homes for the mentally ill.
Homes for the Mentally Retarded
Includes community-based homes that provide care primarily for the mentally retarded. Homes which combine treatment of the physically handicapped with treatment of the mentally retarded are counted as homes for the mentally retarded. This category is classified by type of ownership in some census products, as "Federal," "State," "Private," or "Ownership not known."
Homes for the Physically Handicapped
Includes community-based homes for the blind, for the deaf, and other community-based homes for the physically handicapped. Persons with speech problems are classified with homes for the deaf. In some census products, this category is classified by type of ownership as "Public," "Private," or "Ownership not known."
Homes or Halfway Houses for Drug/Alcohol Abuse
Includes persons with no usual home elsewhere in places that provide community-based care and supportive services to persons suffering from a drug/alcohol addiction and to recovering alcoholics and drug abusers. Places providing community-based care for drug and alcohol abusers include group homes, detoxification centers, quarter-way houses (residential treatment facilities that work closely with accredited hospitals), halfway houses, and recovery homes for ambulatory, mentally competent recovering alcoholics and drug abusers who may be re-entering the work force.
Maternity Homes for Unwed Mothers
Includes persons with no usual home elsewhere in places that provide domestic care for unwed mothers and their children. These homes may provide social services and post-natal care within the facility, or may make arrangements for women to receive such services in the community. Nursing services are usually available in the facility.
Includes persons with no usual home elsewhere in communes, foster care homes, and job corps centers with 10 or more unrelated persons. These types of places provide communal living quarters, generally for persons who have formed their own community in which they have common interests and often share or own property jointly.
Includes, primarily, group quarters for nuns teaching in parochial schools and for priests living in rectories. It also includes other convents and monasteries, except those associated with a general hospital or an institution.
College Quarters Off Campus
Includes privately-owned rooming and boarding houses off campus, if the place is reserved exclusively for occupancy by college students and if there are 10 or more unrelated persons. In census products, persons in this category are classified as living in a college dormitory.
Persons residing in certain other types of living arrangements are classified as living in "noninstitutional group quarters" regardless of the number of people sharing the unit. These include persons residing in the following types of group quarters:
Includes college students in dormitories provided the dormitory is restricted to students who do not have their families living with them), fraternity and sorority houses, and on-campus residential quarters used exclusively for those in religious orders who are attending college. Students in privately-owned rooming and boarding houses off campus are also included, if the place is reserved exclusively for occupancy by college-level students and if there are 10 or more unrelated persons.
Includes military personnel living in barracks and dormitories on base, transient quarters on base for temporary residents (both civilian and military), and military ships. However, patients in military hospitals receiving treatment for chronic diseases or who have no usual home elsewhere, and persons being held in military stockades were included as part of the institutional population.
Agriculture Workers' Dormitories
Includes persons in migratory farm workers' camps on farms, bunkhouses for ranch hands, and other dormitories on farms, such as those on "tree farms."
Other Workers' Dormitories
Includes persons in logging camps construction workers' camps, firehouse dormitories, job-training camps, energy enclaves (Alaska only), and nonfarm migratory workers' camps (for example, workers in mineral and mining camps).
Emergency Shelters for Homeless Persons (with sleeping facilities) and Visible in Street Locations
Includes persons enumerated during the "Shelter-and-Street-Night" operation primarily on March 20-21, 1990. Enumerators were instructed not to ask if a person was "homeless." If a person was at one of the locations below on March 20/21, the person was counted as described below. (For more information on the "Shelter-and-Street-Night" operation, see Appendix D, Collection and Processing Procedures.) This category is divided into four classifications:
Emergency Shelters for Homeless Persons (with sleeping facilities)
Includes persons who stayed overnight on March 20, 1990, in permanent and temporary emergency housing, missions, hotels/ motels, and flophouses charging $12 or less (excluding taxes) per night; Salvation Army shelters, hotels, and motels used entirely for homeless persons regardless of the nightly rate charged; rooms in hotels and motels used partially for the homeless; and similar places known to have persons who have no usual home elsewhere staying overnight. If not shown separately, shelters and group homes which provide temporary sleeping facilities for runaway, neglected, and homeless children are included in this category in data products.
Shelters for Runaway, Neglected, and Homeless Children
Includes shelters/group homes which provide temporary sleeping facilities for juveniles.
