Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: P146I. Households by Age of Hhldr by Household Type by Presence of Own Children
Universe: Households with a householder who is White alone, not Hispanic or Latino
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Household
A household includes all of the people who occupy a housing unit. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.) A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room occupied (or if vacant, intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any other people in the building and that have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living quarters.

In 100-percent tabulations, the count of households or householders always equals the count of occupied housing units. In sample tabulations, the numbers may differ as a result of the weighting process.

Average household size
A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in households by the total number of households (or householders). In cases where household members are tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, household members are classified by the race or Hispanic origin of the householder rather than the race or Hispanic origin of each individual. Average household size is rounded to the nearest hundredth.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Age
The data on age, which was asked of all people, were derived from answers to the long-form questionnaire Item 4 and short-form questionnaire Item 6. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years as of April 1, 2000. The age of the person usually was derived from their date of birth information. Their reported age was used only when date of birth information was unavailable.

Data on age are used to determine the applicability of some of the sample questions for a person and to classify other characteristics in census tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and examine many programs and policies. Therefore, age is tabulated by single years of age and by many different groupings, such as 5-year age groups.

Median age
Median age divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median age and one-half above the median. Median age is computed on the basis of a single year of age standard distribution (see the "Standard Distributions" section under "Derived Measures"). Median age is rounded to the nearest tenth. (For more information on medians, see "Derived Measures".)

Limitation of the data
The most general limitation for many decades has been the tendency of people to overreport ages or years of birth that end in zero or 5. This phenomenon is called "age heaping." In addition, the counts in the 1970 and 1980 censuses for people 100 years old and over were substantially overstated. So also were the counts of people 69 years old in 1970 and 79 years old in 1980. Improvements have been made since then in the questionnaire design and in the imputation procedures that have minimized these problems.

Review of detailed 1990 census information indicated that respondents tended to provide their age as of the date of completion of the questionnaire, not their age as of April 1, 1990. One reason this happened was that respondents were not specifically instructed to provide their age as of April 1, 1990. Another reason was that data collection efforts continued well past the census date. In addition, there may have been a tendency for respondents to round their age up if they were close to having a birthday. It is likely that approximately 10 percent of people in most age groups were actually 1 year younger. For most single years of age, the misstatements were largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age zero because people lost to age 1 probably were not fully offset by the inclusion of babies born after April 1, 1990. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age 1 to avoid reporting age as zero years. (Age in complete months was not collected for infants under age 1.)

The reporting of age 1 year older than true age on April 1, 1990, is likely to have been greater in areas where the census data were collected later in calendar year 1990. The magnitude of this problem was much less in the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses where age was typically derived from respondent data on year of birth and quarter of birth.

These shortcomings were minimized in Census 2000 because age was usually calculated from exact date of birth and because respondents were specifically asked to provide their age as of April 1, 2000. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the section below that discusses "Comparability.")

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. For the first time since 1950, the 1990 data were not available by quarter year of age. This change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth. In 2000, each individual has both an age and an exact date of birth. In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as "imputation." The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see "Accuracy of the Data.")

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from the question, "How is this person related to Person 1," which was asked of Persons 2 and higher in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder (Person 1). In most cases, the householder is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years old and over could be designated as the householder (i.e., Person 1). Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and nonfamily householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more individuals related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Household Type and Relationship
Household
A household includes all of the people who occupy a housing unit. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.) A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room occupied (or if vacant, intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any other people in the building and that have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living quarters.

In 100-percent tabulations, the count of households or householders always equals the count of occupied housing units. In sample tabulations, the numbers may differ as a result of the weighting process.

Average household size
A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in households by the total number of households (or householders). In cases where household members are tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, household members are classified by the race or Hispanic origin of the householder rather than the race or Hispanic origin of each individual. Average household size is rounded to the nearest hundredth.

Relationship to Householder
Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from the question, "How is this person related to Person 1," which was asked of Persons 2 and higher in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder (Person 1). In most cases, the householder is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any adult household member 15 years old and over could be designated as the householder (i.e., Person 1). Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and nonfamily householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more individuals related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Spouse (husband/wife)
A spouse (husband/wife) is a person married to and living with a householder. People in formal marriages, as well as people in common-law marriages, are included. The number of spouses is equal to the number of "married-couple families" or "married-couple households" in 100-percent tabulations. Marital status categories cannot be inferred from the 100-percent tabulations since the marital status question was not included on the 100-percent form. In sample tabulations, the number of spouses may not be equal to the number of married-couple households due to the differences in the weighting procedures for sample data.

Child
A child is a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or an adopted child of the householder, regardless of the childs age or marital status. The category excludes sons-in-law, daughters-inlaw, and foster children.

Natural-born son/daughter
Natural-born son/daughter includes a son or daughter of the householder by birth, regardless of the age of the child.

Adopted son/daughter.
Adopted son/daughter includes a son or daughter of the householder by legal adoption, regardless of the age of the child. If a stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.

