Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: PCT21. Residence In 1995 For The Population 5+ Years--State, County, And Place Level [24]
Universe: Population 5 years and over
Table Details
PCT21. Residence In 1995 For The Population 5+ Years--State, County, And Place Level
Universe: Population 5 years and over
Variable Label
PCT021001
PCT021002
PCT021003
PCT021004
PCT021005
PCT021006
PCT021007
PCT021008
PCT021009
PCT021010
PCT021011
PCT021012
PCT021013
PCT021014
PCT021015
PCT021016
PCT021017
PCT021018
PCT021019
PCT021020
PCT021021
PCT021022
PCT021023
PCT021024
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Residence 5 Years Ago
The data on residence 5 years earlier were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 15, which was asked of a sample of the population 5 years old and over. This question asked for the state (or foreign country), U.S. county, city or town, and ZIP Code of residence on April 1, 1995, for those people who reported that on that date they lived in a different house than their current residence. Residence 5 years earlier is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population and the resulting redistribution of the population across the various states, metropolitan areas, and regions of the country.

On the Puerto Rico questionnaire, people living in Puerto Rico in 1995 were asked to report the name of the municipio (county equivalent); the city, town or village; and the ZIP Code where they lived. People living in the United States in 1995 were asked to report the name of the city, county, state, and ZIP Code where they lived. People living outside Puerto Rico or the United States were asked to report the name of the foreign country or U.S. Island Area where they were living in 1995.

When no information on previous residence was reported for a person, information for other family members, if available, was used to assign a location of residence in 1995. All cases of nonresponse or incomplete response that were not assigned a previous residence based on information from other family members were imputed the previous residence of another person with similar characteristics who provided complete information on residence 5 years earlier.

The tabulation category, "Same house," includes all people 5 years old and over who did not move during the 5 years as well as those who had moved but by Census Day had returned to their 1995 residence. The category, "Different house in the United States," includes people who lived in the United States 5 years earlier but lived in a different house or apartment from the one they occupied on Census Day. These movers are then further subdivided according to the type of move.

In most tabulations, movers within the U.S. are divided into three groups according to their previous residence: "Different house, same county," "Different county, same state," and "Different state." The last group may be further subdivided into region of residence in 1995. An additional category, "Abroad," includes those whose previous residence was in a foreign country, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands, including members of the armed forces and their dependents. Some tabulations show movers who were residing in Puerto Rico or one of the U.S. Island Areas in 1995 separately from those residing in foreign countries.

In most tabulations, movers within Puerto Rico are divided into two groups according to their 1995 residence: "Same municipio," and "Different municipio." Municipio of previous residence in Puerto Rico is not available for people living in the United States in 2000. Other tabulations show movers within or between metropolitan areas similar to the stateside tabulations.

Some special tabulations present data on inmigrants, outmigrants, and net migration. "Inmigrants" are generally defined as those people who moved into an area. In some tabulations, movers from abroad may be included in the number of inmigrants; in others, only movers within the United States are included. "Outmigrants" are people who moved out of a specific area to some other place in the United States. Movers who left the United States are not available to be included in any tabulations. "Net migration" is calculated by subtracting the number of outmigrants from the number of inmigrants. The net migration for the area is net inmigration if the result is positive and net outmigration if the result is negative. In the tabulations, net outmigration is indicated by a minus sign (-).

Inmigrants and outmigrants for states include only those people who did not live in the same state at both dates; that is, they exclude people who moved between counties within the same state. Thus, the sum of the inmigrants to (or outmigrants from) all counties in any state is greater than the number of inmigrants to (or outmigrants from) that state. However, in the case of net migration, the sum of the nets for all the counties within a state equals the net for the state. In the same fashion, the net migration for a division or region equals the sum of the nets for the states comprising that division or region, while the number of inmigrants and outmigrants for that division or region is less than the sum of the inmigrants or outmigrants for the individual states.

The number of people who were living in a different house 5 years earlier is somewhat less than the total number of moves during the 5-year period. Some people in the same house at the two dates had moved during the 5-year period but by the time of the census had returned to their 1995 residence. Other people who were living in a different house had made one or more intermediate moves. For similar reasons, the number of people living in a different county, metropolitan area, or state, or the number moving between nonmetropolitan areas, may be understated.

