Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: PCT60. Poverty Status In 1999 Of Families By Family Type By Work Experience Of Householder And Spouse [47]
Universe: Families
Table Details
PCT60. Poverty Status In 1999 Of Families By Family Type By Work Experience Of Householder And Spouse
Universe: Families
Variable Label
PCT060001
PCT060002
PCT060003
PCT060004
PCT060005
PCT060006
PCT060007
PCT060008
PCT060009
PCT060010
PCT060011
PCT060012
PCT060013
PCT060014
PCT060015
PCT060016
PCT060017
PCT060018
PCT060019
PCT060020
PCT060021
PCT060022
PCT060023
PCT060024
PCT060025
PCT060026
PCT060027
PCT060028
PCT060029
PCT060030
PCT060031
PCT060032
PCT060033
PCT060034
PCT060035
PCT060036
PCT060037
PCT060038
PCT060039
PCT060040
PCT060041
PCT060042
PCT060043
PCT060044
PCT060045
PCT060046
PCT060047
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Poverty Status in 1999
The poverty data were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Items 31 and 32, the same questions used to derive income data. (For more information, see "Income in 1999.") The Census Bureau uses the federal governments official poverty definition. The Social Security Administration (SSA) developed the original poverty definition in 1964, which federal interagency committees subsequently revised in 1969 and 1980. The Office of Management and Budgets (OMBs) Directive 14 prescribes this definition as the official poverty measure for federal agencies to use in their statistical work.

Derivation of the Current Poverty Measure
When the Social Security Administration (SSA) created the poverty definition in 1964, it focused on family food consumption. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) used its data about the nutritional needs of children and adults to construct food plans for families. Within each food plan, dollar amounts varied according to the total number of people in the family and the familys composition, such as the number of children within each family. The cheapest of these plans, the Economy Food Plan, was designed to address the dietary needs of families on an austere budget. Since the USDAs 1955 Food Consumption Survey showed that families of three or more people across all income levels spent roughly one-third of their income on food, the SSA multiplied the cost of the Economy Food Plan by three to obtain dollar figures for the poverty thresholds. Since the Economy Food Plan budgets varied by family size and composition, so too did the poverty thresholds. For 2-person families, the thresholds were adjusted by slightly higher factors because those households had higher fixed costs. Thresholds for unrelated individuals were calculated as a fixed proportion of the corresponding thresholds for 2-person families.

The poverty thresholds are revised annually to allow for changes in the cost of living as reflected in the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). The poverty thresholds are the same for all parts of the country - they are not adjusted for regional, state or local variations in the cost of living. For a detailed discussion of the poverty definition, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, " Poverty in the United States: 1999," P-60-210.

How Poverty Status is Determined
The poverty status of families and unrelated individuals in 1999 was determined using 48 thresholds (income cutoffs) arranged in a two dimensional matrix. The matrix consists of family size (from 1 person to 9 or more people) cross-classified by presence and number of family members under 18 years old (from no children present to 8 or more children present). Unrelated individuals and 2-person families were further differentiated by the age of the reference person (RP) (under 65 years old and 65 years old and over).

To determine a person's poverty status, one compares the persons total family income with the poverty threshold appropriate for that persons family size and composition (see table below). If the total income of that persons family is less than the threshold appropriate for that family, then the person is considered poor, together with every member of his or her family. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage, or adoption, then the persons own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold.

Weighted average thresholds
Even though the official poverty data are based on the 48 thresholds arranged by family size and number of children within the family, data users often want to get an idea of the "average" threshold for a given family size. The weighted average thresholds provide that summary. They are weighted averages because for any given family size, families with a certain number of children may be more or less common than families with a different number of children. In other words, among 3-person families, there are more families with two adults and one child than families with three adults. To get the weighted average threshold for families of a particular size, multiply each threshold by the number of families for whom that threshold applies; then add up those products, and divide by the total number of families who are of that family size.

For example, for 3-person families, 1999 weighted thresholds were calculated in the following way using information from the 2000 Current Population Survey:

Family type Number of families Threshold  
No children (three adults) 5,213 * $13,032 = $67,935,816
One child (two adults) 8,208 * $13,410 = $110,069,280
Two children (one adult) 2,656 * $13,423 = $35,651,488
Totals 16,077       $213,656,584
Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000.


