Labor Reserves (Volume II, Part VI - Subject Reports)
Definitions and Explanations
Some of the definitions used in 1960 differ from those used in 1950. These changes were made after consultation with users of census data in order to improve the statistics, even though it was recognized that comparability would be affected. The definitions and explanations should be interpreted in the context of the 1960 Censuses, in which data were collected by a combination of self-enumeration, direct interview, and observation by the enumerator.
The definitions below are consistent with the instructions given to the" enumerator. As in all surveys, there 'were some failures to execute the instructions exactly. Through the forms distributed to households, the respondents were given explanations of some of the questions more uniformly than would have been given in direct interviews. Nevertheless, it was not feasible to give the full instructions to the respondents, and some erroneous replies have undoubtedly gone undetected.
More complete discussions of the definitions of population items are given in 1960 Census of Population, Volume I, Characteristics of the Population, Part 1, United States Summary, and in each of the State parts.
The data on employment status relate to the calendar week prior to the date on which the respondents filled their Household Questionnaires or were interviewed by enumerators. This week is not the same for all respondents because not all persons were enumerated during the same week.
Employed persons comprise all civilians 14 years old and over who were either (a) "at work"-those who did any work for pay or profit, or worked without pay for 15 hours or more on a family farm or in a family business; or (b) were "with a job but not at work" - those who did not work and were not looking for work but had a job or business from which they were temporarily absent because of bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, illness, or other personal reasons.
Persons are classified as unemployed if they were 14 years old and over and not "at work" but looking for work. A person is considered as looking for work not only if he actually tried to find work but also if he had made such efforts recently (i.e., within the past 60 days) and was awaiting the results of these efforts. Persons waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off or furloughed are also counted as unemployed. Unemployed persons who have worked at any time in the past are classified as the "experienced unemployed."
The "civilian labor force" includes all persons classified as employed or unemployed, as described above. The "labor force" also includes members of the Armed Forces (persons on active duty with the United States Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard). The "experienced civilian labor force" comprises the employed and the experienced unemployed.
Persons "not in the labor force" comprise all those 14 years old and over who are not classified as members of the labor force, including persons doing only incidental unpaid family work (less than 15 hours during the week).
The 1960 Census was the first to obtain data on year last worked necessary for classification as to membership in the labor reserve. The data were derived from answers to the following questions on the Household Questionnaire:
The "year last worked" pertains to the most recent year in which a person did any work for pay or profit, or worked without pay on a family farm or a family business. Active service in the Armed Forces is also included. Data derived from this item were tabulated for persons classified as not in the Armed Forces and for persons classified as unemployed.
The data provide a means of evaluating the cm. rent applicability and significance of the inventory of occupational skills for those persons not in the labor force, and tabulations resulting from cross-classifications of this information provide data on the demographic characteristics of the labor reserve,
The labor reserve is comprised of those persons classified as not in the labor force during the reference week but who have had some work experience within the 10 years preceding 1960. Members of the labor reserve were determined through the following sequence of classifications: First, all persons & years old and over were classified according to the employment status categories as defined above, and second, those persons classified as not in the labor force were further classified according to the year in which they last worked.
In the 1960 Census of Population, information on occupation was collected for persons in the experienced civilian labor force and for persons not in the labor force who have worked some time during the period 1950 to April 1960 (i.e., the labor reserve). For an employed person, the information referred to the job he held during the reference period. If he was employed at two or more jobs, the job at which he worked the greatest number of hours during the reference period was reported. For the experienced unemployed and for persons not in the labor force, the occupational information referred to the last job that had been held.
The occupational classification system developed for the 1960 Census of Population is organized into 12 major groups and consists of 297 specific occupation categories. The composition of the 297 specific categories is shown in the publication, U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census of Population
, Classified Index of Occupations and In
, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1960.
For presentation of occupational data in this report, two levels of classification are shown. Sub- groupings of 17 of the 297 specific occupations (mainly on the basis of industry) are made, resulting in the presentation of over 500 items in the detailed listing. Also presented is an intermediate classification system, which presents 161 items for males and 70 items for females. The relationship between the detailed and intermediate levels of classification is given Lists A and B for males and females, respectively.
In the separation of "managers, officials, proprietors (n.e.c.)" by class of worker into salaries and self-employed components, the number of unpaid family workers in this occupation is included in the self-employed component. Since the data presented in this report on occupation refer only to civilians, the category "former members of the Armed Forces" for the experienced unemployed and for persons in the labor reserve is limited to those whose last job was as a member of the Armed Forces.
The abbreviation "n.e.c." used in the tables means "not elsewhere classified.
Relationship to DOT Classification
The occupational classification used in the 1960 Census is generally comparable with the system used in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT).1The two systems, however, are designed to meet different needs and to be used under different circumstances. The DOT system is much more detailed than that of the Bureau of the Census, and it also calls for many types of distinctions which cannot be made from census information.