Comparability
Similar questions were asked on all previous censuses beginning in 1940, except the questions in 1950 referred to residence 1 year earlier rather than 5 years earlier. Although the questions in the 1940 census covered a 5-year period, comparability with that census is reduced somewhat because of different definitions and categories of tabulation. Comparability with the 1960 and 1970 censuses is also somewhat reduced because nonresponse was not imputed in those earlier censuses.

Similar questions were asked on all previous Puerto Rico censuses beginning in 1940, except the questions in 1950 referred to residence 1 year earlier rather than 5 years earlier. Nonresponse, if not assigned based on information from other family members, was not imputed in those earlier censuses.

For the 1980 and 1990 censuses, nonresponse was imputed in a manner similar to Census 2000, except that Census 2000 was the first to impute a specific city or town of previous residence within the United States or a specific foreign country. In 1980 and 1990, only state and county (or state, county, and minor civil division in the Northeast) were imputed; people who were abroad 5 years earlier were tabulated as "abroad, country not specified" rather than being imputed to a specific country.

If residence was in the United States in 2000 but in Puerto Rico in 1995, then a specific city or town was not imputed for nonresponse. For residents of Puerto Rico in 2000, a specific city or town was imputed for nonresponse if they lived in a different residence in Puerto Rico in 1995 or if they lived in the United States in 1995.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
State (or Statistically Equivalent Entity)
States are the primary governmental divisions of the United States. The District of Columbia is treated as a statistical equivalent of a state for data presentation purposes. For Census 2000, the U.S. Census Bureau also treats a number of entities that are not legal divisions of the United States as statistically equivalent to a state: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands of the United States.

Each state and statistically equivalent entity is assigned a two-digit numeric Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) code in alphabetical order by state name, followed in alphabetical order by Puerto Rico and the Island Areas. Each state and statistically equivalent entity also is assigned a two-letter FIPS/U.S. Postal Service code and a two-digit census code. The census code is assigned on the basis of the geographic sequence of each state within each census division; the first digit of the code identifies the respective division, except for Puerto Rico and the Island Areas, which are not assigned to any region or division. The census regions, census divisions, and their component states are listed in Figure A-3.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
County (or Statistically Equivalent Entity)
The primary legal divisions of most states are termed "counties." In Louisiana, these divisions are known as parishes. In Alaska, which has no counties, the statistically equivalent entities are census areas, city and boroughs (as in Juneau City and Borough), a municipality (Anchorage), and organized boroughs. Census areas are delineated cooperatively for data presentation purposes by the state of Alaska and the U.S. Census Bureau. In four states (Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia), there are one or more incorporated places that are independent of any county organization and thus constitute primary divisions of their states; these incorporated places are known as "independent cities" and are treated as equivalent to counties for data presentation purposes. (In some data presentations, they may be treated as county subdivisions and places.) The District of Columbia has no primary divisions, and the entire area is considered equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes. In American Samoa, the primary divisions are districts and islands; in the Northern Mariana Islands, municipalities; in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the principal islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas. Guam has no primary divisions, and the entire area is considered equivalent to a county for data presentation purposes.

Each county and statistically equivalent entity is assigned a three-digit Federal Information Processing Standards code that is unique within state. These codes are assigned in alphabetical order of county or county equivalent within state, except for the independent cities, which are assigned codes higher than and following the listing of counties.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Place
Places, for the reporting of decennial census data, include census designated places, consolidated cities, and incorporated places. Each place is assigned a five-digit Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) code, based on the alphabetical order of the place name within each state. If place names are duplicated within a state and they represent distinctly different areas, a separate code is assigned to each place name alphabetically by primary county in which each place is located, or if both places are in the same county, alphabetically by their legal description (for example, "city" before "village").

Census Designated Place (CDP)
Census designated places (CDPs) are delineated for each decennial census as the statistical counterparts of incorporated places. CDPs are delineated to provide census data for concentrations of population, housing, and commercial structures that are identifiable by name but are not within an incorporated place. CDP boundaries usually are defined in cooperation with state, local, and tribal officials. These boundaries, which usually coincide with visible features or the boundary of an adjacent incorporated place or other legal entity boundary, have no legal status, nor do these places have officials elected to serve traditional municipal functions. CDP boundaries may change from one decennial census to the next with changes in the settlement pattern; a CDP with the same name as in an earlier census does not necessarily have the same boundary.

For Census 2000, for the first time, CDPs did not need to meet a minimum population threshold to qualify for tabulation of census data. For the 1990 census and earlier censuses, the U.S. Census Bureau required CDPs to qualify on the basis of various minimum population size criteria.