Dividing $213,656,584 by 16,077 (the total number of 3-person families) yields $13,290, the weighted average threshold for 3-person families. Please note that the thresholds are weighted not just by the number of poor families, but by all families for which the thresholds apply: the thresholds are used to determine which families are at or above poverty, as well as below poverty.

Individuals for whom poverty status is determined
Poverty status was determined for all people except institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. These groups also were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating poverty rates. They are considered neither "poor" nor "nonpoor."

Specified poverty levels
For various reasons, the official poverty definition does not satisfy all the needs of data users. Therefore, some of the data reflect the number of people below different percentages of the poverty level. These specified poverty levels are obtained by multiplying the official thresholds by the appropriate factor. For example, the average income cutoff at 125 percent of the poverty level was $21,286 ($17,029 x 1.25) in 1999 for family of four people.

Poverty Threshold in 1999, by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years Old (Dollars)
Size of family unit Weighted average threshold Related children under 18 years old
    None One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight or more
One person (unrelated individual) 8501                  
    Under 65 years old 8667 8667                
    65 years old and over 7990 7990                
Two people 10869                  
    Householder under 65 years old 11214 11156 11483              
    Householder 65 years old and over 10075 10070 11440              
Three people 13290 13032 13410 13423            
Four people 17029 17184 17465 16895 16954          
Five people 20127 20723 21024 20380 19882 19578        
Six people 22727 23835 23930 23436 22964 22261 21845      
Seven people 25912 27425 27596 27006 26595 25828 24934 23953    
Eight people 28967 30673 30944 30387 29899 29206 28327 27412 27180  
Nine people or more 34417 36897 37076 36583 36169 35489 34554 33708 33499 32208


Income deficit
Income deficit represents the difference between the total income of families and unrelated individuals below the poverty level and their respective poverty thresholds. In computing the income deficit, families reporting a net income loss are assigned zero dollars and for such cases the deficit is equal to the poverty threshold. This measure provides an estimate of the amount which would be required to raise the incomes of all poor families and unrelated individuals to their respective poverty thresholds. The income deficit is thus a measure of the degree of the impoverishment of a family or unrelated individual. However, please use caution when comparing the average deficits of families with different characteristics. Apparent differences in average income deficits may, to some extent, be a function of differences in family size.

Aggregate income deficit
Aggregate income deficit refers only to those families or unrelated individuals who are classified as below the poverty level. It is defined as the group (e.g., type of family) sum total of differences between the appropriate threshold and total family income or total personal income. Aggregate income deficit is subject to rounding, which means that all cells in a matrix are rounded to the nearest hundred dollars. (For more information, see "Aggregate" under "Derived Measures".)

Mean income deficit
Mean income deficit represents the amount obtained by dividing the total income deficit for a group below the poverty level by the number of families (or unrelated individuals) in that group. (The aggregate used to calculate mean income deficit is rounded. For more information, see "Aggregate income deficit.") As mentioned above, please use caution when comparing mean income deficits of families with different characteristics, as apparent differences may to some extent be a function of differences in family size. Mean income deficit is rounded to the nearest whole dollar. (For more information on means, see "Derived Measures".)

Comparability
The poverty definition used in the 1980 census and later differed slightly from the one used in the 1970 census. Three technical modifications were made to the definition used in the 1970 census:

1. Beginning with the 1980 census, the Office of Management and Budget eliminated any distinction between thresholds for "families with a female householder with no husband present" and all other families. The new thresholds - which apply to all families regardless of the householder's sex - were a weighted average of the old thresholds.

2. The Office of Management and Budget eliminated any differences between farm families and nonfarm families, and farm and nonfarm unrelated individuals. In the 1970 census, the farm thresholds were 85 percent of those for nonfarm families; whereas, in 1980 and later, the same thresholds were applied to all families and unrelated individuals regardless of residence.

3. The thresholds by size of family were extended from seven or more people in 1970 to nine or more people in 1980 and later.

These changes resulted in a minimal increase in the number of poor at the national level. For a complete discussion of these modifications and their impact, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, " Characteristics of the Population Below the Poverty Level: 1980," P-60, No. 133.

