Data Dictionary: Census 2010
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Survey: Census 2010
Data Source: Census Bureau; Social Explorer
Table: P10. Race For The Population 18 Years And Over [71]
Universe: Population 18 years and over
Table Details
P10. Race For The Population 18 Years And Over
Universe: Population 18 years and over
Variable Label
P0100001
P0100002
P0100003
P0100004
P0100005
P0100006
P0100007
P0100008
P0100009
P0100010
P0100011
P0100012
P0100013
P0100014
P0100015
P0100016
P0100017
P0100018
P0100019
P0100020
P0100021
P0100022
P0100023
P0100024
P0100025
P0100026
P0100027
P0100028
P0100029
P0100030
P0100031
P0100032
P0100033
P0100034
P0100035
P0100036
P0100037
P0100038
P0100039
P0100040
P0100041
P0100042
P0100043
P0100044
P0100045
P0100046
P0100047
P0100048
P0100049
P0100050
P0100051
P0100052
P0100053
P0100054
P0100055
P0100056
P0100057
P0100058
P0100059
P0100060
P0100061
P0100062
P0100063
P0100064
P0100065
P0100066
P0100067
P0100068
P0100069
P0100070
P0100071
Notes:
Source: 2000 SF1 P5.
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, Issued June 2011.
 
Race
The data on race were derived from answers to the question on race that was asked of all people. The U.S. Census Bureau collects race data in accordance with guidelines provided by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and these data are based on self-identification. The racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups. People may choose to report more than one race to indicate their racial mixture, such as American Indian and White. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be any race.

The racial classifications used by the Census Bureau adhere to the October 30, 1997, Federal Register notice entitled, Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity issued by OMB. These standards govern the categories used to collect and present federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB requires five minimum categories (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) for race. The race categories are described below with a sixth category, Some Other Race, added with OMB approval. In addition to the five race groups, OMB also states that respondents should be offered the option of selecting one or more races.

If an individual did not provide a race response, the race or races of the householder or other household members were imputed using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if race was missing for a natural-born child in the household, then either the race or races of the householder, another natural-born child, or spouse of the householder were allocated.

If race was not reported for anyone in the household, then their race was imputed based on their prior census record (either from Census 2000 or the American Community Survey), if available. If not, then the race or races of a householder in a previously processed household were allocated.

Definitions from OMB guide the Census Bureau in classifying written responses to the race question:

A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as White or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian.

Black or African American
A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as Black, African Am., or Negro or report entries such as African American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.

American Indian or Alaska Native
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. This category includes people who indicate their race as American Indian or Alaska Native or report entries such as Navajo, Blackfeet, Inupiat, Yupik, or Central American Indian groups or South American Indian groups.

Respondents who identified themselves as American Indian or Alaska Native were asked to report their enrolled or principal tribe. Therefore, tribal data in tabulations reflect the written entries reported on the questionnaires. Some of the entries (for example, Metlakatla Indian Community and Umatilla) represent reservations or a confederation of tribes on a reservation. The information on tribe is based on self-identification and, therefore, does not reflect any designation of federally or state-recognized tribe. The information for the 2010 Census was derived from the American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Classification List for Census 2000 and updated from 2002 to 2009 based on the annual Federal Register notice entitled Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, issued by OMB, and through consultation with American Indian and Alaska Native communities and leaders.
The American Indian categories shown in Summary Files 1 and 2 represent tribal groupings, which refer to the combining of individual American Indian tribes, such as Fort Sill Apache, Mescalero Apache, and San Carlos Apache, into the general Apache tribal grouping.
The Alaska Native categories shown in Summary Files 1 and 2 represent tribal groupings, which refer to the combining of individual Alaska Native tribes, such as King Salmon Tribe, Native Village of Kanatak, and Sunaq Tribe of Kodiak, into the general Aleut tribal grouping.

