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Data Dictionary: Census 1980
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Survey: Census 1980
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T41. Place Of Work--Place Level [6]
Universe: Workers 16 Years And Over
Table Details
T41. Place Of Work--Place Level
Universe: Workers 16 Years And Over
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
Place of Work
The geographic location of the plant, office, store, or other establishment where the person worked most last week (see the discussion of reference week under Labor Force Status), ascertained for persons at work last week, including both civilian employed and Armed Forces at work, and tabulated for persons 16 years old and over. These data were obtained on a sample basis.

If the person worked at more than one location for the same employer (such as a grocery store chain or public school system), the exact address of the location or branch where the respondent worked most last week was requested. Persons working at more than one job were asked to report the location of the job at which they worked the greatest number of hours during the census week. Salespersons, delivery persons, and others who worked in several places each week were requested to give the address at which they began work each day, if they reported to a central headquarters. For cases in which daily work was not begun at a central place each day, the person was asked to report the exact address of the place where he or she worked the most hours last week.

Responses were coded in census processing offices but only for a sample of approximately one-half of the long-form questionnaires (a cost-saving measure). All entries were assigned codes which define the work location in terms of State, county, place of 2,500 or more (1,000 or more in Alaska and Hawaii) as estimated prior to the census, or in the Northeast region, minor civil division. For residents of SMSAs, place of work was coded further to tract and block (if in a blocked area) if the place was within the same SMSA or multi-SMSA commutershed.

Place-of-work tabulations vary considerably from one publication series to another. PC80-1-C reports furnish data for each of the following categories:

All workers

Place of work reported

Worked in area of residence

Worked outside area of residence

Percent of those reporting place of work

Place of work not reported

In these tabulations, the place of work is shown in terms of whether or not it is within the "area of residence," the definition of which varies with the geographic summary level. For instance, if a given column in a table presents data for a county, the place of work lines indicate the number of county residents who work inside and outside that county.

Census Tracts (PHC80-2) reports present up to 20 place-of-work categories for SMSA's, SMSA counties, places of 10,000 or more in SMSA'S, and census tracts as illustrated in the following list:

Inside SMSA

       Omaha, Nebr. central business district

       Remainder of Omaha city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Douglas County, Nebr.

       Bellevue city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Sarpy County, Nebr.

       Council Bluffs city, Iowa

       Carter Lake city, Iowa

       Remainder of Pottawattamie County, Iowa

Outside SMSA

       Lincoln city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Lancaster County, Nebr.

       Cass County, Nebr.

       Fremont city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Dodge County, Nebr.

       Washington County, Nebr.

       Mills County, Iowa


Place of work not reported

Up to 20 separate work locations are recognized in these PHC80-2 tabulations and on STF 4. The same 20 locations are used throughout each SMSA, but they vary from SXSA to SMSA and from county to county in nonmetropolitan areas.

Special tabulations can be prepared at user expense which make use of the additional detail available on census basic records. For instance, tabulations can be generated which show commuter flows by origin and destination in terms of census tracts within a given SMSA or multi-SMSA commutershed. Characteristics of workers by place of work can also be tabulated.

Public-use microdata "A" and "B" samples report place of work in the same terms as place of residence, i.e., States and "county groups" with 100,000 or more inhabitants. Within large SMSA's, individual counties and places over 100,000 are frequently identified as county groups making possible some analysis of commuting patterns by commuter characteristics. The "C" sample identifies place of work in central cities and in places in four size categories.

It should be noted that place-of-work tabulations do not necessarily give the total number of persons who work in the specified area, only those who also reside within the area summarized. In the above example, the number reported as working in the central business district would not include workers who commute from outside the SMSA being summarized.

Since Place of Work was coded only for a sample of one-half of all long-form questionnaires, along with Residence in 1975 and Travel Time to Work, it required an estimation scheme which differed from that used for full-sample items. As a consequence, the estimated number of workers 16 and over 35 derived from place-of-work tabulations will differ somewhat from the corresponding figure derived from tabulations of Means of Transportation to Work, a full sample item. Further, any cross-tabulation of place of work by other items is necessarily based only on the half-sample.

Historical comparability
Place of work was asked first in 1960, when the inquiry was limited to the State, county, and city of work. In 1970, the question took on its current form, requesting the specific street address and ZIP code. A higher percentage of cases was successfully coded to tract and block of work in 1980 than in 1970, due to improvements in coding materials.

Data on place of work tabulated for inside and outside the area of residence, as discussed above, are new for 1980.

