Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: PCT12O. Sex By Age (Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic Or Latino) [209]
Universe: People who are Two or more races, not Hispanic or Latino
Table Details
PCT12O. Sex By Age (Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic Or Latino)
Universe: People who are Two or more races, not Hispanic or Latino
Variable Label
PCT012O001
PCT012O002
PCT012O003
PCT012O004
PCT012O005
PCT012O006
PCT012O007
PCT012O008
PCT012O009
PCT012O010
PCT012O011
PCT012O012
PCT012O013
PCT012O014
PCT012O015
PCT012O016
PCT012O017
PCT012O018
PCT012O019
PCT012O020
PCT012O021
PCT012O022
PCT012O023
PCT012O024
PCT012O025
PCT012O026
PCT012O027
PCT012O028
PCT012O029
PCT012O030
PCT012O031
PCT012O032
PCT012O033
PCT012O034
PCT012O035
PCT012O036
PCT012O037
PCT012O038
PCT012O039
PCT012O040
PCT012O041
PCT012O042
PCT012O043
PCT012O044
PCT012O045
PCT012O046
PCT012O047
PCT012O048
PCT012O049
PCT012O050
PCT012O051
PCT012O052
PCT012O053
PCT012O054
PCT012O055
PCT012O056
PCT012O057
PCT012O058
PCT012O059
PCT012O060
PCT012O061
PCT012O062
PCT012O063
PCT012O064
PCT012O065
PCT012O066
PCT012O067
PCT012O068
PCT012O069
PCT012O070
PCT012O071
PCT012O072
PCT012O073
PCT012O074
PCT012O075
PCT012O076
PCT012O077
PCT012O078
PCT012O079
PCT012O080
PCT012O081
PCT012O082
PCT012O083
PCT012O084
PCT012O085
PCT012O086
PCT012O087
PCT012O088
PCT012O089
PCT012O090
PCT012O091
PCT012O092
PCT012O093
PCT012O094
PCT012O095
PCT012O096
PCT012O097
PCT012O098
PCT012O099
PCT012O100
PCT012O101
PCT012O102
PCT012O103
PCT012O104
PCT012O105
PCT012O106
PCT012O107
PCT012O108
PCT012O109
PCT012O110
PCT012O111
PCT012O112
PCT012O113
PCT012O114
PCT012O115
PCT012O116
PCT012O117
PCT012O118
PCT012O119
PCT012O120
PCT012O121
PCT012O122
PCT012O123
PCT012O124
PCT012O125
PCT012O126
PCT012O127
PCT012O128
PCT012O129
PCT012O130
PCT012O131
PCT012O132
PCT012O133
PCT012O134
PCT012O135
PCT012O136
PCT012O137
PCT012O138
PCT012O139
PCT012O140
PCT012O141
PCT012O142
PCT012O143
PCT012O144
PCT012O145
PCT012O146
PCT012O147
PCT012O148
PCT012O149
PCT012O150
PCT012O151
PCT012O152
PCT012O153
PCT012O154
PCT012O155
PCT012O156
PCT012O157
PCT012O158
PCT012O159
PCT012O160
PCT012O161
PCT012O162
PCT012O163
PCT012O164
PCT012O165
PCT012O166
PCT012O167
PCT012O168
PCT012O169
PCT012O170
PCT012O171
PCT012O172
PCT012O173
PCT012O174
PCT012O175
PCT012O176
PCT012O177
PCT012O178
PCT012O179
PCT012O180
PCT012O181
PCT012O182
PCT012O183
PCT012O184
PCT012O185
PCT012O186
PCT012O187
PCT012O188
PCT012O189
PCT012O190
PCT012O191
PCT012O192
PCT012O193
PCT012O194
PCT012O195
PCT012O196
PCT012O197
PCT012O198
PCT012O199
PCT012O200
PCT012O201
PCT012O202
PCT012O203
PCT012O204
PCT012O205
PCT012O206
PCT012O207
PCT012O208
PCT012O209
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Sex
The data on sex were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. Individuals were asked to mark either "male" or "female" to indicate their sex. For most cases in which sex was not reported, it was determined by the appropriate entry from the persons given (i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was imputed according to the relationship to the householder and the age of the person. (For more information on imputation, see "Accuracy of the Data.")

Sex ratio
A measure derived by dividing the total number of males by the total number of females and multiplying by 100.

Comparability
A question on the sex of individuals has been asked of the total population in every census.
For more information on sex, please telephone 301-457-2378.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years as of April 1, 2000. The age of the person was usually derived from their date of birth information. Their reported age was used only when date of birth information was unavailable.

Data on age are used to determine the applicability of some of the sample questions for a person and to classify other characteristics in census tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and examine many programs and policies.

Median age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single year of age distribution.

Limitation of the data
The most general limitation for many decades has been the tendency of people to overreport ages or years of birth that end in zero or five. This phenomenon is called "age heaping." In addition, the counts in the 1970 and 1980 censuses for people 100 years old and over were substantially overstated. So also were the counts of people aged 69 in 1970 and aged 79 in 1980. Improvements have been made since then in the questionnaire design, and in the allocation procedures which have further minimized these problems. The count of people aged 89 in the 1990 census was not overstated.