A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes people who indicate their race as Asian Indian,Chinese,Filipino,Korean,Japanese,Vietnamese, and Other Asian or provide other detailed Asian responses.
    Asian Indian-Includes people who indicate their race as Asian Indian or report entries such as India or East Indian.
    Bangladeshi-Includes people who provide a response such as Bangladeshi or Bangladesh.
    Bhutanese-Includes people who provide a response such as Bhutanese or Bhutan.
    Burmese-Includes people who provide a response such as Burmese or Burma.
    Cambodian-Includes people who provide a response such as Cambodian or Cambodia.
    Chinese-Includes people who indicate their race as Chinese or report entries such as China or Chinese American. In some census tabulations, written entries of Taiwanese are included with Chinese, while in others they are shown separately.
    Filipino-Includes people who indicate their race as Filipino or report entries such as Philippines or Filipino American.
    Hmong-Includes people who provide a response such as Hmong or Mong.
    Indonesian-Includes people who provide a response such as Indonesian or Indonesia.
    Japanese-Includes people who indicate their race as Japanese or report entries such as Japan or Japanese American.
    Korean-Includes people who indicate their race as Korean or report entries such as Korea or Korean American.
Definitions of Subject Characteristics B-9U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1
    Laotian-Includes people who provide a response such as Laotian or Laos.
    Malaysian-Includes people who provide a response such as Malaysian or Malaysia.
    Nepalese-Includes people who provide a response such as Nepalese or Nepal.
    Pakistani-Includes people who provide a response such as Pakistani or Pakistan.
    Sri Lankan-Includes people who provide a response such as Sri Lankan or Sri Lanka.
    Taiwanese-Includes people who provide a response such as Taiwanese or Taiwan.
    Thai-Includes people who provide a response such as Thai or Thailand.
    Vietnamese-Includes people who indicate their race as Vietnamese or report entries such as Vietnam or Vietnamese American.
    Other Asian, specified-Includes people who provide a response of another Asian group, such as Iwo Jiman, Maldivian, Mongolian, Okinawan, or Singaporean.
    Other Asian, not specified-Includes respondents who checked the Other Asian response category on the census questionnaire and did not write in a specific group or wrote in a generic term such as Asian or Asiatic.

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as Native Hawaiian,Guamanian or Chamorro,Samoan, and Other Pacific Islander or provide other detailed Pacific Islander responses.
  Native Hawaiian-Includes people who indicate their race as Native Hawaiian or report entries such as Part Hawaiian or Hawaiian.
  Samoan-Includes people who indicate their race as Samoan or report entries such as American Samoan or Western Samoan.
  Tongan-Includes people who provide a response such as Tongan or Tonga.
  Other Polynesian-Includes people who provide a response of another Polynesian group, such as Tahitian, Tokelauan, or wrote in a generic term such as Polynesian.
  Guamanian or Chamorro-Includes people who indicate their race as Guamanian or Chamorro or report entries such as Chamorro or Guam.
  Marshallese-Includes people who provide a response such as Marshallese or Marshall Islands.
  Other Micronesian-Includes people who provide a response of another Micronesian group, such as Carolinian, Chuukese, I-Kiribati, Kosraean, Mariana Islander, Palauan, Pohnpeian, Saipanese, Yapese, or wrote in a generic term such as Micronesian.
  Fijian-Includes people who provide a response such as Fijian or Fiji.
  Other Melanesian-Includes people who provide a response of another Melanesian group, such as Guinean, Hebrides Islander, Solomon Islander, or wrote in a generic term such as Melanesian.
  Other Pacific Islander, not specified-Includes respondents who checked the Other Pacific Islander response category on the census questionnaire and did not write in a specific group or wrote in a generic term such as Pacific Islander.

Some Other Race
Includes all other responses not included in the White,Black or African American,American Indian or Alaska Native,Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander race categories described above. Respondents reporting entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic,
Latino, or Spanish group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or Spanish) in response to the race question are included in this category.
B-10 Definitions of Subject CharacteristicsU.S. Census Bureau, 2010 Census Summary File 1

Two or More Races
People may choose to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple responses, or by some combination of check boxes and other responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum race groups identified by OMB and the Census Bureaus Some Other Race category. For data product purposes, Two or More Races refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
  1. White
  2. Black or African American
  3. American Indian or Alaska Native
  4. Asian
  5. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  6. Some Other Race
There are 57 possible combinations (see Figure B-1) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of &quote;White&quote; and "Asian" was tallied as Two or More Races, while a response of Japanese and Chinese was not because Japanese and Chinese are both Asian responses.