See also: "Transportation to Work, Means Of;" "Travel Time to Work".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
A concentration of population which may or may not have legally prescribed limits, powers, or functions. Most of the places identified in the 1980 census are incorporated as cities, towns, villages, or boroughs. In addition, census designated places (called "unincorporated places" in earlier censuses) are delineated for 1980 census tabulations. There are about 23,000 places recorded in the 1980 census. Places do not cross State boundaries.

Incorporated place
A political unit incorporated as a city, borough (excluding Alaska and New York), village, or town (excluding the New England States, New York, and Wisconsin). In most States, incorporated places are subdivisions of the MCD or CCD in which they are located; for example, a village located within and legally part of a township. In some States, incorporated places are independent of surrounding township or towns and therefore are also treated as MCD's. In a few states, the pattern is mixed. Almost 4,000 incorporated places cross MCD/CCD and/or county boundaries.

There are about 20,000 incorporated places recognized in the 1980 census.

Census designated place (CDP)
A densely settled population center without legally corporate limits or corporate limits or corporate powers or functions. Each CDP has a definite residential nucleus with a dense, city-type street pattern, and ideally should have an overall population density of at least 1,000 persons per square mile. In addition, a CDP is a community that can be identified locally by place name. Boundaries of CDP's are drawn by the Census Bureau, in cooperation with State and local agencies, to include, insofar .3S possible, all the closely settled area. In the 1980 census, statistics are tabulated for each CDP with 5,000 inhabitants or more if located in an urbanized area (UA) with a central city of 50,000 or more and for each CDP of 1,000 inhabitants or more if in a UA with no central city of 50,000 or more. Some CDP's--notably in the Northeast-- coincide with MCD's. In STF's, these are treated as both places and MCD's, but in printed reports they are show only in MCD tables to avoid duplication. Outside of UA's, statistics are tabulated in 48 States and Puerto Rico for CDP's of 1,000 or more, in Hawaii for CDP's of 300 or more, and in Alaska for CDP's of 25 or more.

There are approximately 3,400 CDP's recognized in the 1980 census.

Incorporated place and CDP boundaries are shown on all detailed census maps. For tracted areas, boundaries of all places are shown on census tract outline maps. County subdivision maps, at a still smaller scale, also show boundaries for places.

A 4-digit numeric code is assigned by the Census Bureau to each place in alphabetic sequence within State. "Place description" codes will also generally accompany place records. These codes indicate whether a place is incorporated, as well as represent certain other information about the place.

Data are summarized for all places in STF's 1A and 3A, and PC80-l-A reports. For places with 1,000 or more inhabitants, data are summarized in STF 2B, and PCBO-1-B and HC80-1-A reports. For places with 2,500 or more, data are summarized in STF 4B, PC80-1-C, and HC80-1-B reports. In PHC80-3 reports, data are given for all incorporated places. In PHC80-2 Census Tracts reports and STF's 2A and 4A, summaries are presented only for places with 10,000 or more inhabitants located in tracted areas. Very detailed data are presented for all places which are central cities of SMSA's in PC80-1-D reports, and places with 50,000 or more inhabitants in HC80-2 reports. STF 5 also provides detailed data for places of 50,000 or more.

The files and reports which sequence geographic units in hierarchical fashion must account for the fact that places nay cross the boundaries of counties, MCD's, and CCD's. Such reports and tapes, therefore, provide summaries for the various parts of places created when places are split by the boundaries of higher level areas recognized in the hierarchy. Specifically, place parts within county and MCD or CCD are presented in STF 1A and 3A, and PC80-1-A reports. Place parts within county and MCD are presented for 20 specified States and Puerto Rico in STF 1B and PHC80-1 Block Statistics microfiche reports, but the PHC80-1 reports include only places which have data collected for blocks. In the remaining 30 States, STF 1B and PHC80-1 reports subdivide places when split by county boundaries, but do not observe MCD or CCD boundaries.

Historical comparability
Sixty-eight percent of all incorporated places of 2,500 or more made changes in their boundaries between 1970 and January 1, 1980, which is the reference date for boundaries in the 1980 census. In the 1970 census, ED boundaries were draw so as to allow a user to aggregate 1970 data for each city of 2,000 or more inhabitants according to 1960 boundaries. There will not be a corresponding capability in the 1980 census.

In the 1970 and earlier censuses, CDP's were referred to as "unincorporated places." The name was changed to make it more explicit that such places are defined for census purposes, and to avoid confusion in States where many "unincorporated places" are parts of incorporsted towns or townships. Many CDP's have been redefined since 1970. Incorporated places which were newly incorporated or which changed boundaries between 1970 and 1980 are listed in footnotes to table 4 of PC80-1-A reports.