With respect to poverty, the population covered in the 1970 census was almost the same as that covered in the 1980 census and later. The only difference was that in 1980 and after, unrelated individuals under 15 years old were excluded from the poverty universe, while in 1970, only those under age 14 were excluded. The limited poverty data from the 1960 census excluded all people in group quarters and included all unrelated individuals regardless of age. It was unlikely that these differences in population coverage would have had significant impact when comparing the poverty data for people since the 1960 census.

Current Population Survey
Because the questionnaires and data collection procedures differ, Census 2000 estimates of the number of people below the poverty level by various characteristics may differ from those reported in the March 2000 Current Population Survey. Please refer to www.census.gov/hhes/income/guidance.htmlfor more details.

Household poverty data
Poverty status is not defined for households - only for families and unrelated individuals. Because some data users need poverty data at the household level, we have provided a few matrices that show tallies of households by the poverty status of the householder. In these matrices, the householder's poverty status is computed exactly the same way as described above. Therefore, to determine whether or not a "household" was in poverty, anyone who is not related to the householder is ignored.

Example #1: Household #1 has six members - a married couple, Alice and Albert, with their 10-year-old nephew, Aaron, and another married couple, Brian and Beatrice, with their 6-year-old son, Ben. Alice is the householder. Brian, Beatrice, and Ben are not related to Alice.

Household member Relationship to Alice Income
Alice self (householder) $5,000
Albert spouse $40,000
Aaron related child $0
Brian unrelated individual $0
Beatrice unrelated individual $5,000
Ben unrelated individual $0

The total income of Alice's family is $45,000, and their poverty threshold is $13,410, since there are three people in the family, with one member under age 18. Their income is greater than their threshold, so they are not classified as poor. Their ratio of income to poverty is 3.36 ($45,000 divided by $13,410). Alice's income-to-poverty ratio is also 3.36, because everyone in the same family has the same poverty status.
Even though Brian, Beatrice and Ben would be classified as poor if they lived in their own household, the household is not classified as poor because the householder, Alice, is not poor, as was shown in the computation above.

Example #2: Household #2 consists of four adults, Claude, Danielle, Emily, and Francis, who are unrelated to each other and are living as housemates. Claude, who is age 30, is the householder.

Household member Relationship to Claude Income
Claude self (householder) $4,500
Danielle unrelated individual $82,000
Emily unrelated individual $28,000
Francis unrelated individual $40,000


Because Claude is under age 65 and is not living with any family members, his poverty threshold is $8,667. Since his income, $4,500, is less than his threshold, he is considered poor. His ratio of income to poverty is 0.52 ($4,500 divided by $8,667).
Household #2 would be classified as poor because its householder, Claude, is poor, even though the other household members (who are not related to Claude) are not in poverty.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Family Type
A family includes a householder and one or more other people living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A family household may contain people not related to the householder, but those people are not included as part of the householder's family in census tabulations. Thus, the number of family households is equal to the number of families, but family households may include more members than do families. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may be comprised of a group of unrelated people or of one person living alone.

Families are classified by type as either a "married-couple family" or "other family" according to the presence of a spouse. "Other family" is further broken out according to the sex of the householder. The data on family type are based on answers to questions on sex and relationship that were asked on a 100-percent basis.

Married-couple family
This category includes a family in which the householder and his or her spouse are enumerated as members of the same household.

Other family
Male householder, no wife present
This category includes a family with a male maintaining a household with no wife of the householder present.

Female householder, no husband present
This category includes a family with a female maintaining a household with no husband of the householder present.

Nonfamily household
This category includes a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Average family size
A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in families by the total number of families (or family householders). In cases where this measure is tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, the race or Hispanic origin refers to that of the householder rather than to the race or Hispanic origin of each individual. Average family size is rounded to the nearest hundredth.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Work Status in 1999
The data on work status in 1999 were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 30a, which was asked of a sample of the population 15 years old and over. People 16 years old and over who worked 1 or more weeks according to the criteria described below are classified as "Worked in 1999." All other people 16 years old and over are classified as "Did not work in 1999." Some earnings tabulations showing work status in 1999 include 15 year olds; these people, by definition, are classified as "Did not work in 1999."

Weeks worked in 1999
The data on weeks worked in 1999 were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 30b, which was asked of people 15 years old and over who indicated in long-form questionnaire Item 30a that they worked in 1999. The data were tabulated for people 16 years old and over and pertain to the number of weeks during 1999 in which a person did any work for pay or profit (or took paid vacation or paid sick leave) or worked without pay on a family farm or in a family business. Weeks on active duty in the armed forces also are included as weeks worked.