Beginning with the 1950 census, the U.S. Census Bureau, in cooperation with state and local governments (and American Indian tribal officials starting with the 1990 census), identified and delineated boundaries and names for CDPs. In the data products issued in conjunction with Census 2000, the name of each such place is followed by "CDP," as was the case for the 1990 and 1980 censuses. In the data products issued in conjunction with the 1950, 1960, and 1970 censuses, these places were identified by "(U)," meaning "unincorporated place."

Hawaii is the only state that has no incorporated places recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau. All places shown in the data products for Hawaii are CDPs. By agreement with the state of Hawaii, the U.S. Census Bureau does not show data separately for the city of Honolulu, which is coextensive with Honolulu County.

All places in the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam are CDPs. The Virgin Islands of the United States has both CDPs and incorporated places. There are no CDPs in American Samoa; the U.S. Census Bureau treats the traditional villages as statistically equivalent to incorporated places.

Consolidated City
A consolidated government is a unit of local government for which the functions of an incorporated place and its county or minor civil division (MCD) have merged. The legal aspects of this action may result in both the primary incorporated place and the county or MCD continuing to exist as legal entities, even though the county or MCD performs few or no governmental functions and has few or no elected officials. Where this occurs, and where one or more other incorporated places in the county or MCD continue to function as separate governments, even though they have been included in the consolidated government, the primary incorporated place is referred to as a consolidated city.

The presentation of data for consolidated cities varies depending on the geographic presentation. In some hierarchical presentations, consolidated cities are not shown. These presentations include the places within the consolidated city and the "consolidated city (balance)." Although hierarchical presentations do not show the consolidated city, the data for it are the same as the county or county subdivision with which it is coextensive. Other hierarchical presentations do show the consolidated city, county or county subdivision, and (balance) as separate entities. For inventory geographic presentations, the consolidated city appears alphabetically sequenced within the listing of places; in 1990, consolidated places appeared at the end of the listing. The data for the consolidated city include the data for all places that are part of and within the consolidated city. The "consolidated city (balance)" entry shows the data for the portion of the consolidated government minus the separately incorporated places within the consolidated city, and is shown in alphabetical sequence with other places that comprise the consolidated city. For data presentation purposes these "balance" entities are treated as statistically equivalent to a place; they have no legal basis or functions.

In summary presentations by size of place, the consolidated city is not included. The places within consolidated cities are categorized by their size, as is the "consolidated city (balance)." A few incorporated places are partially inside and partially outside a consolidated city. Data tabulations by place will include all territory within the place, while the tabulation for the place within a consolidated city is only for part of the place.

Each consolidated city is assigned a five-digit Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) code that is unique within state. The places within consolidated cities and the "consolidated city (balance)" also are assigned five-digit FIPS place codes that are unique within state. The code assigned to each place within a consolidated city is the same as its regular place code; a place that is partially included in a consolidated city does not have a different code for the portions inside and outside the consolidated city. FIPS codes are assigned based on alphabetical sequence within each state.

Incorporated Place
Incorporated places recognized in decennial census data products are those reported to the U.S. Census Bureau as legally in existence on January 1, 2000, under the laws of their respective states, as cities, boroughs, city and boroughs, municipalities, towns, and villages, with the following exceptions: the towns in the New England states, New York, and Wisconsin, and the boroughs in New York are recognized as minor civil divisions for decennial census purposes; the boroughs, city and boroughs (as in Juneau City and Borough), and municipality (Anchorage) in Alaska are county equivalents for decennial census statistical presentation purposes. In four states (Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia), there are one or more incorporated places known as "independent cities" that are primary divisions of a state and legally not part of any county. For data presentation purposes, the U.S. Census Bureau may treat an independent city as a county equivalent, county subdivision, and place.

The U.S. Census Bureau treats the villages in American Samoa as incorporated places because they have their own officials, who have specific legal powers as authorized in the American Samoa Code. The village boundaries are traditional rather than being specific, legally defined locations. There are no incorporated places in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The U.S. Census Bureau treats the three towns in the Virgin Islands of the United States as incorporated places.

There are a few incorporated places that do not have a legal description. An incorporated place is established to provide governmental functions for a concentration of people as opposed to a minor civil division, which generally is created to provide services or administer an area without regard, necessarily, to population.