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Data Dictionary: Census 1980
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Survey: Census 1980
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T104. Poverty Status In 1979 By Household Relationship And Age [11]
Universe: Persons In Families, Excluding Householders
Table Details
T104. Poverty Status In 1979 By Household Relationship And Age
Universe: Persons In Families, Excluding Householders
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
Poverty Status In 1979
Families and unrelated individuals are classified as above or below the poverty level by comparing their total 1979 income to an income cutoff or "poverty threshold." The income cutoffs vary by family size, number of children, and age of the family householder or unrelated individual. Poverty status is determined for all families (and, by implication, all family members). Poverty status is also determined for persons not in families, except for inmates of institutions, members of the Armed Forces living in barracks, college students living in dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. Poverty status is derived on a sample basis.

The 1980 census definition of poverty reflects revisions recommended by a Federal interagency committee in 1979 to a definition adopted in 1969. The index is based on the Department of Agriculture's 1961 Economy Food Plan and reflects the different consumption requirements of families based on their size and composition. It was determined from the Department of Agriculture's 1955 survey of food consumption that families .of three or more persons spend approximately one-third of their income on food; the poverty level for these families was, therefore, set at three times the cost of the economy food plan. For smaller families and persons living alone, the cost of the economy food plan was multiplied by factors that were slightly higher in order to compensate for the relatively larger fixed expenses of these smaller households. The poverty thresholds are updated every year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Cutoffs for 1979 income used in poverty statistics in the 1980 census are presented below. As an example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two related children under 18 can be found in the chart below to be $7,356 in 1979.

Poverty thresholds are computed on a national basis only. No attempt has been made to adjust these thresholds for regional, State, or other local variations in the cost of living.

The poverty status of a person who is a family member is determined by the family income and its relationship to the appropriate poverty threshold for that family. The poverty status of an unrelated individual is determined by his or her own income in relation to the appropriate poverty threshold. Thus, two unrelated individuals living together may not have the same poverty status.

Households below the poverty level are defined as households in which the total income of the family or the householder of a nonfamily household is below the poverty level. The incomes of persons in the household other than members of the family or other than the householder in a nonfamily household are not taken into account when determining poverty status of a household.

Because the poverty levels currently in use by the Federal Government do not meet all the needs of the analysts of the data, variations of the poverty definition are available in terms of various multiples of the official poverty levels. The one most frequently tabulated is 125 percent of the poverty level, where a family or person may have up to 25 percent more income than normally allowed under the poverty threshold appropriate for the family size, etc.

Below poverty level ("poor")
Families or persons whose total family income or unrelated individual income in 1979 was less than the poverty threshold specified for the applicable family size, age of householder, and number of related children under 13 present. In certain tabulations, this group is further subdivided into those with income "below 75 percent of poverty level" and "between 75 and 99 percent of poverty level."

Above poverty level ("nonpoor")
Families or persons whose total family income or unrelated individual income in 1979'was equal to or greater than the poverty threshold specified for the applicable family size, etc. In certain tabulations, this group is further subdivided into those with income "between 100 and 124 percent of poverty level," "between 125 and 149 percent of poverty level," "between 150 and 174 percent of poverty level, "between 175 and 199 percent of poverty level," and "200 percent of poverty level and above."

The team "poverty" connotes a complex set of economic, social, and psychological conditions. The standard statistical definition provides only estimates of economic poverty based on the receipt of money income before taxes. Excluded from the income concept is a measure of the benefits derived from the receipt of in-kind government transfers, such as food stamps, medicaid, and public housing; private transfers such as health insurance premiums paid by employers; the value of the services obtained from the ownership of assets, such as owner-occupied housing units; and the receipt of money from the sale of property, withdrawal of bank deposits, gifts and money borrowed. A comprehensive review of the current poverty definition and its limitations can be found in The Mea sure of Poverty, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, April 1976. See also the discussion of limitations under Income In 1979.

Historical comparability
Poverty statistics were first included in a decennial census in 1970. Prior to 1980 the poverty thresholds did not distinguish among families with 7, 8, and 9 or more persons; on the other hand, the cutoffs were further differentiated by the sex of the family head or unrelated individual and by farm/nonfarm residence. In the 1970 census, the thresholds for farm residents were set at 85 percent of the thresholds for nonfarm residents. 1979 income thresholds used in the 1980 census represent a weighted average of the nonfarm thresholds used in the past male headed and female headed families. The elimination of the 85-percent threshold for farm families increased the farm population classified as poor by about 174,000 persons or about one-fifth nationwide. The net effect of all three changes on the total number of poor persons is to increase it approximately 380,000 or 1.5 percent.

Since the poverty income cutoffs have been adjusted each year for changes in the CPI, and since the overall impact of the definitional changes is minimal, 1980 census poverty figures for the total and nonfarm population should be reasonably comparable to the 1970 poverty figures. However, because of the definitional changes cited, comparisons involving the farm population should be made with caution.

See also: "Income Deficit".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
Household Relationship
Relationship to the person in column 1 of the census questionnaire, ascertained from replies to a complete count question.

In household
Persons in the household include:

The person who was reported in column 1. This reference person was to be the person or one of the persons in whose name the home was owned or rented. If there was no such person, any adult household member at least 15 years old who was not a roomer, boarder, or paid employee was to be reported in column 1. In complete-count tabulations, the number of householders is the same as the number of households or occupied housing units. In sample tabulations, the numbers may not always be the same because of differences in weighting sample data.

Family householder
A householder living with one or more persons related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption.

Nonfamily householder
A householder living alone or only with persons not related to him or her.