1See U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, Dictionary of Occupational Titles, Second Edition, Vols. I and II, Washington, D.C., 1949.
Comparability of Occupational Classification Systems
The occupational classification system used in 1940 and 1950 is basically the same as that of 1960. There are a number of differences, however, in title and content for certain items, as well as in the degree of detail shown for the various major groups. For the Census of 1930 or earlier censuses, the occupational classification system was markedly different from the 1960 system. The following publications contain information on the various factors of comparability and are particularly useful for understanding differences in the occupation information from earlier censuses: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Sixteenth Census Reports, Population, Comparative Occupation Statistics for the United States: 1870 to I940, 1943, and Bureau of the Census Working Paper No. 5, Occupational Trends in the United States: 1900 to 1950, 1958.
The median is presented in connection with the data on age, years of school completed and income. It is the value which divides the distribution into two equal parts, one-half the cases falling below this value and one-half the cases exceeding this value.
A plus (+) or minus (-) sign after the median indicates that the median is above or below that number. For example, a median of $10,000+ for income indicates that the median fell in the interval "$10,000 or more."
The rural population is subdivided into the rural-farm population, which comprises all rural residents living on farms, and the rural-nonfarm population, which comprises the remaining rural population. In the 1960 Census, the farm population consists of persons living in rural territory on places of 10 or more acres from which sales of farm products amounted to $50 or more in 1959 or on places of less than 10 acres from which sales of farm products amounted to $250 or more in 1959. All persons living in group quarters are classified as nonfarm except the relatively few living in workers' quarters (Including quarters for migratory agricultural workers) that are located on a farm or ranch.
The age classification is based on the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 1960, as determined from the reply to a question on month and year of birth.
The term "color" refers to the division of population into two groups, white and nonwhite. The color group designated as "nonwhite" includes Negroes, American Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Hawaiians, Asian Indians, Malayans, Eskimos, Aleuts, etc. Persons of Mexican birth or ancestry who are not definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race are classified as white.
Residence on April 1, 1955, is the usual place of residence five years prior to enumeration. The category "same house as in 1960" includes all persons 5 years old and over who were reported as living in the same house on the date of enumeration in 1960 and five years prior to enumeration. Included in the group are persons who had never moved during the five years as well as those who had moved but by 1960 had returned to their 1955 residence. The category "different house in the U.S." includes persons who, on April 1, 1955, lived in the United States in a different house from the one they occupied on April 1, 1960. This category was subdivided into three groups according to their 1955 residence, viz., "different house, same county," "different county, same State," and "different State." The category "abroad" includes those with residence in a foreign country or an outlying area of the United States in 1955. (In the coding of this item, persons who lived in Alaska or Hawaii in 1955 but in other States in 1960 were classified as living in a different State in 1955.) Persons 5 years old and over who had indicated they had moved into their present residence after April 1, 1955, but, for whom sufficiently complete and consistent information regarding residence on April 1, 1955, was not collected, are included in the group "moved, place of residence in 1955 not reported.
In preparing the record for the 5-percent sample, on which, the present report is based, all movers from one borough to another within New York City were classified as movers within the "same county," whereas in reports based on the 25-percent record, persons who moved across borough lines were classified as movers between counties within the "same State." Hence, the 5-percent sample shows more movers within the same county than would be shown in corresponding figures from the 25-percent sample, and fewer migrants between counties within the same State. This difference should have little influence on the percent distributions by personal characteristics within the various mobility status classes.
School enrollment is shown for persons 20 to 34 years old in the present report. Persons were included as enrolled in school if they were reported as attending or enrolled in a "regular" school or college at any time between February 1, 1960, and the time of enumeration. Regular schooling is that which may advance a person toward an elementary school certificate or high school diploma, or a college, university, or professional degree. Schooling that was not obtained in a regular school and schooling from a tutor or through correspondence courses were counted only if the credits obtained were regarded as transferable to a school in the regular school system. Schooling which is generally regarded as not regular includes that which is given in nursery schools, in specialized vocational, trade, or business schools; in on-the-job training; and through correspondence courses.
Elementary school, as defined here, includes grades 1 to 8, and high school includes grades 9 to 12. College includes junior or community colleges, regular U-year colleges, and graduate or professional schools.
Years of School Completed
The data on years of school completed were derived from the answers to the two questions: (a) "What is the highest grade (or year) of regular school he has ever attended?" and (b) "Did he finish this grade (or year)?" Enumerators were instructed to obtain the approximate equivalent grade in the American school system for persons whose highest grade of attendance was in a foreign school system, whose highest level of attendance was in an ungraded school, whose highest level of schooling was measured by "readers," or whose training by a tutor was regarded as qualifying under the "regular" school definition. Persons were to answer "No" to the second question if they were attending school, had completed only part of a grade before they dropped out, or failed to pass the last grade attended.
