Data Dictionary: Census 2010
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Survey: Census 2010
Data Source: Census Bureau; Social Explorer
Table: PCO4. Group Quarters Population In Juvenile Facilities By Sex By Age [39]
Universe: Population in juvenile facilities
Table Details
PCO4. Group Quarters Population In Juvenile Facilities By Sex By Age
Universe: Population in juvenile facilities
Variable Label
PCO0040001
PCO0040002
PCO0040003
PCO0040004
PCO0040005
PCO0040006
PCO0040007
PCO0040008
PCO0040009
PCO0040010
PCO0040011
PCO0040012
PCO0040013
PCO0040014
PCO0040015
PCO0040016
PCO0040017
PCO0040018
PCO0040019
PCO0040020
PCO0040021
PCO0040022
PCO0040023
PCO0040024
PCO0040025
PCO0040026
PCO0040027
PCO0040028
PCO0040029
PCO0040030
PCO0040031
PCO0040032
PCO0040033
PCO0040034
PCO0040035
PCO0040036
PCO0040037
PCO0040038
PCO0040039
Notes:
Source: NEW For information on the codes that appear in this table see http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/doc/sf1.pdf, Appendix F.
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Group Quarters
Group quarters are places where people live or stay in a group living arrangement, which are owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents. This is not a typical household-type living arrangement. These services may include custodial or medical care as well as other types of assistance, and residency is commonly restricted to those receiving these services. People living in group quarters are usually not related to each other.
Group quarters include such places as college residence halls, residential treatment centers, skilled-nursing facilities, group homes, military barracks, correctional facilities, and workers dormitories.

Institutional Group Quarters
Institutional group quarters (group quarters type codes 101-106, 201-203, 301, 401-405) are facilities that house those who are primarily ineligible, unable, or unlikely to participate in the labor force while residents.


Correctional Facilities for Adults (codes 101-106)
Correctional facilities for adults include the following types:

Federal detention centers (code 101)-Federal detention centers are stand alone, generally multi-level, federally operated correctional facilities that provide short-term confinement or custody of adults pending adjudication or sentencing. These facilities may hold pretrial detainees, holdovers, sentenced offenders, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) inmates, formerly called Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) inmates. These facilities include Metropolitan Correctional Centers (MCCs), Metropolitan Detention Centers (MDCs), Federal Detention Centers (FDCs), Bureau of Indian Affairs Detention Centers, ICE Service Processing Centers, and ICE Contract Detention Facilities.

Federal (code 102) and state (code 103) prisons-Federal and state prisons are adult correctional facilities where people convicted of crimes serve their sentences. Common names include prison, penitentiary, correctional institution, federal or state correctional facility, and conservation camp. The prisons are classified by two types of control: 1) federal (operated by or for the Bureau of Prisons of the U.S. Department of Justice) and 2) state. Residents who are forensic patients or criminally insane are classified on the basis of where they resided at the time of enumeration. Patients in hospitals (units, wings, or floors) operated by or for federal or state correctional authorities are counted in the prison population. Other forensic patients will be enumerated in psychiatric hospital units and floors for long-term non-acute patients. This category may include privately operated correctional facilities.

Local jails and other municipal confinement facilities (code 104)-Local jails and other municipal confinement facilities are correctional facilities operated by or for counties, cities, and American Indian and Alaska Native tribal governments. These facilities hold adults detained pending adjudication and/or people committed after adjudication. This category also includes work farms and camps used to hold people awaiting trial or serving time on relatively short sentences. Residents who are forensic patients or criminally insane are classified on the basis of where they resided at the time of enumeration. Patients in hospitals (units, wings, or floors) operated by or for local correctional authorities are counted in the jail population. Other forensic patients will be enumerated in psychiatric hospital units and floors for long-term non-acute care patients. This category may include privately operated correctional facilities.

Correctional residential facilities (code 105)Correctional residential facilities are community-based facilities operated for correctional purposes. The facility residents may be allowed extensive contact with the community, such as for employment or attending school, but are obligated to occupy the premises at night. Examples of correctional residential facilities are halfway houses, restitution centers, and prerelease, work release, and study centers.
Military disciplinary barracks and jails (code 106)-Military disciplinary barracks and jails are correctional facilities managed by the military to hold those awaiting trial or convicted of crimes.