Visible in Street Locations
Includes street blocks and open public locations designated before census day by city and community officials as places where the homeless congregate at night. All persons found at predesignated street sites from 2 a.m. to 4 a.m. and leaving abandoned or boarded-up buildings from 4 a.m. to 8 a.m. on March 21, 1990, were enumerated during "street" enumeration, except persons in uniform such as police and persons engaged in obvious money-making activities other than begging or panhandling. Enumerators were instructed not to ask if a person was "homeless."
This cannot be considered a complete count of all persons living on the streets because those who were so well hidden that local people did not know where to find them were likely to have been missed as were persons moving about or in places not identified by local officials. It is also possible that persons with homes could have been included in the count of "visible in street locations" if they were present when the enumerator did the enumeration of a particular block.
Predesignated street sites include street corners, parks, bridges, persons emerging from abandoned and boarded-up buildings, noncommercial campsites (tent cities), all-night movie theaters, all-night restaurants, emergency hospital waiting rooms, train stations, airports, bus depots, and subway stations.
Shelters for Abused Women (Shelters Against Domestic Violence or Family Crisis Centers)
Includes community-based homes or shelters that provide domiciliary care for women who have sought shelter from family violence and who may have been physically abused. Most shelters also provide care for children of abused women. These shelters may provide social services, meals, psychiatric treatment, and counseling. In some census products, "shelters for abused women" are included in the category "other noninstitutional group quarters."
Dormitories for Nurses and Interns in General and Military Hospitals
Includes group quarters for nurses and other staff members. It excludes patients.
Crews of Maritime Vessels
Includes officers, crew members, and passengers of Maritime U.S. flag vessels. All ocean-going and Great Lakes ships are included.
Staff Residents of Institutions
Includes staff residing in group quarters on institutional grounds who provide formally-authorized, supervised care or custody for the institutionalized population.
Other Nonhousehold Living Situations
Includes persons enumerated with no usual home elsewhere during transient, or "T-Night" enumeration at YMCA's, YWCA's, youth hostels, commercial and government-run campgrounds, campgrounds at racetracks, fairs, and carnivals, and similar transient sites.
Living Quarters for Victims of Natural Disasters
Includes living quarters for persons temporarily displaced by natural disasters.
Two types of errors can occur in the classification of "types of group quarters":
1. Misclassification of Group Quarters--During the 1990 Special Place Prelist operation, the enumerator determined the type of group quarters associated with each special place in their assignment. The enumerator used the Alphabetical Group quarter's code List and Index to the Alphabetical Group quarter's code List to assign a two-digit code number followed by either an "I," for institutional, or an "N," for noninstitutional to each group quarters. In 1990, unacceptable group quarter codes were edited. (For more information on editing of unacceptable data, see Appendix C, Accuracy of the Data.)
2. No Classification (unknowns)--The imputation rate for type of institution was higher in 1980 (23.5 percent) than in 1970 (3.3 percent). Improvements were made to the 1990 Alphabetical Group quarter's code List; that is, the inclusion of more group quarters categories and an "Index to the Alphabetical Group quarter's code List." (For more information on the allocation rates for Type of Institution, see the allocation rates in 1990 CP-1, General Population Characteristics.)
In previous censuses, allocation rates for demographic characteristics (such as age, sex, race, and marital status) of the institutional population were similar to those for the total population. The allocation rates for sample characteristics such as school enrollment, highest grade completed, income, and veteran status for the institutional and noninstitutional group quarters population have been substantially higher than the population in households at least as far back as the 1960 census. The data, however, have historically presented a reasonable picture of the institutional and noninstitutional group quarters population. Shelter and Street Night (S-Night)--For the 1990 census "Shelter-and- Street-Night" operation, persons well-hidden, moving about, or in locations enumerators did not visit were likely to be missed. The number of people missed will never be known; thus, the 1990 census cannot be considered a definitive count of America's total homeless population. It does, however, give an idea of relative differences among areas of the country. Other components were counted as part of regular census procedures.
The count of persons in shelters and visible on the street could have been affected by many factors. How much the factors affected the count can never be answered definitively, but some elements include:
- How well enumerators were trained and how well they followed procedures.
- How well the list of shelter and street locations given to the Census Bureau by the local government reflected the actual places that homeless persons stay at night.
