Data Dictionary: Census 2010
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Survey: Census 2010
Data Source: Census Bureau; Social Explorer
Table: PCT12O. Sex By Age (Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic Or Latino) [209]
Universe: People who are Two or More Races, not Hispanic or Latino
Table Details
PCT12O. Sex By Age (Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic Or Latino)
Universe: People who are Two or More Races, not Hispanic or Latino
Variable Label
PCT012O001
PCT012O002
PCT012O003
PCT012O004
PCT012O005
PCT012O006
PCT012O007
PCT012O008
PCT012O009
PCT012O010
PCT012O011
PCT012O012
PCT012O013
PCT012O014
PCT012O015
PCT012O016
PCT012O017
PCT012O018
PCT012O019
PCT012O020
PCT012O021
PCT012O022
PCT012O023
PCT012O024
PCT012O025
PCT012O026
PCT012O027
PCT012O028
PCT012O029
PCT012O030
PCT012O031
PCT012O032
PCT012O033
PCT012O034
PCT012O035
PCT012O036
PCT012O037
PCT012O038
PCT012O039
PCT012O040
PCT012O041
PCT012O042
PCT012O043
PCT012O044
PCT012O045
PCT012O046
PCT012O047
PCT012O048
PCT012O049
PCT012O050
PCT012O051
PCT012O052
PCT012O053
PCT012O054
PCT012O055
PCT012O056
PCT012O057
PCT012O058
PCT012O059
PCT012O060
PCT012O061
PCT012O062
PCT012O063
PCT012O064
PCT012O065
PCT012O066
PCT012O067
PCT012O068
PCT012O069
PCT012O070
PCT012O071
PCT012O072
PCT012O073
PCT012O074
PCT012O075
PCT012O076
PCT012O077
PCT012O078
PCT012O079
PCT012O080
PCT012O081
PCT012O082
PCT012O083
PCT012O084
PCT012O085
PCT012O086
PCT012O087
PCT012O088
PCT012O089
PCT012O090
PCT012O091
PCT012O092
PCT012O093
PCT012O094
PCT012O095
PCT012O096
PCT012O097
PCT012O098
PCT012O099
PCT012O100
PCT012O101
PCT012O102
PCT012O103
PCT012O104
PCT012O105
PCT012O106
PCT012O107
PCT012O108
PCT012O109
PCT012O110
PCT012O111
PCT012O112
PCT012O113
PCT012O114
PCT012O115
PCT012O116
PCT012O117
PCT012O118
PCT012O119
PCT012O120
PCT012O121
PCT012O122
PCT012O123
PCT012O124
PCT012O125
PCT012O126
PCT012O127
PCT012O128
PCT012O129
PCT012O130
PCT012O131
PCT012O132
PCT012O133
PCT012O134
PCT012O135
PCT012O136
PCT012O137
PCT012O138
PCT012O139
PCT012O140
PCT012O141
PCT012O142
PCT012O143
PCT012O144
PCT012O145
PCT012O146
PCT012O147
PCT012O148
PCT012O149
PCT012O150
PCT012O151
PCT012O152
PCT012O153
PCT012O154
PCT012O155
PCT012O156
PCT012O157
PCT012O158
PCT012O159
PCT012O160
PCT012O161
PCT012O162
PCT012O163
PCT012O164
PCT012O165
PCT012O166
PCT012O167
PCT012O168
PCT012O169
PCT012O170
PCT012O171
PCT012O172
PCT012O173
PCT012O174
PCT012O175
PCT012O176
PCT012O177
PCT012O178
PCT012O179
PCT012O180
PCT012O181
PCT012O182
PCT012O183
PCT012O184
PCT012O185
PCT012O186
PCT012O187
PCT012O188
PCT012O189
PCT012O190
PCT012O191
PCT012O192
PCT012O193
PCT012O194
PCT012O195
PCT012O196
PCT012O197
PCT012O198
PCT012O199
PCT012O200
PCT012O201
PCT012O202
PCT012O203
PCT012O204
PCT012O205
PCT012O206
PCT012O207
PCT012O208
PCT012O209
Notes:
Source: 2000 SF1 PCT12O.
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Sex
Individuals were asked to mark either "male&quot or "female" to indicate their sex. For most cases in which sex was not reported, the appropriate entry was determined from the persons given (i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was allocated according to the relationship to the householder and the age of the person. (For more information on allocation, see "2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.")