Juvenile Facilities (codes 201-203)
Juvenile facilities include the following:
Group homes for juveniles (non-correctional) (code 201)-Group homes for juveniles include community-based group living arrangements for youth in residential settings that are able to accommodate three or more clients of a service provider. The group home provides room and board and services, including behavioral, psychological, or social programs. Generally, clients are not related to the caregiver or to each other. Examples of non-correctional group homes for juveniles are maternity homes for unwed mothers, orphanages, and homes for abused and neglected children in need of services. Group homes for juveniles do not include residential treatment centers for juveniles or group homes operated by or for correctional authorities.

Residential treatment centers for juveniles (non-correctional) (code 202)-Residential treatment centers for juveniles include facilities that provide services primarily to youth on-site in a highly structured live-in environment for the treatment of drug/alcohol abuse, mental illness, and emotional/behavioral disorders. These facilities are staffed 24 hours a day. The focus of a residential treatment center is on the treatment program. Residential treatment centers for juveniles do not include facilities operated by or for correctional authorities.

Correctional facilities intended for juveniles (code 203) - Correctional facilities intended for juveniles include specialized facilities that provide strict confinement for their residents and detain juveniles awaiting adjudication, commitment or placement, and/or those being held for diagnosis or classification. Also included are correctional facilities where residents are permitted contact with the community for purposes such as attending school or holding a job. Examples of correctional facilities intended for juveniles are residential training schools and farms, reception and diagnostic centers, group homes operated by or for correctional authorities, detention centers, and boot camps for juvenile delinquents.

Nursing Facilities/Skilled-Nursing Facilities (code 301)
Nursing facilities/Skilled-nursing facilities include facilities licensed to provide medical care with 7-day, 24-hour coverage for people requiring long-term non-acute care. People in these facilities require nursing care, regardless of age. Either of these types of facilities may be referred to as nursing homes.


Other Institutional Facilities (codes 401-405)
Other institutional facilities include the following:
Mental (psychiatric) hospitals and psychiatric units in other hospitals (code 401)-Mental (psychiatric) hospitals and psychiatric units in other hospitals include psychiatric hospitals, units and floors for long-term non-acute care patients. The primary function of the hospital, unit, or floor is to provide diagnostic and treatment services for long-term non-acute patients who have psychiatric-related illness. All patients are enumerated in this category.

Hospitals with patients who have no usual home elsewhere (code 402)-Hospitals with patients who have no usual home elsewhere include hospitals that have any patients who have no exit or disposition plan, or who are known as boarder patients or boarder babies. All hospitals are eligible for inclusion in this category except psychiatric hospitals, units, wings, or floors operated by federal, state, or local correctional authorities. Patients in hospitals operated by these correctional authorities will be counted in the prison or jail population. Psychiatric units and hospice units in hospitals are also excluded. Only patients with no usual home elsewhere are enumerated in this category.
In-patient hospice facilities (both free-standing and units in hospitals) (code 403)-In-patient hospice facilities (both free-standing and units in hospitals) include facilities that provide palliative, comfort, and supportive care for terminally ill patients and their families. Only patients with no usual home elsewhere are tabulated in this category.
Military treatment facilities with assigned patients (code 404)-Military treatment facilities with assigned patients include military hospitals and medical centers with active duty patients assigned to the facility. Only these patients are enumerated in this category.

Residential schools for people with disabilities (code 405)-Residential schools for people with disabilities include schools that provide the teaching of skills for daily living, education programs, and care for students with disabilities in a live-in environment. Examples of residential schools for people with disabilities are residential schools for the physically or developmentally disabled.

Noninstitutional Group Quarters
Noninstitutional group quarters (group quarters type codes 501, 601, 602, 701, 702, 704, 706, 801, 802, 900, 901, 903, 904) are facilities that house those who are primarily eligible, able, or likely to participate in the labor force while residents.

College/University Student Housing (code 501)
College/University student housing includes residence halls and dormitories, which house college and university students in a group living arrangement. These facilities are owned, leased, or managed either by a college, university, or seminary, or by a private entity or organization. Fraternity and sorority housing recognized by the college or university are included as college student housing. However, students attending the U.S. Naval Academy, U.S. Military Academy (West Point), U.S. Coast Guard Academy, and U.S. Air Force Academy are counted in military group quarters.

Military Quarters (codes 601 and 602)
Military quarters (code 601) are facilities that include military personnel living in barracks (including "open" barrack transient quarters) and dormitories and military ships (code 602). Patients assigned to Military Treatment Facilities and people being held in military disciplinary barracks and jails are not enumerated in this category. Patients in Military Treatment Facilities with no usual home elsewhere are not enumerated in this category.

