Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: HCT23. Tenure By Poverty Status In 1999 By Year Structure Built [43]
Universe: Occupied housing units
Table Details
HCT23. Tenure By Poverty Status In 1999 By Year Structure Built
Universe: Occupied housing units
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
The data on tenure, which was asked at all occupied housing units, were obtained from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 33 and short-form questionnaire Item 2. All occupied housing units are classified as either owner occupied or renter occupied.

Owner occupied
A housing unit is owner occupied if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. The owner or co-owner must live in the unit and usually is Person 1 on the questionnaire. The unit is "Owned by you or someone in this household with a mortgage or loan" if it is being purchased with a mortgage or some other debt arrangement, such as a deed of trust, trust deed, contract to purchase, land contract, or purchase agreement. The unit is also considered owned with a mortgage if it is built on leased land and there is a mortgage on the unit. Mobile homes occupied by owners with installment loans balances are also included in this category.

A housing unit is "Owned by you or someone in this household free and clear (without a mortgage or loan)" if there is no mortgage or other similar debt on the house, apartment, or mobile home including units built on leased land if the unit is owned outright without a mortgage.

The tenure item on the Census 2000 questionnaire distinguishes between units owned with a mortgage or loan and those owned free and clear. In the sample data products, as in the 100-percent products, the tenure item provides data for total owner-occupied units. Detailed information that identifies mortgaged and nonmortgaged units are provided in other sample housing matrices. (For more information, see discussion under "Mortgage Status," "Selected Monthly Owner Costs," and "Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income in 1999.")

Renter occupied
All occupied housing units that are not owner occupied, whether they are rented for cash rent or occupied without payment of cash rent, are classified as renter occupied. "No cash rent" units are separately identified in the rent tabulations. Such units are generally provided free by friends or relatives or in exchange for services, such as resident manager, caretaker, minister, or tenant farmer. Housing units on military bases also are classified in the "No cash rent" category. "Rented for cash rent" includes units in continuing care, sometimes called life care arrangements. These arrangements usually involve a contract between one or more individuals and a service provider guaranteeing the individual shelter, usually a house or apartment, and services, such as meals or transportation to shopping or recreation. (For more information, see "Meals Included in Rent.")

Data on tenure have been collected since 1890. For 1990, the response categories were expanded to allow the respondent to report whether the unit was owned with a mortgage or loan, or free and clear (without a mortgage). The distinction between units owned with a mortgage and units owned free and clear was added in 1990 to improve the count of owner-occupied units. Research after the 1980 census indicated some respondents did not consider their units owned if they had a mortgage. In Census 2000, we continued with the same tenure categories used in the 1990 census.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
Poverty Status in 1999
The poverty data were derived from answers to long-form questionnaire Items 31 and 32, the same questions used to derive income data. (For more information, see "Income in 1999.") The Census Bureau uses the federal governments official poverty definition. The Social Security Administration (SSA) developed the original poverty definition in 1964, which federal interagency committees subsequently revised in 1969 and 1980. The Office of Management and Budgets (OMBs) Directive 14 prescribes this definition as the official poverty measure for federal agencies to use in their statistical work.

Derivation of the Current Poverty Measure
When the Social Security Administration (SSA) created the poverty definition in 1964, it focused on family food consumption. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) used its data about the nutritional needs of children and adults to construct food plans for families. Within each food plan, dollar amounts varied according to the total number of people in the family and the familys composition, such as the number of children within each family. The cheapest of these plans, the Economy Food Plan, was designed to address the dietary needs of families on an austere budget. Since the USDAs 1955 Food Consumption Survey showed that families of three or more people across all income levels spent roughly one-third of their income on food, the SSA multiplied the cost of the Economy Food Plan by three to obtain dollar figures for the poverty thresholds. Since the Economy Food Plan budgets varied by family size and composition, so too did the poverty thresholds. For 2-person families, the thresholds were adjusted by slightly higher factors because those households had higher fixed costs. Thresholds for unrelated individuals were calculated as a fixed proportion of the corresponding thresholds for 2-person families.

The poverty thresholds are revised annually to allow for changes in the cost of living as reflected in the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). The poverty thresholds are the same for all parts of the country - they are not adjusted for regional, state or local variations in the cost of living. For a detailed discussion of the poverty definition, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, " Poverty in the United States: 1999," P-60-210.

How Poverty Status is Determined
The poverty status of families and unrelated individuals in 1999 was determined using 48 thresholds (income cutoffs) arranged in a two dimensional matrix. The matrix consists of family size (from 1 person to 9 or more people) cross-classified by presence and number of family members under 18 years old (from no children present to 8 or more children present). Unrelated individuals and 2-person families were further differentiated by the age of the reference person (RP) (under 65 years old and 65 years old and over).

To determine a person's poverty status, one compares the persons total family income with the poverty threshold appropriate for that persons family size and composition (see table below). If the total income of that persons family is less than the threshold appropriate for that family, then the person is considered poor, together with every member of his or her family. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage, or adoption, then the persons own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold.