- Cities were encouraged to open temporary shelters for census night, and many did that and actively encouraged people to enter the shelters. Thus, people who may have been on the street otherwise were in shelters the night of March 20, so that the ratio of shelter-to-street population could be different than usual.
- The weather, which was unusually cold in some parts of the country, could affect how likely people were to seek emergency shelter or to be more hidden than usual if they stayed outdoors.
- The media occasionally interfered with the ability to do the count.
- How homeless people perceived the census and whether they wanted to be counted or feared the census and hid from it.
The Census Bureau conducted two assessments of Shelter and Street Night: (1) the quality of the lists of shelters used for the Shelter and Street Night operation; and (2) how well procedures were followed by census takers for the street count in parts of five cities (Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, New Orleans, and Phoenix). (Information about these two assessments is available from the Chief, Center for Survey Methods Research, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233.)
For the 1990 census, the definition of institutionalized persons was revised so that the definition of "care" only includes persons under organized medical or formally-authorized, supervised care or custody. As a result of this change to the institutional definition, maternity homes are classified as noninstitutional rather than institutional group quarters as in previous censuses. The following types of other group quarters are classified as institutional rather than noninstitutional group quarters: "halfway houses (operated for correctional purposes)" and "wards in general and military hospitals for patients who have no usual home elsewhere," which includes maternity, neonatal, pediatric, military, and surgical wards of hospitals, other-purpose wards of hospitals, and wards for infectious diseases. These changes should not significantly affect the comparability of data with earlier censuses because of the relatively small number of persons involved.
As in 1980, 10 or more unrelated persons living together were classified as living in noninstitutional group quarters. In 1970, the criteria was six or more unrelated persons.
Several changes also have occurred in the identification of specific types of group quarters. For the first time, the 1990 census identifies separately the following types of correctional institutions: persons in halfway houses (operated for correctional purposes), military stockades and jails, and police lockups. In 1990, tuberculosis hospitals or wards are included with hospitals for the chronically ill; in 1980, they were shown separately. For 1990, the noninstitutional group quarters category, "Group homes" is further classified as: group homes for drug/alcohol abuse; maternity homes (for unwed mothers), group homes for the mentally ill, group homes for the mentally retarded, and group homes for the physically handicapped. Persons living in communes, foster-care homes, and job corps centers are classified with "Other group homes" only if 10 or more unrelated persons share the unit; otherwise, they are classified as housing units.
In 1990, workers' dormitories were classified as group quarters regardless of the number of persons sharing the dorm. In 1980, 10 or more unrelated persons had to share the dorm for it to be classified as a group quarters. In 1960, data on persons in military barracks were shown only for men. In subsequent censuses, they include both men and women.
In 1990 census data products, the phrase "inmates of institutions" was changed to "institutionalized persons." Also, persons living in noninstitutional group quarters were referred to as "other persons in group quarters," and the phrase "staff residents" was used for staff living in institutions.
In 1990, there are additional institutional categories and noninstitutional group quarters categories compared with the 1980 census. The institutional categories added include "hospitals and wards for drug/alcohol abuse" and "military hospitals for the chronically ill." The noninstitutional group quarters categories added include emergency shelters for homeless persons; shelters for runaway, neglected, and homeless children; shelters for abused women; and visible in street locations. Each of these noninstitutional group quarters categories was enumerated on March 20-21, 1990, during the "Shelter and Street Night" operation. (For more information on the "Shelter-and-Street-Night" operation, see Appendix D, Collection and Processing Procedures.)
The data on Spanish/Hispanic origin were derived from answers to questionnaire item 7, which was asked of all persons. Persons of Hispanic origin are those who classified themselves in one of the specific Hispanic origin categories listed on the questionnaire--"Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban"--as well as those who indicated that they were of "other Spanish/Hispanic" origin. Persons of "Other Spanish/Hispanic" origin are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or the Dominican Republic, or they are persons of Hispanic origin identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, Hispanic, Hispano, Latino, and so on. Write-in responses to the "other Spanish/Hispanic" category were coded only for sample data. Origin can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
Some tabulations are shown by the Hispanic origin of the householder. In all cases where households, families, or occupied housing units are classified by Hispanic origin, the Hispanic origin of the householder is used. (See the discussion of householder under "Household Type and Relationship.")