Median weeks worked in 1999
Median weeks worked in 1999 divides the weeks worked distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median weeks worked and one-half above the median. Median weeks worked in 1999 is computed on the basis of a standard distribution (see the "Standard Distributions" section under "Derived Measures"). Median weeks worked is rounded to the nearest whole number. (For more information on medians, see "Derived Measures".)

Usual hours worked per week in 1999
The data on usual hours worked in 1999 were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 30c. This question was asked of people 15 years old and over who indicated that they worked in 1999 in Question 30a, and the data are tabulated for people 16 years old and over. The respondent was asked to report the number of hours usually worked during the weeks worked in 1999. If their hours varied considerably from week to week during 1999, the respondent was asked to report an approximate average of the hours worked each week. People 16 years old and over who reported that they usually worked 35 or more hours each week are classified as "Usually worked full time"; people who reported that they usually worked 1 to 34 hours each week are classified as "Usually worked part time."

Median usual hours worked per week in 1999
Median usual hours worked per week in 1999 divides the usual hours worked distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median usual hours worked and one-half above the median. Median usual hours worked per week in 1999 is computed on the basis of a standard distribution (see the "Standard Distributions" section under "Derived Measures"). Median usual hours worked per week is rounded to the nearest whole hour. (For more information on medians, see "Derived Measures".)

Aggregate usual hours worked per week in 1999
The aggregate usual hours worked per week in 1999 is the number obtained by summing across the usual hours worked values of all people who worked in 1999. (Note that there is one usual hours value for each worker, so the number of items summed equals the number of workers.)

Mean usual hours worked per week in 1999
Mean usual hours worked per week is calculated by dividing the aggregate number of usual hours worked per week worked in 1999 by the total number of people who worked in 1999. Mean usual hours worked per week is rounded to the nearest tenth. (For more information on means, see "Derived Measures".)

Full-time, year-round workers
'Full-time, year-round workers' consists of people 16 years old and over who usually worked 35 hours or more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in 1999. The term "worker" in these concepts refers to people classified as Worked in 1999 as defined above. The term worked in these concepts means "worked one or more weeks in 1999" as defined above under "Weeks Worked in 1999."

Limitation of the data
It is probable that data on the number of people who worked in 1999 and on the number of weeks worked are understated since there was probably a tendency for respondents to forget intermittent or short periods of employment or to exclude weeks worked without pay. There may also have been a tendency for people not to include weeks of paid vacation among their weeks worked, which would result in an underestimate of the number of people who worked "50 to 52 weeks."

Comparability
The data on weeks worked collected in Census 2000 are comparable with data from the 1960 to 1990 censuses, but may not be entirely comparable with data from the 1940 and 1950 censuses. Starting with the 1960 census, two separate questions have been used to obtain this information. The first identifies people with any work experience during the year and, thus, indicates those people for whom the question about number of weeks worked applies. In 1940 and 1950, the questionnaires contained only a single question on number of weeks worked. In 1970, people responded to the question on weeks worked by indicating one of six weeks-worked intervals. In 1980 and 1990, people were asked to enter the specific number of weeks they worked.

Worker
The terms "worker" and "work" appear in connection with several subjects: employment status, journey-to-work, class of worker, and work status in 1999. Their meaning varies and, therefore, should be determined by referring to the definition of the subject in which they appear. When used in the concepts "Workers in Family," "Workers in Family in 1999," and "Full-Time, Year-Round Workers," the term "worker" relates to the meaning of work defined for the "Work Status in 1999" subject.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from the question, "How is this person related to Person 1," which was asked of Persons 2 and higher in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder (Person 1). In most cases, the householder is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years old and over could be designated as the householder (i.e., Person 1). Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and nonfamily householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more individuals related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Spouse (husband/wife)
A spouse (husband/wife) is a person married to and living with a householder. People in formal marriages, as well as people in common-law marriages, are included. The number of spouses is equal to the number of "married-couple families" or "married-couple households" in 100-percent tabulations. Marital status categories cannot be inferred from the 100-percent tabulations since the marital status question was not included on the 100-percent form. In sample tabulations, the number of spouses may not be equal to the number of married-couple households due to the differences in the weighting procedures for sample data.