Stepson/stepdaughter
Stepson/stepdaughter includes a son or daughter of the householder through marriage but not by birth, regardless of the age of the child. If a stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.

Own child
Own child is a never-married child under 18 years who is a son or daughter of the householder by birth, marriage (a stepchild), or adoption. For 100-percent tabulations, 'own children' consist of all sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years old. For sample data, 'own children' consist of sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years old and who have never been married. Therefore, numbers of own children of householders may be different in these two tabulations since marital status was not collected as a 100-percent item in Census 2000.

In certain tabulations, own children are further classified as living with two parents or with one parent only. Own children living with two parents are by definition found only in married-couple families. In a subfamily, an "own child" is a child under 18 years old who is a natural-born child, stepchild, or an adopted child of a mother in a mother-child subfamily, a father in father-child subfamily, or either spouse in a married-couple subfamily. (Note: In the tabulation under "EMPLOYMENT STATUS" of own children under 6 years by employment status of parents, the number of "own children" includes any child under 6 years old in a family or a subfamily who is a son or daughter, by birth, marriage, or adoption, of a member of the householder's family, but not necessarily of the householder.)

Related children
Related children include the sons and daughters of the householder (including natural-born, adopted, or stepchildren) and all other people under 18 years old, regardless of marital status, in the household, who are related to the householder, except the spouse of the householder. Foster children are not included since they are not related to the householder.

Other relatives
Other relatives include any household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another relationship category. In certain detailed tabulations, the following categories may be shown:

Grandchild
A grandchild is a grandson or granddaughter of the householder.

Brother/sister
Brother/sister refers to the brother or sister of the householder, including stepbrothers, stepsisters, and brothers and sisters by adoption. Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law are included in the "Other relative" category on the questionnaire.

Parent
Parent refers to the father or mother of the householder, including a stepparent or adoptive parent. Fathers-in-law and mothers-in-law are included in the "Parent-in-law" category on the questionnaire.
Parent-in-law
A parent-in-law is the mother-in-law or father-in-law of the householder.

Son-in-law/daughter-in-law
A son-in-law/daughter-in-law, by definition, is a spouse of the child of the householder.

Other relatives
Other relatives include anyone not listed in a reported category above who is related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (brother-in-law, grandparent, nephew, aunt, cousin, and so forth).

Nonrelatives
Nonrelatives include any household member not related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, including foster children. The following categories may be presented in more detailed tabulations:

Roomer, boarder
A roomer or boarder is a person who lives in a room in the household of Person 1 (householder). Some sort of cash or noncash payment (e.g., chores) is usually made for their living accommodations.

Housemate or roommate
A housemate or roommate is a person who is not related to the householder and who shares living quarters primarily to share expenses.

Unmarried partner
An unmarried partner is a person who is not related to the householder, who shares living quarters, and who has a close personal relationship with the householder.

Foster child
A foster child is a person who is under 18 years old placed by the local government in a household to receive parental care. They may be living in the household for just a brief period or for several years. Foster children are nonrelatives of the householder. If the foster child is also related to the householder, the child should be classified as that specific relative.

Other nonrelatives
'Other nonrelatives' includes individuals who are not related by birth, marriage, or adoption to the householder and who are not described by the categories given above.

Unrelated Individual
An unrelated individual is: (1) a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only, (2) a household member who is not related to the householder, or (3) a person living in group quarters who is not an inmate of an institution.

Family Type
A family includes a householder and one or more other people living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A family household may contain people not related to the householder, but those people are not included as part of the householder's family in census tabulations. Thus, the number of family households is equal to the number of families, but family households may include more members than do families. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may be comprised of a group of unrelated people or of one person living alone.

Families are classified by type as either a "married-couple family" or "other family" according to the presence of a spouse. "Other family" is further broken out according to the sex of the householder. The data on family type are based on answers to questions on sex and relationship that were asked on a 100-percent basis.

Married-couple family
This category includes a family in which the householder and his or her spouse are enumerated as members of the same household.

Other family
Male householder, no wife present
This category includes a family with a male maintaining a household with no wife of the householder present.

Female householder, no husband present
This category includes a family with a female maintaining a household with no husband of the householder present.

Nonfamily household
This category includes a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Average family size
A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in families by the total number of families (or family householders). In cases where this measure is tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, the race or Hispanic origin refers to that of the householder rather than to the race or Hispanic origin of each individual. Average family size is rounded to the nearest hundredth.

Subfamily
A subfamily is a married couple with or without own children under 18 years old who are never-married, or a single parent with one or more own never-married children under 18 years old. A subfamily does not maintain their own household, but lives in a household where the householder or householders spouse is a relative. Subfamilies are defined during processing of sample data.

In some labor force tabulations, both one-parent families and one-parent subfamilies are included in the total number of children living with one parent, while both married-couple families and married-couple subfamilies are included in the total number of children living with two parents.