During direct interviews conducted by enumerators, if a person could not provide a single origin response, he or she was asked to select, based on self-identification, the group which best described his or her origin or descent. If a person could not provide a single group, the origin of the person's mother was used. If a single group could not be provided for the person's mother, the first origin reported by the person was used.
If any household member failed to respond to the Spanish/Hispanic origin question, a response was assigned by the computer according to the reported entries of other household members by using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. In the processing of sample questionnaires, responses to other questions on the questionnaire, such as ancestry and place of birth, were used to assign an origin before any reference was made to the origin reported by other household members. If an origin was not entered for any household member, an origin was assigned from another household according to the race of the householder. This procedure is a variation of the general imputation process described in Appendix C, Accuracy of the Data.
There may be differences between the total Hispanic origin population based on 100-percent tabulations and sample tabulations. Such differences are the result of sampling variability, nonsampling error, and more extensive edit procedures for the Spanish/Hispanic origin item on the sample questionnaires. (For more information on sampling variability and nonsampling error, see Appendix C, Accuracy of the Data.)
The 1990 data on Hispanic origin are generally comparable with those for the 1980 census. However, there are some differences in the format of the Hispanic origin question between the two censuses. For 1990, the word "descent" was deleted from the 1980 wording. In addition, the term "Mexican-Amer." used in 1980 was shortened further to "Mexican-Am." to reduce misreporting (of "American") in this category detected in the 1980 census. Finally, the 1990 question allowed those who reported as "other Spanish/Hispanic" to write in their specific Hispanic origin group.
Misreporting in the "Mexican-Amer." category of the 1980 census item on Spanish/Hispanic origin may affect the comparability of 1980 and 1990 census data for persons of Hispanic origin for certain areas of the country. An evaluation of the 1980 census item on Spanish/Hispanic origin indicated that there was misreporting in the Mexican origin category by White and Black persons in certain areas. The study results showed evidence that the misreporting occurred in the South (excluding Texas), the Northeast (excluding the New York City area), and a few States in the Midwest Region. Also, results based on available data suggest that the impact of possible misreporting of Mexican origin in the 1980 census was severe in those portions of the above-mentioned regions where the Hispanic origin population was generally sparse. However, national 1980 census data on the Mexican origin population or total Hispanic origin population at the national level was not seriously affected by the reporting problem. (For a more detailed discussion of the evaluation of the 1980 census Spanish/Hispanic origin item, see the 1980 census Supplementary Reports.)
The 1990 and 1980 census data on the Hispanic population are not directly comparable with 1970 Spanish origin data because of a number of factors: (1) overall improvements in the 1980 and 1990 censuses, (2) better coverage of the population, (3) improved question designs, and (4) an effective public relations campaign by the Census Bureau with the assistance of national and community ethnic groups.
Specific changes in question design between the 1980 and 1970 censuses included the placement of the category "No, not Spanish/Hispanic" as the first category in that question. (The corresponding category appeared last in the 1970 question.) Also, the 1970 category "Central or South American" was deleted because in 1970 some respondents misinterpreted the category; furthermore, the designations "Mexican-American" and "Chicano" were added to the Spanish/Hispanic origin question in 1980. In the 1970 census, the question on Spanish origin was asked of only a 5-percent sample of the population.
Household Type and Relationship
A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements.
In 100-percent tabulations, the count of households or householders always equals the count of occupied housing units. In sample tabulations, the numbers may differ as a result of the weighting process.
A measure obtained by dividing the number of persons in households by the number of households (or householders). In cases where persons in households are cross-classified by race or Hispanic origin, persons in the household are classified by the race or Hispanic origin of the householder rather than the race or Hispanic origin of each individual.
Relationship to Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to questionnaire item 2, which was asked of all persons in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder. In most cases, this is the person, or one of the persons, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented and who is listed in column 1 of the census questionnaire. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years old and over could be designated as the householder.
Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: a family householder and a nonfamily householder. A family householder is a householder living with one or more persons related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all persons in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.
Includes a person married to and living with a householder. This category includes persons in formal marriages, as well as persons in common-law marriages.
The number of spouses is equal to the number of "married-couple families" or "married-couple households" in 100-percent tabulations. The number of spouses, however, is generally less than half of the number of "married persons with spouse present" in sample tabulations, since more than one married couple can live in a household, but only spouses of householders are specifically identified as "spouse." For sample tabulations, the number of "married persons with spouse present" includes married-couple subfamilies and married-couple families.