Other Noninstitutional Facilities (codes 701, 702, 704, 706, 801, 802, 900, 901, 903, and 904)
Other noninstitutional facilities include the following:
    Emergency and transitional shelters (with sleeping facilities) for people experiencing homelessness (code 701)-Emergency and transitional shelters (with sleeping facilities) for people experiencing homelessness are facilities where people experiencing homelessness stay overnight. These include:
1. Shelters that operate on a first-come, first-serve basis where people must leave in the morning and have no guaranteed bed for the next night.
2. Shelters where people know that they have a bed for a specified period of time (even if they leave the building every day).
3. Shelters that provide temporary shelter during extremely cold weather (such as churches). This category does not include shelters that operate only in the event of a natural disaster.

Examples are emergency and transitional shelters; missions; hotels and motels used to shelter people experiencing homelessness; shelters for children who are runaways, neglected, or experiencing homelessness; and similar places known to have people experiencing homelessness.

Soup kitchens, regularly scheduled mobile food vans, and targeted non-sheltered outdoor locations (codes 702, 704, and 706)-This category includes soup kitchens that offer meals organized as food service lines or bag or box lunches for people experiencing homelessness; street locations where mobile food vans regularly stop to provide food to people experiencing homelessness; and targeted non-sheltered outdoor locations where people experiencing homelessness live without paying to stay. This also would include persons staying in pre-identified car, recreational vehicle (RV), and tent encampments. Targeted non-sheltered outdoor locations must have a specific location description; for example, "the Brooklyn Bridge at the corner of Bristol Drive, " "the 700 block of Taylor Street behind the old warehouse",or the address of the parking lot being utilized.

Group homes intended for adults - (code 801)Group homes intended for adults are community-based group living arrangements in residential settings that are able to accommodate three or more clients of a service provider. The group home provides room and board and services, including behavioral, psychological, or social programs. Generally, clients are not related to the caregiver or to each other. Group homes do not include residential treatment centers or facilities operated by or for correctional authorities.

Residential treatment centers for adults (code 802) - Residential treatment centers for adults provide treatment on-site in a highly structured live-in environment for the treatment of drug/alcohol abuse, mental illness, and emotional/behavioral disorders. They are staffed 24 hours a day. The focus of a residential treatment center is on the treatment program. Residential treatment centers do not include facilities operated by or for correctional authorities.

Maritime/Merchant vessels (code 900) - Maritime/merchant vessels include U.S. owned and operated flag vessels used for commercial or noncombatant government-related purposes at U.S. ports, on the sea, or on the Great Lakes.

Workers group living quarters and Job Corps centers (code 901) - Workers group living quarters and Job Corps centers include facilities such as dormitories, bunkhouses, and similar types of group living arrangements for agricultural and non-agricultural workers. This category also includes facilities that provide a full-time, year-round residential program offering a vocational training and employment program that helps young people 16 to 24 years old learn a trade, earn a high school diploma or GED, and get help finding a job. Examples are group living quarters at migratory farm-worker camps, construction workers camps, Job Corps centers, and vocational training facilities.

Living quarters for victims of natural disasters (code 903) - Living quarters for victims of natural disasters are temporary group living arrangements established as a result of natural disasters.

Religious group quarters and domestic violence shelters (code 904)-Religious group quarters are living quarters owned or operated by religious organizations that are intended to house their members in a group living situation. This category includes such places as convents, monasteries, and abbeys. Living quarters for students living or staying in seminaries are classified as college student housing, not religious group quarters. Domestic violence shelters are community-based homes, shelters, or crisis centers that provide housing for people who have sought shelter from household violence and who may have been physically abused.

Comparability
Due to the consolidation of group quarters types and general streamlining of the definitions, several changes have been implemented in the 2010 Census group quarters definitions and type codes that are reflected in 2010 Census data products.

As in Census 2000, group quarters are either institutional group quarters or noninstitutional group quarters.

Institutional group quarters are facilities that house those who are primarily ineligible, unable, or unlikely to participate in the labor force while residents. This definition has been simplified since the 1990 and 2000 Censuses (both used the same definition, which focused on institutions providing formally authorized, supervised care or custody) to focus on labor force participation.

The phrase institutionalized persons in the 1990 Census data was changed to institutionalized population in Census 2000 and continues in the 2010 Census.

Correctional facilities for adults - In the 2010 Census data products, the Census 2000 term other type of correctional institutions is categorized as "correctional residential facilities."

Juvenile facilities - Those group quarters categorized as "homes for abused, dependent, and neglected children" (public, private, or ownership unknown) in the Census 2000 data products are categorized as group homes for juveniles (non-correctional) in the 2010 Census data products. Those categorized in training schools (public, private, and ownership unknown), detention centers, reception or diagnostic centers, and type of juvenile institution unknown in Census 2000 data products are categorized in the 2010 Census data products as correctional facilities intended for juveniles (i.e., training schools and farms, reception and diagnostic centers, detention centers, boot camps and group homes operated by or for correctional authorities).