Unmarried-Partner Household
An unmarried-partner household is a household that includes a householder and an "unmarried partner." An "unmarried partner" can be of the same or of the opposite sex of the householder. An "unmarried partner" in an "unmarried-partner household" is an adult who is unrelated to the householder, but shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship with the householder. An unmarried-partner household may also be a family household or a nonfamily household, depending on the presence or absence of another person in the household who is related to the householder. There may be only one unmarried-partner per household, and an unmarried partner may not be included in a married-couple household as the householder cannot have both a spouse and an unmarried partner.

Comparability
The 1990 relationship category, "Natural-born or adopted son/daughter" has been replaced by "Natural-born son/daughter" and "Adopted son/daughter." The following categories were added in Census 2000: "Parent-in-law" and "Son-in-law/daughter-in-law." The 1990 nonrelative category, "Roomer, boarder, or foster child" was replaced by two categories: "Roomer, boarder" and "Foster child." In 2000, foster children had to be in the local governments foster care system to be so classified. In 1990, foster children were estimated to be those children in households who were not related to the householder and for whom there were no people 18 years old and over who may have been their parents. In 1990, stepchildren who were adopted by the householder were still classified as stepchildren. In 2000, stepchildren who were legally adopted by the householder were classified as adopted children. Own children shown in 100-percent tabulations may be of any marital status. For comparability with previous censuses, own children shown for sample data are still restricted to never-married children. Some tables may show relationship to householder and be labeled "child." These tabulations include all marital status categories of natural-born, adopted, or stepchildren. Because of changes in editing procedures, same sex unmarried-partner households in 1990 should not be compared with same sex unmarried-partner households in Census 2000.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Own child
Own child is a never-married child under 18 years who is a son or daughter of the householder by birth, marriage (a stepchild), or adoption. For 100-percent tabulations, 'own children' consist of all sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years old. For sample data, 'own children' consist of sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years old and who have never been married. Therefore, numbers of own children of householders may be different in these two tabulations since marital status was not collected as a 100-percent item in Census 2000.

In certain tabulations, own children are further classified as living with two parents or with one parent only. Own children living with two parents are by definition found only in married-couple families. In a subfamily, an "own child" is a child under 18 years old who is a natural-born child, stepchild, or an adopted child of a mother in a mother-child subfamily, a father in father-child subfamily, or either spouse in a married-couple subfamily. (Note: In the tabulation under "EMPLOYMENT STATUS" of own children under 6 years by employment status of parents, the number of "own children" includes any child under 6 years old in a family or a subfamily who is a son or daughter, by birth, marriage, or adoption, of a member of the householder's family, but not necessarily of the householder.)

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
White
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
 
Hispanic or Latino
The data on the Hispanic or Latino population, which was asked of all people, were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 5, and short-form questionnaire Item 7. The terms "Spanish," "Hispanic origin," and "Latino" are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms, while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. Hispanics or Latinos who identify with the terms "Spanish," "Hispanic," or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the questionnaire - "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino" are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, the Dominican Republic, or people identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, Hispanic, Hispano, Latino, and so on. All write-in responses to the "other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino" category were coded.

Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.

Some tabulations are shown by the origin of the householder. In all cases where the origin of households, families, or occupied housing units is classified as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino, the origin of the householder is used. (For more information, see the discussion of householder under "Household Type and Relationship.")

If an individual could not provide a Hispanic origin response, their origin was assigned using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if origin was missing for a natural-born daughter in the household, then either the origin of the householder, another natural-born child, or the spouse of the householder was assigned. If Hispanic origin was not reported for anyone in the household, the origin of a householder in a previously processed household with the same race was assigned. This procedure is a variation of the general imputation procedures described in "Accuracy of the Data," and is similar to those used in 1990, except that for Census 2000, race and Spanish surnames were used to assist in assigning an origin. (For more information, see the "Comparability" section below.)

Comparability
There are two important changes to the Hispanic origin question for Census 2000. First, the sequence of the race and Hispanic origin questions for Census 2000 differs from that in 1990; in 1990, the race question preceded the Hispanic origin question. Testing prior to Census 2000 indicated that response to the Hispanic origin question could be improved by placing it before the race question without affecting the response to the race question. Second, there is an instruction preceding the Hispanic origin question indicating that respondents should answer both the Hispanic origin and the race questions. This instruction was added to give emphasis to the distinct concepts of the Hispanic origin and race questions and to emphasize the need for both pieces of information.

Furthermore, there has been a change in the processing of the Hispanic origin and race responses. In 1990, the Hispanic origin question and the race question had separate edits; therefore, although information may have been present on the questionnaire, it was not fully utilized due to the discrete nature of the edits. However, for Census 2000, there was a joint race and Hispanic origin edit which for example, made use of race responses in the Hispanic origin question to impute a race if none was given.