Includes a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or adopted child of the householder, regardless of the child's age or marital status. The category excludes sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, and foster children.
Natural-Born or Adopted Son/Daughter
A son or daughter of the householder by birth, regardless of the age of the child. Also, this category includes sons or daughters of the householder by legal adoption, regardless of the age of the child. If the stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is still classified as a stepchild.
A son or daughter of the householder through marriage but not by birth, regardless of the age of the child. If the stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is still classified as a stepchild.
A never-married child under 18 years who is a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or an adopted child of the householder. In certain tabulations, own children are further classified as living with two parents or with one parent only. Own children of the householder living with two parents are by definition found only in married-couple families. In a subfamily, an "own child" is a never-married child under 18 years of age who is a son, daughter, stepchild, or an adopted child of a mother in a mother-child subfamily, a father in a father-child subfamily, or either spouse in a married-couple subfamily.
"Related children" in a family include own children and all other persons under 18 years of age in the household, regardless of marital status, who are related to the householder, except the spouse of the householder. Foster children are not included since they are not related to the householder.
In tabulations, includes any household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another relationship category. In certain detailed tabulations, the following categories may be shown:
The grandson or granddaughter of the householder
The brother or sister of the householder, including stepbrothers, stepsisters, and brothers and sisters by adoption. Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law are included in the "Other relative" category on the questionnaire.
The father or mother of the householder, including a stepparent or adoptive parent. Fathers-in-law and mothers-in-law are included in the "Other relative" category on the questionnaire.
Anyone not listed in a reported category above who is related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (brother-in-law, grandparent, nephew, aunt, mother-in-law, daughter-in-law, cousin, and so forth).
Includes any household member, including foster children not related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. The following categories may be presented in more detailed tabulations:
Roomer, Boarder, or Foster Child
Roomer, boarder, lodger, and foster children or foster adults of the householder.
A person who is not related to the householder and who shares living quarters primarily in order to share expenses.
A person who is not related to the householder, who shares living quarters, and who has a close personal relationship with the householder.
A person who is not related by birth, marriage, or adoption to the householder and who is not described by the categories given above.
When relationship is not reported for an individual, it is imputed according to the responses for age, sex, and marital status for that person while maintaining consistency with responses for other individuals in the household. (For more information on imputation, see Appendix C, Accuracy of the Data.)
An unrelated individual is: (1) a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only, (2) a household member who is not related to the householder, or (3) a person living in group quarters who is not an inmate of an institution.
A family consists of a householder and one or more other persons living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All persons in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may comprise a group of unrelated persons or one person living alone. Families are classified by type as either a "married couple family" or "other family" according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. The data on family type are based on answers to questions on sex and relationship which were asked on a 100-percent basis.
A family in which the householder and his or her spouse are enumerated as members of the same household.
Male Householder, No Wife Present
A family with a male householder and no spouse of householder present.
Female Householder, No Husband Present
A family with a female householder and no spouse of householder present.
A measure obtained by dividing the number of persons in families by the total number of families (or family householders). In cases where the measure, "persons in family" or "persons per family" are cross-tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, the race or Hispanic origin refers to the householder rather than the race or Hispanic origin of each individual.
A subfamily is a married couple (husband and wife enumerated as members of the same household) with or without never-married children under 18 years old, or one parent with one or more never-married children under 18 years old, living in a household and related to, but not including, either the householder or the householder's spouse. The number of subfamilies is not included in the count of families, since subfamily members are counted as part of the householder's family. Subfamilies are defined during processing of sample data. In selected tabulations, subfamilies are further classified by type: married-couple subfamilies, with or without own children; mother-child subfamilies; and father-child subfamilies.
Lone parents include people maintaining either one parent families or one-parent subfamilies. Married couples include husbands and wives in both married-couple families and married-couple subfamilies.
An unmarried-partner household is a household other than a "married-couple household" that includes a householder and an "unmarried partner." An "unmarried partner" can be of the same sex or of the opposite sex of the householder. An "unmarried partner" in an "unmarried partner household" is an adult who is unrelated to the householder, but shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship with the householder.
An unmarried-couple household is composed of two unrelated adults of the opposite sex (one of whom is the householder) who share a housing unit with or without the presence of children under 15 years old.