Nursing facilities/skilled-nursing facilities - In the 2010 Census data products, all nursing homes are categorized as "nursing facilities/skilled-nursing facilities.quot;
Other institutional facilities - Those group quarters categorized as schools, hospitals, or wards for the physically handicapped in Census 2000 data products are categorized as "residential schools for people with disabilities" in the 2010 Census data products. "Military hospitals or wards for chronically ill are classified as military treatment facilities with assigned patients in the 2010 Census data products. Also, what were called military hospitals with patients who have no usual home elsewhere in Census 2000 data products are categorized as hospitals with patients who have no usual home elsewhere in 2010 Census data products. Hospices or homes for the chronically ill or other hospitals or wards for chronically ill are categorized in the 2010 Census data products as in-patient hospice facilities.Hospitals and wards for drug/alcohol abuse and mentally ill (psychiatric) hospitals or wards are categorized in the 2010 Census data products as mental (psychiatric) hospitals and psychiatric units in other hospitals.

The phrase staff residents was used for staff living in institutions in both the 1990 and 2000 Censuses. In Census 2000, staff living in institutions included those living in agricultural workers dormitories,other workers dormitories,Job Corps and vocational training facilities,dormitories for nurses and interns in military hospitals, and dormitories for nurses and interns in general hospitals. In the 2010 Census, all these groups are categorized as workers group living quarters and Job Corps centers.

Noninstitutional group quarters - In the 1990 Census, the Census Bureau used the phrase other persons in group quarters for people living in noninstitutionalized group quarters. In 2000, this group was referred to for the first time as the noninstitutionalized population. In 2010, this population continues to be referred to as the noninstitutionalized population. Noninstitutional group quarters are facilities that house those who are primarily eligible, able, or likely to participate in the labor force while a resident.

As of Census 2000, the Census Bureau dropped the rule of classifying ten or more unrelated people living together as living in noninstitutional group quarters. This rule was used in the 1990 and 1980 Censuses. In the 1970 Census, the criteria was six or more unrelated people.

College/University student housing - In the 2010 Census, residence halls and dormitories, which house college and university students in a group living arrangement, may be owned, leased, or managed either by a college, university, or seminary or by a private entity or organization. In Census 2000, these types of facilities had to be owned by the college or university.

Military quarters - In 1960 data products, people in military barracks were shown only for men. Starting in 1970 and to the present, data are available for both men and women in military barracks. What were classified as transient quarters for temporary residents (military or civilian)" in Census 2000 data products no longer include the civilian population, and the military residents are tabulated in "military quarters" in 2010 Census data products.

Other noninstitutional facilities- In the 2010 Census, "workers group living quarters and Job Corps centers" are comprised of the following Census 2000 group quarters types: "agriculture workers" dormitories," "other workers" dormitories," "Job Corps and vocational training facilities," and "dormitories for nurses and interns in hospitals (general and military)." As in Census 2000 and also in 1990, workers dormitories were classified as group quarters regardless of the number of people sharing the dormitory. In 1980, ten or more unrelated people had to share the dorm for it to be classified as a group quarters.
In the 2010 Census, "emergency and transitional shelters (with sleep facilities) for people experiencing homelessness" includes the Census 2000 categories "emergency and transitional shelters" and "shelters for children who are runaways, neglected, or without conventional housing."
In the 2010 Census, "religious group quarters" are combined with "shelters for abused women (or shelters against domestic violence)" to make the category "religious group quarters and domestic violence shelters."
In the 2010 Census data products, the category "group homes intended for adults (non-correctional)" consists of the following group quarters types (as listed in Census 2000): homes for the mentally ill," "homes for the mentally retarded," "homes for the physically handicapped," "residential care facilities providing protective oversight," and "other group homes." "Homes or halfway houses for drug/alcohol abuse" are categorized as "residential treatment centers for adults (non-correctional)."
The following group quarters types that were included in Census 2000 are no longer classified as group quarters in the 2010 Census: "military hotels/campgrounds," " transient locations," and "other household living situations ' -dangerous encampments."
Like in Census 2000, rooming and boarding houses are classified as housing units in the 2010 Census. In the 1990 Census, these were considered group quarters.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Juvenile Facilities (codes 201-203)
Juvenile facilities include the following:
Group homes for juveniles (non-correctional) (code 201)-Group homes for juveniles include community-based group living arrangements for youth in residential settings that are able to accommodate three or more clients of a service provider. The group home provides room and board and services, including behavioral, psychological, or social programs. Generally, clients are not related to the caregiver or to each other. Examples of non-correctional group homes for juveniles are maternity homes for unwed mothers, orphanages, and homes for abused and neglected children in need of services. Group homes for juveniles do not include residential treatment centers for juveniles or group homes operated by or for correctional authorities.