Sex Ratio
The sex ratio represents the balance between the male and female populations. Ratios above 100 indicate a larger male population, and ratios below 100 indicate a larger female population. This measure is derived by dividing the total number of males by the total number of females and then multiplying by 100. It is rounded to the nearest tenth.

Comparability
A question on the sex of individuals has been asked of the total population in every census.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a two-part question (i.e., age and date of birth). The age classification for a person in census tabulations is the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 2010, the census reference date. Both age and date of birth responses are used in combination to
determine the most accurate age for the person as of the census reference date. Inconsistently reported and missing values are assigned or allocated based on the values of other variables for that person, from other people in the household or from people in other households (i.e., hot-deck imputation).
Age data are tabulated in age groupings and single years of age. Data on age also are used to classify other characteristics in census tabulations.


Median Age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single-year-of-age distribution using a linear interpolation method.

Limitation of the data
There is some tendency for respondents to provide their age as of the date they completed the census questionnaire or interview, not their age as of the census reference date. The two-part question and editing procedures have attempted to minimize the effect of this reporting problem on tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question displays the census reference date prominently, and interviewer training emphasizes the importance of collecting age as of the reference date.

Respondents sometimes round a persons age up if they were close to having a birthday. For most single years of age, the misstatements are largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age 0. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age 1 to avoid reporting age as 0 years. (Age in completed months was not collected for infants under age 1.) Editing procedures correct this problem.

There is some respondent resistance to reporting the ages of babies in completed years (i.e., 0 years old when the baby is under 1 year old). Instead, babies ages are sometimes reported in months. The two-part question along with enhanced editing and data capture procedures correct much of this problem before the age data are finalized in tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question includes an instruction for babies ages to be answered as 0 years old when they are under 1 year old.

Age heaping is a common age misreporting error. Age heaping is the tendency for people to overreport ages (or years of birth) that end in certain digits (commonly digits 0 or 5) and underreport ages or years of birth ending in other digits. The two-part question helps minimize the effect of age heaping on the final tabulations.

Age data for centenarians have a history of data quality challenges. The counts in the 1970 and 1980 Censuses for people 100 years and over were substantially overstated. Editing and data collection methods have been enhanced in order to meet the data quality challenges for this population.

It also has been documented that the population aged 69 in the 1970 Census and the population aged 79 in the 1980 Census were overstated. The population aged 89 in 1990 and the population aged 99 in 2000 did not have an overstated count. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the Comparability section below.)

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. However, there have been some differences in the way they have been collected and processed over time. In the 2010 Census (as in Census 2000), each individual provided both an age and an exact date of birth. The 1990 Census collected age and year of birth. Prior censuses had collected month and quarter of birth in addition to age and year of birth. The 1990 Census change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth.

In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as imputation. The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see 2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.)

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Two or More Races
People may choose to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple responses, or by some combination of check boxes and other responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum race groups identified by OMB and the Census Bureaus Some Other Race category. For data product purposes, Two or More Races refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
  1. White
  2. Black or African American
  3. American Indian or Alaska Native
  4. Asian
  5. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  6. Some Other Race
There are 57 possible combinations (see Figure B-1) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of &quote;White&quote; and "Asian" was tallied as Two or More Races, while a response of Japanese and Chinese was not because Japanese and Chinese are both Asian responses.