Foster children are nonrelatives of the householder and are included in the category, "Roomer, boarder, or foster child" on the questionnaire. Foster children are identified as persons under 18 years old and living in households that have no nonrelatives 18 years old and over (who might be parents of the nonrelatives under 18).
A stepfamily is a "married-couple family" with at least one stepchild of the householder present, where the householder is the husband.
The 1990 definition of a household is the same as that used in 1980. The 1980 relationship category "Son/daughter" has been replaced by two categories, "Natural-born or adopted son/daughter" and "Stepson/stepdaughter." "Grandchild" has been added as a separate category. The 1980 nonrelative categories: "Roomer, boarder" and "Partner, roommate" have been replaced by the categories "Roomer, boarder, or foster child," "Housemate, roommate," and "Unmarried partner." The 1980 nonrelative category "Paid employee" has been dropped.
The data on marital status were derived from answers to questionnaire item 6, which was asked of all persons. The marital status classification refers to the status at the time of enumeration. Data on marital status are tabulated only for persons 15 years old and over.
All persons were asked whether they were "now married," "widowed," "divorced," "separated," or "never married." Couples who live together (unmarried persons, persons in common-law marriages) were allowed to report the marital status they considered the most appropriate.
Includes all persons who have never been married, including persons whose only marriage(s) was annulled.
Includes persons married at the time of enumeration (including those separated), widowed, or divorced.
Now Married, Except Separated
Includes persons whose current marriage has not ended through widowhood, divorce, or separation (regardless of previous marital history). The category may also include couples who live together or persons in common-law marriages if they consider this category the most appropriate. In certain tabulations, currently married persons are further classified as "spouse present" or "spouse absent."
Includes persons legally separated or otherwise absent from their spouse because of marital discord. Included are persons who have been deserted or who have parted because they no longer want to live together but who have not obtained a divorce.
Includes widows and widowers who have not remarried.
Includes persons who are legally divorced and who have not remarried.
In selected sample tabulations, data for married and separated persons are reorganized and combined with information on the presence of the spouse in the same household.
All persons whose current marriage has not ended by widowhood or divorce. This category includes persons defined above as "separated."
Married persons whose wife or husband was enumerated as a member of the same household, including those whose spouse may have been temporarily absent for such reasons as travel or hospitalization.
Married persons whose wife or husband was not enumerated as a member of the same household. This category also includes all married persons living in group quarters.
Married persons whose wife or husband was not enumerated as a member of the same household, excluding separated. Included is any person whose spouse was employed and living away from home or in an institution or absent in the Armed Forces.
Differences between the number of currently married males and the number of currently married females occur because of reporting differences and because some husbands and wives have their usual residence in different areas. In sample tabulations, these differences can also occur because different weights are applied to the individual's data. Any differences between the number of "now married, spouse present" males and females are due solely to sample weighting. By definition, the numbers would be the same.
When marital status was not reported, it was imputed according to the relationship to the householder and sex and age of the person. (For more information on imputation, see Appendix C, Accuracy of the Data.)
The 1990 marital status definitions are the same as those used in 1980 with the exception of the term "never married" which replaces the term "single" in tabulations. A general marital status question has been asked in every census since 1880.
The data on race were derived from answers to questionnaire item 4, which was asked of all persons. The concept of race as used by the Census Bureau reflects self-identification; it does not denote any clear-cut scientific definition of biological stock. The data for race represent self-classification by people according to the race with which they most closely identify. Furthermore, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include both racial and national origin or socio-cultural groups.
During direct interviews conducted by enumerators, if a person could not provide a single response to the race question, he or she was asked to select, based on self-identification, the group which best described his or her racial identity. If a person could not provide a single race response, the race of the mother was used. If a single race response could not be provided for the person's mother, the first race reported by the person was used. In all cases where occupied housing units, households, or families are classified by race, the race of the householder was used.
The racial classification used by the Census Bureau generally adheres to the guidelines in Federal Statistical Directive No. 15, issued by the Office of Management and Budget, which provides standards on ethnic and racial categories for statistical reporting to be used by all Federal agencies. The racial categories used in the 1990 census data products are provided below.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "White" or reported entries such as Canadian, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Black or Negro" or reported entries such as African American, Afro-American, Black Puerto Rican, Jamaican, Nigerian, West Indian, or Haitian.
American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
Includes persons who classified themselves as such in one of the specific race categories identified below.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "American Indian," entered the name of an Indian tribe, or reported such entries as Canadian Indian, French-American Indian, or Spanish-American Indian.