Residential treatment centers for juveniles (non-correctional) (code 202)-Residential treatment centers for juveniles include facilities that provide services primarily to youth on-site in a highly structured live-in environment for the treatment of drug/alcohol abuse, mental illness, and emotional/behavioral disorders. These facilities are staffed 24 hours a day. The focus of a residential treatment center is on the treatment program. Residential treatment centers for juveniles do not include facilities operated by or for correctional authorities.

Correctional facilities intended for juveniles (code 203) - Correctional facilities intended for juveniles include specialized facilities that provide strict confinement for their residents and detain juveniles awaiting adjudication, commitment or placement, and/or those being held for diagnosis or classification. Also included are correctional facilities where residents are permitted contact with the community for purposes such as attending school or holding a job. Examples of correctional facilities intended for juveniles are residential training schools and farms, reception and diagnostic centers, group homes operated by or for correctional authorities, detention centers, and boot camps for juvenile delinquents.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Sex
Individuals were asked to mark either "male&quot or "female" to indicate their sex. For most cases in which sex was not reported, the appropriate entry was determined from the persons given (i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was allocated according to the relationship to the householder and the age of the person. (For more information on allocation, see "2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.")


Sex Ratio
The sex ratio represents the balance between the male and female populations. Ratios above 100 indicate a larger male population, and ratios below 100 indicate a larger female population. This measure is derived by dividing the total number of males by the total number of females and then multiplying by 100. It is rounded to the nearest tenth.

Comparability
A question on the sex of individuals has been asked of the total population in every census.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a two-part question (i.e., age and date of birth). The age classification for a person in census tabulations is the age of the person in completed years as of April 1, 2010, the census reference date. Both age and date of birth responses are used in combination to
determine the most accurate age for the person as of the census reference date. Inconsistently reported and missing values are assigned or allocated based on the values of other variables for that person, from other people in the household or from people in other households (i.e., hot-deck imputation).
Age data are tabulated in age groupings and single years of age. Data on age also are used to classify other characteristics in census tabulations.


Median Age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single-year-of-age distribution using a linear interpolation method.

Limitation of the data
There is some tendency for respondents to provide their age as of the date they completed the census questionnaire or interview, not their age as of the census reference date. The two-part question and editing procedures have attempted to minimize the effect of this reporting problem on tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question displays the census reference date prominently, and interviewer training emphasizes the importance of collecting age as of the reference date.

Respondents sometimes round a persons age up if they were close to having a birthday. For most single years of age, the misstatements are largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age 0. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age 1 to avoid reporting age as 0 years. (Age in completed months was not collected for infants under age 1.) Editing procedures correct this problem.

There is some respondent resistance to reporting the ages of babies in completed years (i.e., 0 years old when the baby is under 1 year old). Instead, babies ages are sometimes reported in months. The two-part question along with enhanced editing and data capture procedures correct much of this problem before the age data are finalized in tabulations. Additionally, the current census age question includes an instruction for babies ages to be answered as 0 years old when they are under 1 year old.

Age heaping is a common age misreporting error. Age heaping is the tendency for people to overreport ages (or years of birth) that end in certain digits (commonly digits 0 or 5) and underreport ages or years of birth ending in other digits. The two-part question helps minimize the effect of age heaping on the final tabulations.

Age data for centenarians have a history of data quality challenges. The counts in the 1970 and 1980 Censuses for people 100 years and over were substantially overstated. Editing and data collection methods have been enhanced in order to meet the data quality challenges for this population.

It also has been documented that the population aged 69 in the 1970 Census and the population aged 79 in the 1980 Census were overstated. The population aged 89 in 1990 and the population aged 99 in 2000 did not have an overstated count. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the Comparability section below.)

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. However, there have been some differences in the way they have been collected and processed over time. In the 2010 Census (as in Census 2000), each individual provided both an age and an exact date of birth. The 1990 Census collected age and year of birth. Prior censuses had collected month and quarter of birth in addition to age and year of birth. The 1990 Census change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth.

In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as imputation. The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see 2010 Census: Operational Overview and Accuracy of the Data.)