Review of detailed 1990 census information indicated that respondents tended to provide their age as of the date they completed the questionnaire, not their age as of April 1, 1990. One reason this happened was that respondents were not specifically instructed to provide their age as of April 1, 1990. Another reason was that data collection efforts continued well past the census date. In addition, there may have been a tendency for respondents to round their age up if they were close to having a birthday. It is likely that approximately 10 percent of people in most age groups were actually one year younger. For most single years of age, the misstatements were largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age zero because people lost to age one probably were not fully offset by the inclusion of babies born after April 1, 1990. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age one to avoid reporting age as zero years. (Age in complete months was not collected for infants under age one.)

The reporting of age one year older than true age on April 1, 1990, is likely to have been greater in areas where the census data were collected later in calendar year 1990. The magnitude of this problem was much less in the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses where age was typically derived from respondent data on year of birth and quarter of birth.

These shortcomings were minimized in Census 2000 because age was usually calculated from exact date of birth and because respondents were specifically asked to provide their age as of April 1, 2000. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the section below that discusses "Comparability.")

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. For the first time since 1950, the 1990 data were not available by quarter year of age. This change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth. In 2000, each individual has both an age and an exact date of birth. In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as "imputation." The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see "Accuracy of the Data.")
For more information on age, please telephone 301-457-2428.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Two or more races
People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum race groups identified by the OMB, and the Census Bureau "Some other race" category. For data product purposes, "Two or more races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
  1. White
  2. Black or African American
  3. American Indian and Alaska Native
  4. Asian
  5. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  6. Some other race
There are 57 possible combinations (see Figure B-1) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of "White" and "Asian" was tallied as two or more races, while a response of "Japanese" and "Chinese" was not because "Japanese" and "Chinese" are both Asian responses. Tabulations of responses involving reporting of two or more races within the American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander categories are available in other data products.

Given the many possible ways of displaying data on two or more races, data products will provide varying levels of detail. The most common presentation shows a single line indicating "Two or more races." Some data products provide totals of all 57 possible combinations of two or more races, as well as subtotals of people reporting a specific number of races, such as people reporting two races, people reporting three races, and so on.

In other presentations on race, data are shown for the total number of people who reported one of the six categories alone or in combination with one or more other race categories. For example, the category "Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races" includes people who reported Asian alone and people who reported Asian in combination with White, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and Some other race. This number, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as Asian in the question on race. When this data presentation is used, the individual race categories will add to more than the total population because people may be included in more than one category.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Hispanic or Latino
The data on the Hispanic or Latino population were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The terms "Spanish,""Hispanic origin," and "Latino" are used interchangeably. Some respondents identify with all three terms while others may identify with only one of these three specific terms. Hispanics or Latinos who identify with the terms "Spanish,"" Hispanic," or "Latino" are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino categories listed on the questionnaire ("Mexican,""Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino." People who do not identify with one of the specific origins listed on the questionnaire but indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino" are those whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, the Dominican Republic, or people identifying themselves generally as Spanish, Spanish-American, Hispanic, Hispano, Latino, and so on. All write-in responses to the "other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino" category were coded.

Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the persons parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race. Some tabulations are shown by the origin of the householder. In all cases where the origin of households, families, or occupied housing units is classified as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino, the origin of the householder is used. (See the discussion of householder under "Household Type and Relationship.")

If an individual could not provide a Hispanic origin response, their origin was assigned using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if origin was missing for a natural-born daughter in the household, then either the origin of the householder, another naturalborn child, or spouse of the householder was assigned. If Hispanic origin was not reported for anyone in the household, the Hispanic origin of a householder in a previously processed household with the same race was assigned. This procedure is a variation of the general imputation procedures described in "Accuracy of the Data" and is similar to those used in 1990, except for Census 2000 race and Spanish surnames were used to assist in assigning an origin (see the "Comparability" section below also).

Comparability
There are two important changes to the Hispanic origin question for Census 2000. First, the sequence of the race and Hispanic origin questions for Census 2000 differs from that in 1990; in 1990, the race question preceded the Hispanic origin question. Testing prior to Census 2000 indicated that response to the Hispanic origin question could be improved by placing it before the race question without affecting the response to the race question. Second, there is an instruction preceding the Hispanic origin question indicating that respondents should answer both the Hispanic origin and the race questions. This instruction was added to give emphasis to the distinct concepts of the Hispanic origin and race questions, and to emphasize the need for both pieces of information.

Furthermore, there has been a change in the processing of the Hispanic origin and race responses. In the 1990 census, respondents provided Hispanic origin responses in the race question and race responses in the Hispanic origin question. In 1990, the Hispanic origin question and the race question had separate edits; therefore, although information may have been present on the questionnaire, it was not fully utilized due to the discrete nature of the edits. However, for Census 2000 there is a joint race and Hispanic origin edit, which can utilize Hispanic origin and race information that was reported in the inappropriate question.
For more information on Hispanic or Latino, please telephone 301-457-2403.