Persons who identified themselves as American Indian were asked to report their enrolled or principal tribe. Therefore, tribal data in tabulations reflect the written tribal entries reported on the questionnaires. Some of the entries (for example, Iroquois, Sioux, Colorado River, and Flathead) represent nations or reservations.
The information on tribe is based on self-identification and therefore does not reflect any designation of Federally- or State-recognized tribe. Information on American Indian tribes is presented in summary tape files and special data products. The information is derived from the American Indian Detailed Tribal Classification List for the 1990 census. The classification list represents all tribes, bands, and clans that had a specified number of American Indians reported on the census questionnaire.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Eskimo" or reported entries such as Arctic Slope, Inupiat, and Yupik.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Aleut" or reported entries such as Alutiiq, Egegik, and Pribilovian.
Asian or Pacific Islander
Includes persons who reported in one of the Asian or Pacific Islander groups listed on the questionnaire or who provided write-in responses such as Thai, Nepali, or Tongan. A more detailed listing of the groups comprising the Asian or Pacific Islander population is presented in table A below. In some data products, information is presented separately for the Asian population and the Pacific Islander population.
Includes "Chinese," "Filipino," "Japanese," "Asian Indian," "Korean," "Vietnamese," and "Other Asian." In some tables, "Other Asian" may not be shown separately, but is included in the total Asian population.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Chinese" or who identified themselves as Cantonese, Tibetan, or Chinese American. In standard census reports, persons who reported as "Taiwanese" or "Formosan" are included here with Chinese. In special reports on the Asian or Pacific Islander population, information on persons who identified themselves as Taiwanese are shown separately.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Filipino" or reported entries such as Philipino, Philippine, or Filipino American.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Japanese" and persons who identified themselves as Nipponese or Japanese American.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Asian Indian" and persons who identified themselves as Bengalese, Bharat, Dravidian, East Indian, or Goanese.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Korean" and persons who identified themselves as Korean American.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Vietnamese" and persons who identified themselves as Vietnamese American.
Includes persons who provided a write-in response such as Cambodian or Cambodia.
Includes persons who provided a write-in response such as Hmong, Laohmong, or Mong.
Includes persons who provided a write-in response such as Laotian, Laos, or Lao.
Includes persons who provided a write-in response such as Thai Thailand, or Siamese.
Includes persons who provided a write-in response of Bangladeshi, Burmese, Indonesian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Amerasian, or Eurasian. See table A for other groups comprising "Other Asian."
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Pacific Islander" by classifying themselves into one of the following race categories or identifying themselves as one of the Pacific Islander cultural groups of Polynesian, Micronesian, or Melanesian.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Hawaiian" as well as persons who identified themselves as Part Hawaiian or Native Hawaiian.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Samoan" or persons who identified themselves as American Samoan or Western Samoan.
Includes persons who indicated their race as "Guamanian" or persons who identified themselves as Chamorro or Guam.
Includes persons who provided a write-in response of a Pacific Islander group such as Tahitian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Fijian, or a cultural group such as Polynesian, Micronesian, or Melanesian. See table A for other groups comprising "Other Pacific Islander."
Includes all other persons not included in the "White," "Black," "American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut," and the "Asian or Pacific Islander" race categories described above. Persons reporting in the "Other race" category and providing write-in entries such as multiracial, multiethnic, mixed, interracial, Wesort, or a Spanish/Hispanic origin group (such as Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican) are included here. Written entries to three categories on the race item-- "Indian (Amer.)," "Other Asian or Pacific Islander (API)," and "Other race"--were reviewed, edited, and coded by subject matter specialists. (For more information on the coding operation, see the section below that discusses "Comparability.")
The written entries under "Indian (Amer.)" and "Other Asian or Pacific Islander (API)" were reviewed and coded during 100-percent processing of the 1990 census questionnaires. A substantial portion of the entries for the "Other race" category also were reviewed, edited, and coded during the 100-percent processing. The remaining entries under "Other race" underwent review and coding during sample processing. Most of the written entries reviewed during sample processing were those indicating Hispanic origin such as Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican.