Figure B-1. Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)
  1. White; Black or African American
  2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native
  3. White; Asian
  4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  5. White; Some Other Race
  6. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  7. Black or African American; Asian
  8. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  9. Black or African American; Some Other Race
  10. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  11. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  12. American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  13. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  14. Asian; Some Other Race
  15. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  16. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  17. White; Black or African American; Asian
  18. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  19. White; Black or African American; Some Other Race
  20. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  21. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  22. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  23. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  24. White; Asian; Some Other Race
  25. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  26. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  27. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  28. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  29. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  30. Black or African American; Asian; Some Other Race
  31. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  32. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  33. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  34. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  35. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  36. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  37. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  38. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  39. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  40. White; Black or African American; Asian; Some Other Race
  41. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  42. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  43. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  44. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  45. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  46. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  47. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  48. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  49. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  50. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  51. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  52. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  53. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  54. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  55. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  56. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  57. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race


Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Hispanic or Latino Origin
The data on the Hispanic or Latino population were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The terms Hispanic,Latino, and Spanish are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms, while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. People who identify with the terms Hispanic,Latino, or Spanish are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish categories listed on the questionnaire (Mexican,Puerto Rican, or Cuban) as well as those who indicate that they are another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or the Dominican Republic. Up to two write-in responses to the another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin category are coded.

Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the persons parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be any race.

Some tabulations are shown by the origin of the householder. In all cases where the origin of households, families, or occupied housing units is classified as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish, the origin of the householder is used. (See the discussion of householder under "Household Type and Relationship.")

If an individual did not provide a Hispanic origin response, his or her origin was allocated using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if origin was missing for a natural-born child in the household, then either the origin of the householder, another natural-born child, or spouse of the householder was allocated.
If Hispanic origin was not reported for anyone in the household and origin could not be obtained from a response to the race question, then their origin was assigned based on their prior census record (either from Census 2000 or the American Community Survey), if available. If not, then the Hispanic origin of a householder in a previously processed household with the same race was allocated. (For more information on allocation, see "2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.") As in Census 2000, surnames (Spanish and non-Spanish) were used to assist in allocating an origin or race.

Comparability
There are four changes to the Hispanic origin question for the 2010 Census. First, the wording of the question differs from that in 2000. In 2000, the question asked if the person was Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. In 2010, the question asks if the person is of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Second, in 2000, the question provided an instruction, Mark ý the 'No'box if not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. The 2010 Census question provided no specific instruction for non-Hispanics. Third, in 2010, the Yes, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin category provided examples of six Hispanic origin groups (Argentinean, Colombian, Dominican, Nicaraguan, Salvadoran, Spaniard, and so on) and instructed respondents to print origin. In 2000, no Hispanic origin examples were given. Finally, the fourth change was the addition of a new instruction in the 2010 Census that was not used in Census 2000. The instruction is stated as follows: NOTE: Please answer BOTH Question 8 about Hispanic origin and Question 9 about race. For this census, Hispanic origins are not races.

There were two changes to the Hispanic origin question for Census 2000. First, the sequence of the race and Hispanic origin questions for Census 2000 differs from that in 1990; in 1990, the race question preceded the Hispanic origin question. Testing prior to Census 2000 indicated that response to the Hispanic origin question could be improved by placing it before the race question without affecting the response to the race question. Second, there was an instruction preceding the Hispanic origin question indicating that respondents should answer both the Hispanic origin and the race questions. This instruction was added to give emphasis to the distinct concepts of the Hispanic origin and race questions, and emphasized the need for both pieces of information.

Furthermore, there was a change in the processing of the Hispanic origin and race responses. In the 1990 census, respondents provided Hispanic origin responses in the race question and race responses in the Hispanic origin question. In 1990, the Hispanic origin question and the race question had separate edits; therefore, although information may have been present on the questionnaire, it was not fully utilized due to the discrete nature of the edits. However, for Census 2000, there was a joint race and Hispanic origin edit that utilized Hispanic origin and race information regardless of the location.