Figure B-1. Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)
  1. White; Black or African American
  2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native
  3. White; Asian
  4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  5. White; Some Other Race
  6. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  7. Black or African American; Asian
  8. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  9. Black or African American; Some Other Race
  10. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  11. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  12. American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  13. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  14. Asian; Some Other Race
  15. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  16. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  17. White; Black or African American; Asian
  18. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  19. White; Black or African American; Some Other Race
  20. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  21. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  22. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  23. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  24. White; Asian; Some Other Race
  25. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  26. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  27. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  28. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  29. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  30. Black or African American; Asian; Some Other Race
  31. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  32. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  33. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  34. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  35. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  36. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  37. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  38. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some Other Race
  39. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  40. White; Black or African American; Asian; Some Other Race
  41. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  42. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  43. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  44. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  45. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  46. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  47. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  48. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  49. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  50. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  51. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  52. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some Other Race
  53. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  54. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  55. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  56. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race
  57. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some Other Race


Race Concepts
Given the many possible ways of displaying data on race, data products will provide varying levels of detail. There are several additional concepts used to display race information for the six major race categories (White; Black or African American; American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and Some Other Race) and the various details within these groups. The concept race "alone" includes people who reported a single entry (e.g., Korean) and no other race, as well as people who reported two or more entries within the same major race group (e.g., Asian). For example, respondents who reported Korean and Vietnamese are part of the larger "Asian alone" race group. The concept race alone or in combination includes people who reported a single race alone (e.g., Asian) and people who reported that race in combination with one or more of the other major race groups (e.g., White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race). The concept race alone or in combination concept, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as that race group, either alone or in combination with one or more additional race(s). The sum of the six individual race alone-or-in-combination categories may add to more than the total population because people who reported more than one race were tallied in each race category. The concept "race alone or in any combination" applies only to detailed race groups, such as American Indian and Alaska Native tribes, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Pacific Islander groups. For example, Korean alone or in any combination includes people who reported a single response (e.g., Korean), people who reported Korean and another Asian group (e.g., Korean and Vietnamese), and people who reported Korean in combination with one or more other non-Asian race groups (e.g., White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, or Some Other Race).

Coding of Write-In Entries
The 2010 Census included an automated review, computer edit, and coding operation on a 100 percent basis for the write-in responses to the race question, similar to that used in Census 2000. There were two types of coding operations: 1) automated coding where a write-in response was automatically coded if it matched a write-in response already contained in a database known as the master file and 2) expert coding, which took place when a write-in response did not match an entry already on the master file and was sent to expert coders familiar with the subject matter. During the coding process, subject-matter specialists reviewed and coded written entries from the response areas on the race question: American Indian or Alaska Native, Other Asian, Other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race. Up to 30 text characters werecollected from each race write-in area, and up to two responses were coded and tabulated from each separate race write-in area.

Comparability
There are three changes to the race question for the 2010 Census. First, the note to respondents was changed to read, Please answer BOTH Question 8 about Hispanic origin and Question 9 about race. For this census, Hispanic origins are not races. Second, the wording of the race question was changed from What is this persons race? Mark ý one or more races to indicate what this person considers himself/herself to be to What is Person 1s race? Mark ý one or more boxes. Third, examples were added to the Other Asian response categories (Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on) and the Other Pacific Islander response categories (Fijian, Tongan, and so on). The treatment of ethnic or national origin write-in responses to the race question also was different. For Census 2000, data on single ancestry by race from the 1990 census were used to help make decisions about how to code ethnic or national origin responses into one or more race categories. Essentially, if 90 percent or more of people who reported a single, specific ancestry reported in a specific race category in 1990 (e.g., more than 90 percent of people indicating Haitian ancestry reported as Black in the question on race), then that race was used as the Census 2000 response. This 90 percent rule was not applied to write-in responses of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes, Asian groups, or Pacific Islander groups because the question on race was designed explicitly to obtain these types of responses. For example, a write-in response of Haitian and Moroccan was coded as Black and Some Other Race.Moroccan was coded as Some Other Race because less than 90 percent of people indicating Moroccan ancestry reported in one specific race category in the question on race. For the 2010 Census, ethnic or national origin write-in responses to the race question were coded into one or more of the five OMB race categories, according to the 1997 OMB definitions of race. For example, a 2010 Census write-in response of Haitian and Moroccan was coded as Black and White following OMBs definitions. If it was not possible to determine which OMB race category the ethnic group or national origin should be coded into, it was included in the Some Other Race category. For more information about comparability to data collected in previous censuses, see Census 2000 Summary File 1 Technical Documentation prepared by the U.S. Census Bureau, 2001, at www.census.gov/cen2000/doc/sf1.pdf.