Weighted average thresholds
Even though the official poverty data are based on the 48 thresholds arranged by family size and number of children within the family, data users often want to get an idea of the "average" threshold for a given family size. The weighted average thresholds provide that summary. They are weighted averages because for any given family size, families with a certain number of children may be more or less common than families with a different number of children. In other words, among 3-person families, there are more families with two adults and one child than families with three adults. To get the weighted average threshold for families of a particular size, multiply each threshold by the number of families for whom that threshold applies; then add up those products, and divide by the total number of families who are of that family size.

For example, for 3-person families, 1999 weighted thresholds were calculated in the following way using information from the 2000 Current Population Survey:

Family type Number of families Threshold  
No children (three adults) 5,213 * $13,032 = $67,935,816
One child (two adults) 8,208 * $13,410 = $110,069,280
Two children (one adult) 2,656 * $13,423 = $35,651,488
Totals 16,077       $213,656,584
Source: Current Population Survey, March 2000.

Dividing $213,656,584 by 16,077 (the total number of 3-person families) yields $13,290, the weighted average threshold for 3-person families. Please note that the thresholds are weighted not just by the number of poor families, but by all families for which the thresholds apply: the thresholds are used to determine which families are at or above poverty, as well as below poverty.

Individuals for whom poverty status is determined
Poverty status was determined for all people except institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. These groups also were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating poverty rates. They are considered neither "poor" nor "nonpoor."

Specified poverty levels
For various reasons, the official poverty definition does not satisfy all the needs of data users. Therefore, some of the data reflect the number of people below different percentages of the poverty level. These specified poverty levels are obtained by multiplying the official thresholds by the appropriate factor. For example, the average income cutoff at 125 percent of the poverty level was $21,286 ($17,029 x 1.25) in 1999 for family of four people.

Poverty Threshold in 1999, by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years Old (Dollars)
Size of family unit Weighted average threshold Related children under 18 years old
    None One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight or more
One person (unrelated individual) 8501                  
    Under 65 years old 8667 8667                
    65 years old and over 7990 7990                
Two people 10869                  
    Householder under 65 years old 11214 11156 11483              
    Householder 65 years old and over 10075 10070 11440              
Three people 13290 13032 13410 13423            
Four people 17029 17184 17465 16895 16954          
Five people 20127 20723 21024 20380 19882 19578        
Six people 22727 23835 23930 23436 22964 22261 21845      
Seven people 25912 27425 27596 27006 26595 25828 24934 23953    
Eight people 28967 30673 30944 30387 29899 29206 28327 27412 27180  
Nine people or more 34417 36897 37076 36583 36169 35489 34554 33708 33499 32208

Income deficit
Income deficit represents the difference between the total income of families and unrelated individuals below the poverty level and their respective poverty thresholds. In computing the income deficit, families reporting a net income loss are assigned zero dollars and for such cases the deficit is equal to the poverty threshold. This measure provides an estimate of the amount which would be required to raise the incomes of all poor families and unrelated individuals to their respective poverty thresholds. The income deficit is thus a measure of the degree of the impoverishment of a family or unrelated individual. However, please use caution when comparing the average deficits of families with different characteristics. Apparent differences in average income deficits may, to some extent, be a function of differences in family size.

Aggregate income deficit
Aggregate income deficit refers only to those families or unrelated individuals who are classified as below the poverty level. It is defined as the group (e.g., type of family) sum total of differences between the appropriate threshold and total family income or total personal income. Aggregate income deficit is subject to rounding, which means that all cells in a matrix are rounded to the nearest hundred dollars. (For more information, see "Aggregate" under "Derived Measures".)

Mean income deficit
Mean income deficit represents the amount obtained by dividing the total income deficit for a group below the poverty level by the number of families (or unrelated individuals) in that group. (The aggregate used to calculate mean income deficit is rounded. For more information, see "Aggregate income deficit.") As mentioned above, please use caution when comparing mean income deficits of families with different characteristics, as apparent differences may to some extent be a function of differences in family size. Mean income deficit is rounded to the nearest whole dollar. (For more information on means, see "Derived Measures".)

The poverty definition used in the 1980 census and later differed slightly from the one used in the 1970 census. Three technical modifications were made to the definition used in the 1970 census:

1. Beginning with the 1980 census, the Office of Management and Budget eliminated any distinction between thresholds for "families with a female householder with no husband present" and all other families. The new thresholds - which apply to all families regardless of the householder's sex - were a weighted average of the old thresholds.

2. The Office of Management and Budget eliminated any differences between farm families and nonfarm families, and farm and nonfarm unrelated individuals. In the 1970 census, the farm thresholds were 85 percent of those for nonfarm families; whereas, in 1980 and later, the same thresholds were applied to all families and unrelated individuals regardless of residence.

