Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: P29. Relationship By Age For The Population Under 18 Years [46]
Universe: Population under 18 years
Table Details
P29. Relationship By Age For The Population Under 18 Years
Universe: Population under 18 years
Variable Label
P029001
P029002
P029003
P029004
P029005
P029006
P029007
P029008
P029009
P029010
P029011
P029012
P029013
P029014
P029015
P029016
P029017
P029018
P029019
P029020
P029021
P029022
P029023
P029024
P029025
P029026
P029027
P029028
P029029
P029030
P029031
P029032
P029033
P029034
P029035
P029036
P029037
P029038
P029039
P029040
P029041
P029042
P029043
P029044
P029045
P029046
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Relationship to Householder
The phrase "Coverage Improvement Adjustment" was included in the table outlines and the technical documentation before the review, analysis, and recommendation on whether to adjust Census 2000 data for coverage improvement was completed. As the data are not adjusted, a zero (0) will appear. This phrase does not refer to any other outreach or collection opertions that were introduced to improve coverage in Census 2000.

Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from the question "How is this person related to Person 1," which was asked of Persons 2 and higher in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder (Person 1). In most cases, this is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any household member 15 years old or over could be designated as the householder (that is, Person 1).

Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and nonfamily householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more people related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Spouse (husband/wife)
Includes a person married to and living with a householder. This category includes people in formal marriages, as well as people in common-law marriages. The number of spouses is equal to the number of "married-couple families" or "married-couple households" in 100-percent tabulations. Marital status categories cannot be inferred from the 100- percent tabulations since the marital status item was not included on the 100-percent form.

Child
Includes a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or an adopted child of the householder, regardless of the childs age or marital status. The category excludes sons-in-law, daughters-inlaw, and foster children.

Natural-born son/daughter
A son or daughter of the householder by birth, regardless of the age of the child.

Adopted son/daughter
A son or daughter of the householder by legal adoption, regardless of the age of the child. If the stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.

Stepson/stepdaughter
A son or daughter of the householder through marriage but not by birth, regardless of the age of the child. If the stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.

Own child
A child under 18 years old who is a son or daughter by birth, marriage (a stepchild), or adoption. In certain tabulations, own children are further classified as living with two parents or with one parent only. For 100-percent tabulations, own children consist of all sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years of age. For sample data, own children consist of sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years of age and who have never been married, therefore, numbers of own children of householders may be different in these two tabulations.

"Related children" in a family include own children and all other people under 18 years of age in the household, who are related to the householder, except the spouse of the householder. Foster children are not included since they are not related to the householder.

Other relatives
Includes any household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another relationship category. In certain detailed tabulations, the following categories may be shown:

Grandchild
The grandson or granddaughter of the householder.

Brother/sister
The brother or sister of the householder, including stepbrothers, stepsisters, and brothers and sisters by adoption. Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law are included in the "Other relative" category on the questionnaire.

Parent
The father or mother of the householder, including a stepparent or adoptive parent. Fathers-in-law and mothers-in-law are included in the "Parent-in-law" category on the questionnaire.

Parent-in-law
Includes the mother-in-law or father-in-law of the householder.

Son-in-law/daughter-in-law
By definition, these are spouses of the children of the householder.

Other relatives
Anyone not listed in a reported category above who is related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (brother-in-law, grandparent, nephew, aunt, cousin, and so forth).

Nonrelatives
Includes any household member who is not related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, including foster children. The following categories may be presented in more detailed tabulations:

Roomer, boarder
Includes roomers or boarders, who live in a room in the household of Person 1 (householder). Some sort of cash or noncash payment (e.g., chores) is usually made for their living accommodations.

Housemate or roommate
A person who is not related to the householder and who shares living quarters primarily to share expenses.

Unmarried partner
A person who is not related to the householder, who shares living quarters, and who has a close personal relationship with the householder.

Foster child
Foster children are people under 18 placed by the local government in a household to receive parental care. They may be living in the household for just a brief period or for several years. Foster children are nonrelatives of the householder. If the foster child is also related to the householder, the child should be classified as that specific relative.

Other nonrelatives
A person who is not related by birth, marriage, or adoption to the householder and who is not described by the categories given above. When relationship is not reported for an individual, it is imputed according to the responses for the age and sex for that person while maintaining consistency with responses for other individuals in the household.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years as of April 1, 2000. The age of the person was usually derived from their date of birth information. Their reported age was used only when date of birth information was unavailable.

Data on age are used to determine the applicability of some of the sample questions for a person and to classify other characteristics in census tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and examine many programs and policies.

Median age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single year of age distribution.

Limitation of the data
The most general limitation for many decades has been the tendency of people to overreport ages or years of birth that end in zero or five. This phenomenon is called "age heaping." In addition, the counts in the 1970 and 1980 censuses for people 100 years old and over were substantially overstated. So also were the counts of people aged 69 in 1970 and aged 79 in 1980. Improvements have been made since then in the questionnaire design, and in the allocation procedures which have further minimized these problems. The count of people aged 89 in the 1990 census was not overstated.

Review of detailed 1990 census information indicated that respondents tended to provide their age as of the date they completed the questionnaire, not their age as of April 1, 1990. One reason this happened was that respondents were not specifically instructed to provide their age as of April 1, 1990. Another reason was that data collection efforts continued well past the census date. In addition, there may have been a tendency for respondents to round their age up if they were close to having a birthday. It is likely that approximately 10 percent of people in most age groups were actually one year younger. For most single years of age, the misstatements were largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age zero because people lost to age one probably were not fully offset by the inclusion of babies born after April 1, 1990. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age one to avoid reporting age as zero years. (Age in complete months was not collected for infants under age one.)

The reporting of age one year older than true age on April 1, 1990, is likely to have been greater in areas where the census data were collected later in calendar year 1990. The magnitude of this problem was much less in the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses where age was typically derived from respondent data on year of birth and quarter of birth.

These shortcomings were minimized in Census 2000 because age was usually calculated from exact date of birth and because respondents were specifically asked to provide their age as of April 1, 2000. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the section below that discusses "Comparability.")

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. For the first time since 1950, the 1990 data were not available by quarter year of age. This change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth. In 2000, each individual has both an age and an exact date of birth. In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as "imputation." The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see "Accuracy of the Data.")
For more information on age, please telephone 301-457-2428.