The number in each category of highest grade of school completed represents the combination of (a) persons who reported that they had attended the indicated grade and finished it, and (b) those who had attended the next higher grade but had not finished it.
This classification refers to the marital status of the person at the time of enumeration. Persons classified as "married" comprise, therefore, both those who have been married only once and those who remarried after having been widowed or divorced. Persons reported as separated (either legally separated or otherwise absent from the spouse because of marital discord) are classified as a subcategory of married persons. The enumerators were instructed to report persons in common-law marriages as married and persons whose only marriage had been annulled as single. Persons "ever married" are those in the categories married (including separated), widowed, and divorced.
The number of married men may be different from the number of married women for an area because of the absence of husbands or wives from the country, because the husband and wife have different places of residence, because of the methods used to inflate the sample data, or for other reasons.
A married person with "spouse present" is a man or woman whose spouse was enumerated as a member of the same household even though he or she may have been temporarily absent on business or vacation, visiting, in a hospital, etc., at the time of enumeration.
Household, Group Quarters, And Relationship to Head of Household
A household consists of all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room, is regarded as a housing unit when it is occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters; that is, when the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure and there is either (1) direct access from the outside or through a common hall or (2) a kitchen or cooking equipment for the exclusive use of the occupants.
All persons who are not members of households are regarded as living in group quarters. Group quarters are living arrangements for institutional inmates or for other groups containing five or more persons unrelated to the person in charge. Most of the persons in group quarters live in rooming houses, college dormitories, military barracks, or institutions. Inmates of institutions are persons for whom care or custody is provided in such places as homes for delinquent or dependent children; homes and schools for the mentally or physically handicapped; places providing specialized medical care for persons with mental disorders, tuberculosis, or other chronic disease; nursing and domiciliary homes for the aged and dependent; and prisons and jails.
For persons in households, several categories of relationship to head of household are recognized in this report:
1. The head of the household is the member reported as the head by the household respondent. However, if a married woman living with her husband is reported as the head, her husband is classified as the head for the purpose of census tabulations.
2. The wife of a head of a household is a woman married to and living with a household head. This category includes women in common-law marriages as well as women in formal marriages.
3. A child of the head is a son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the head of the household. ""Child of head" is a more inclusive category than "own child of head" (defined below).
4. An other relative of the head is a person related to the head of the household by blood, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another category.
5. A nonrelative of the head is any member of the household who is not related to the household head. This category includes lodgers (roomers and partners, relatives of such persons, and foster children) and resident employees (maids, hired farmhands, etc.).
An own child is defined here as a single (never married) son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the person in question. Only those children who are present in the home are included in the number of own children.
The number of children ever born includes children born to the woman before her present marriage, children no longer living, and children away from home, as well as children borne by the woman who were still living in the home. Although the question on children ever born was asked only of women reported as having been married, the data are not limited to legitimate births.
The data on industry for the labor reserve refer to the last job that had been held. The industry data presented are based on the detailed systems developed for the 1960 Census; see 1960 Census of Population, Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1960. An explanation of the industrial classification system, including its relation to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), is given in 1960 Census of Population, Volume I, Characteristics of the Population, Part 1, United States Summary.
The class-of-worker classification refers to the same job as the occupation classification. The assignment of a person to a particular class-of-worker category is basically independent, however, of the occupation in which he worked. The classification by class of worker consists of four categories which are defined as follows:
1. Private wage and salary workers
Persons who worked for a private employer for wages, salary, commission, tips, pay-in-kind, or at piece rates.
2. Government workers
Persons who worked for any governmental unit (Federal, State, local, or international), regardless of the activity which the particular agency carried on.
3. Self-employed workers
Persons who worked for profit or fees in their own business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm either as an owner or tenant.
4. Unpaid family workers
Persons who worked without pay on a farm or in a business operated by a person to whom they are related by blood or marriage.
Information on income for the calendar year 1959 was requested from all persons years old and over in the sample. "Total income" is the sum of amounts reported separately for wage or salary income, self- employment income, and other income. Wage or salary income is defined as the total money earnings received for work performed as an employee. It represents the amount received before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond purchases, union dues, etc. Self-employment income is defined as net money income (gross receipts minus operating expenses) from a business, farm, or professional enterprise in which the person was engaged on his own account. Earnings are the sum of wage or salary income and self-employment income. Income other than earnings includes money income received from such sources as net rents, interest, dividends, Social Security benefits, pensions, veterans' payments, unemployment insurance, and public assistance or other governmental payments, and periodic receipts from insurance policies or annuities. Not included as income are money received from the sale of property (unless the recipient was engaged in the business of selling such property), the value of income "in kind," withdrawals of bank deposits, money borrowed, tax refunds, and gifts and lump-sum inheritances or insurance payments.