3. The thresholds by size of family were extended from seven or more people in 1970 to nine or more people in 1980 and later.

These changes resulted in a minimal increase in the number of poor at the national level. For a complete discussion of these modifications and their impact, see U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, " Characteristics of the Population Below the Poverty Level: 1980," P-60, No. 133.

With respect to poverty, the population covered in the 1970 census was almost the same as that covered in the 1980 census and later. The only difference was that in 1980 and after, unrelated individuals under 15 years old were excluded from the poverty universe, while in 1970, only those under age 14 were excluded. The limited poverty data from the 1960 census excluded all people in group quarters and included all unrelated individuals regardless of age. It was unlikely that these differences in population coverage would have had significant impact when comparing the poverty data for people since the 1960 census.

Current Population Survey
Because the questionnaires and data collection procedures differ, Census 2000 estimates of the number of people below the poverty level by various characteristics may differ from those reported in the March 2000 Current Population Survey. Please refer to more details.

Household poverty data
Poverty status is not defined for households - only for families and unrelated individuals. Because some data users need poverty data at the household level, we have provided a few matrices that show tallies of households by the poverty status of the householder. In these matrices, the householder's poverty status is computed exactly the same way as described above. Therefore, to determine whether or not a "household" was in poverty, anyone who is not related to the householder is ignored.

Example #1: Household #1 has six members - a married couple, Alice and Albert, with their 10-year-old nephew, Aaron, and another married couple, Brian and Beatrice, with their 6-year-old son, Ben. Alice is the householder. Brian, Beatrice, and Ben are not related to Alice.

Household member Relationship to Alice Income
Alice self (householder) $5,000
Albert spouse $40,000
Aaron related child $0
Brian unrelated individual $0
Beatrice unrelated individual $5,000
Ben unrelated individual $0

The total income of Alice's family is $45,000, and their poverty threshold is $13,410, since there are three people in the family, with one member under age 18. Their income is greater than their threshold, so they are not classified as poor. Their ratio of income to poverty is 3.36 ($45,000 divided by $13,410). Alice's income-to-poverty ratio is also 3.36, because everyone in the same family has the same poverty status.
Even though Brian, Beatrice and Ben would be classified as poor if they lived in their own household, the household is not classified as poor because the householder, Alice, is not poor, as was shown in the computation above.

Example #2: Household #2 consists of four adults, Claude, Danielle, Emily, and Francis, who are unrelated to each other and are living as housemates. Claude, who is age 30, is the householder.

Household member Relationship to Claude Income
Claude self (householder) $4,500
Danielle unrelated individual $82,000
Emily unrelated individual $28,000
Francis unrelated individual $40,000

Because Claude is under age 65 and is not living with any family members, his poverty threshold is $8,667. Since his income, $4,500, is less than his threshold, he is considered poor. His ratio of income to poverty is 0.52 ($4,500 divided by $8,667).
Household #2 would be classified as poor because its householder, Claude, is poor, even though the other household members (who are not related to Claude) are not in poverty.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 3: Technical Documentation, 2002.
Year Structure Built
The data on year structure built were obtained from answers to long-form questionnaire Item 35, which was asked on a sample basis at both occupied and vacant housing units. Year structure built refers to when the building was first constructed, not when it was remodeled, added to, or converted. For housing units under construction that met the housing unit definition-that is, all exterior windows, doors, and final usable floors were in place-the category "1999 or 2000" was used for tabulations. For mobile homes, houseboats, RVs, etc., the manufacturers model year was assumed to be the year built. The data relate to the number of units built during the specified periods that were still in existence at the time of enumeration.

Median year structure built
Median year structure built divides the distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median year structure built and one-half above the median. Median year structure built is computed on the basis of a standard distribution (see the "Standard Distributions" section under "Derived Measures"). Median year structure built is rounded to the nearest whole number. Median age of housing can be obtained by subtracting median year structure built from 2000. For example, if the median year structure built is 1967, the median age of housing in that area is 33 years (2000 minus 1967). (For more information on medians, see "Derived Measures".)

Limitation of the data
Data on year structure built are more susceptible to errors of response and nonreporting than data on many other items because respondents must rely on their memory or on estimates by people who have lived in the neighborhood a long time.

Data on year structure built were collected for the first time in the 1940 census. Since then, the response categories have been modified to accommodate the 10-year period between each census. In the 1980 census, the number of units built before 1940 appeared to be underreported. In an effort to alleviate this problem, a "Don't know" category was added in 1990. Responses of "Don't know" were treated like blanks and the item was allocated from similar units by tenure and structure type. However, this led to an extremely high allocation rate for the item (28 percent). A 1996 test proved inconclusive in determining whether a "Don't know" category led to a more accurate count of older units, but the test showed the allocation rate for this item was greatly reduced by the elimination of the "Don't know" category. As a result, "Don't know" was deleted for Census 2000.