If the race entry for a member of a household was missing on the questionnaire, race was assigned based upon the reported entries of race by other household members using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if race was missing for the daughter of the householder, then the race of her mother (as female householder or female spouse) would be assigned. If there was no female householder or spouse in the household, the daughter would be assigned her father's (male householder) race. If race was not reported for anyone in the household, the race of a householder in a previously processed household was assigned. This procedure is a variation of the general imputation procedures described in Appendix C, Accuracy of the Data.
In the 1980 census, a relatively high proportion (20 percent) of American Indians did not report any tribal entry in the race item. Evaluation of the pre-census tests indicated that changes made for the 1990 race item should improve the reporting of tribes in the rural areas (especially on reservations) for the 1990 census. The results for urban areas were inconclusive. Also, the precensus tests indicated that there may be overreporting of the Cherokee tribe. An evaluation of 1980 census data showed overreporting of Cherokee in urban areas or areas where the number of American Indians was sparse.
In the 1990 census, respondents sometimes did not fill in a circle or filled the "Other race" circle and wrote in a response, such as Arab, Polish, or African American in the shared write-in box for "Other race" and "Other API" responses. During the automated coding process, these responses were edited and assigned to the appropriate racial designation. Also, some Hispanic origin persons did not fill in a circle, but provided entries such as Mexican or Puerto Rican. These persons were classified in the "Other race" category during the coding and editing process. Since sample processing included additional editing, there may be some minor differences between sample data and 100-percent data.
Differences between the 1990 census and earlier censuses affect the comparability of data for certain racial groups and American Indian tribes. The 1990 census was the first census to undertake, on a 100-percent basis, an automated review, edit, and coding operation for written responses to the race item. The automated coding system used in the 1990 census greatly reduced the potential for error associated with a clerical review. Specialists with a thorough knowledge of the race subject matter reviewed, edited, coded, and resolved inconsistent or incomplete responses. In the 1980 census, there was only a limited clerical review of the race responses on the 100-percent forms with a full clerical review conducted only on the sample questionnaires.
Another major difference between the 1990 and preceding censuses is the handling of the write-in responses for the Asian or Pacific Islander populations. In addition to the nine Asian or Pacific Islander categories shown on the questionnaire under the spanner "Asian or Pacific Islander (API)," the 1990 census race item provided a new residual category, "Other API," for Asian or Pacific Islander persons who did not report in one of the listed Asian or Pacific Islander groups. During the coding operation, write-in responses for "Other API" were reviewed, coded, and assigned to the appropriate classification. For example, in 1990, a write-in entry of Laotian, Thai, or Javanese is classified as "Other Asian," while a write-in entry of Tongan or Fijian is classified as "Other Pacific Islander."
|Table A. Asian or Pacific Islander Groups Reported in the 1990 Census|
||Other Pacific Islander1
||Northern Mariana Islander
||Papua New Guinean
||Pacific Islander, not specified
|Asian, not specified2
1In some data products, specific groups listed under "Other Asian" or "Other Pacific Islander" are shown separately. Groups not shown are tabulated as "All other Asian" or "All other Pacific Islander," respectively.
2Includes entries such as Asian American, Asian, Asiatic, Amerasian, and Eurasian.
3Polynesian, Micronesian, and Melanesian are Pacific Islander cultural groups.
In the 1980 census, the nine Asian or Pacific Islander groups were also listed separately. However, persons not belonging to these nine groups wrote in their specific racial group under the "Other" race category. Persons with a written entry such as Laotian, Thai, or Tongan, were tabulated and published as "Other race" in the 100-percent processing operation in 1980, but were reclassified as "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" in 1980 sample tabulations. In 1980 special reports on the Asian or Pacific Islander populations, data were shown separately for "Other Asian" and "Other Pacific Islander."
The 1970 questionnaire did not have separate race categories for Asian Indian, Vietnamese, Samoan, and Guamanian. These persons indicated their race in the "Other" category and later, through the editing process, were assigned to a specific group. For example, in 1970, Asian Indians were reclassified as "White," while Vietnamese, Guamanians, and Samoans were included in the "Other" category.
Another difference between the 1990 and preceding censuses is the approach taken when persons of Spanish/Hispanic origin did not report in a specific race category but reported as "Other race" or "Other." These persons commonly provided a write-in entry such as Mexican, Venezuelan, or Latino. In the 1990 and 1980 censuses, these entries remained in the "Other race" or "Other" category, respectively. In the 1970 census, most of these persons were included in the "White" category.