The husband or wife of the householder, living with householder. This category may include persons in common-law marriages as well as persons in formal marriages; it does not include a partner or roommate of the opposite sex. In complete-count tabulations, the number of spouses is the same as the number of married-couple families or married-couple family households. The number of spouses, however, is generally less than half of the number of married persons with spouse present" in sample tabulations, since only spouses of householders are specifically identified as "spouse." Sample tabulations of the number of married persons with spouse present include subfamilies (see definition under Family) as well as married-couple families.

A son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the householder, regardless of the child's age or marital status. The category excludes sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, and foster children.

Own child
A never-married child under 18 years who is a son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the householder. In certain tabulations, own children are further classified as living with two parents or with one parent only. Own children of the householder living with two parents are by definition found only in married-couple families.

Related child
An "own child" or any other family member (regardless of marital status) who is under 18 years, except the householder or spouse. Foster children are not included since they are not related to the householder.

Other relative
A household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another relationship category. The scope of this category may differ from table to table, depending what other relationship categories are included. In detailed tabulations (STF 2 , STF 5, or PC80-l-D) the following categories may also be shown:

In complete-count tabulations, the father or mother of the householder, including a stepparent or adoptive parent. On sample basic records and microdota files, fathers- and mothers-in-law constitute a separate category coded from write-in responses under "other relative" on the questionnaire. One STF 5 and PC80-1-D tabulation includes both parents and parents-in-law in the same category.

Brother or sister
In complete-count tabulations, the brother or sister of the householder, including stepbrothers, stepsisters, and brothers and sisters by adoption. On sample basic records and microdata files, brothers- and sisters-in-law constitute a separate category coded from write-in responses. One STF 5 and PC80-1-D tabulation includes brothers- and sisters-in-law along with brothers and sisters in the same category.

Son- or daughter-in-law
Spouse of a son or daughter of the householder, coded from write-in responses.

Grandchild of the householder, coded from write-in responses.

The following categories are separately coded in sample basic records and public-use microdata files only: nephew/niece, grandparent, uncle/aunt, cousin, and "other."

Any household member, including foster children, not related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. The following categories are presented in certain more detailed tabulations.

Partner or roommate
Nonrelative who lives together and shares expenses with the householder.

Roomer or boarder
Roomer, boarder, lodger, or relative of such; or foster child or ward of the householder.

Paid employee
Nonrelative who is paid to provide household services, such as a maid, housekeeper or gardener.

Other nonrelative
Nonrelative who cannot be described by the above categories, including a person who is related to a partner or roommate or to a paid employee.

Inmate of institution and other person in group quarters
(Treated-as categories of household relationship for purposes of tabulation. For definitions, see Group Quarters, Persons In.) Persons in group quarters are excluded from counts of persons in unit.

Responses to the household relationship item were also used in defining families, and subfamilies (see Family; Family Type; Household Type). Tabulations frequently report relationship for persons in family households separately from persons in nonfamily households.

Historical comparability
The question was revised from 1970 to replace the head-of-household category with a format using a reference person, i.e., the "person in column 1." 1980 householders differ from 1970 household heads primarily where the wife in a married-couple family is listed as the "person in column 1." In 1970, the husband was automatically assumed to be the "head" of such a family. In 1980 tabulations, the substitution of one spouse for the other as the reference person may affect certain of the classifications, such as "parent" or "brother or sister," within the "other relative" grouping. The person in whose name the house or apartment is owned or rented may in a few cases differ from the person considered by other household members as the "head, but this is expected to affect the classification of relatively few households.

The 1970 questionnaire category "other relative of head" was replaced on the questionnaire by three categories, "brother/sister," "father/mother," and "other relative." Since the category "patient or inmate" is marked only by census enumerators, it was moved to the bottom of the form in a space reserved for "census use only." New nonrelative categories include "partner, roommate and "paid employee." The former question asking relationship to head of family or household was asked from 1880 to 1970.

See also: "Family;" "Family Type;" "Group Quarters, Persons In;" "Household Type".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
Age at last birthday, i.e., number of completed years from birth to April 1, 1980, based on replies to a question on month and year of birth. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

Because of the central importance of the data on age, the question contains redundancies. The age entry on the basic tape record is derived from the FOSDIC entries of quarter and year of birth. For those persons who do not provide this information but who do provide "age at last birthday," the census enumerator or clerk uses an equivalency table to mark the appropriate FOSDIC circles. The item "age at last birthday" is used only secondarily because of the tendency of some people, in reporting their ages, to round off to "0" or "5" (and to report even rather than odd numbers). The write-in entries of month and year of birth are requested because some people have difficulty with (and therefore skip) the FOSDIC marking system in this question.

Age is tabulated by single years of age and by many different groupings such as 5-year age groups. Basic records identify single years (and quarter years on sample basic records) to 112. Public-use microdata samples show single years and quarters to 99, and 100 years or more.

Median Age
Calculated as the value which divides the age distribution into two equal parts, one-half the cases falling below this value, one-half above. Median age is computed from the age intervals or groupings shown in the particular tabulation, and thus a median based on a less detailed distribution may differ slightly from a corresponding median for the same population based on a more detailed distribution. If the median falls in the terminal category, e.g., 75 years and over, the median is shown as the initial age of the category with a plus sign, e.g., 75+.

In previous censuses, undercoverage of the population has been associated with age. Young adults, especially Black males, were missed at a higher rate than other segments of the population. The same is true of centenarians.

Historical comparability
Age data have been collected in each census since 1790. Counts in 1970 and 1980 for persons 100 years old
and over were substantially overstated.

See also: "Age of Householder".