Data Dictionary: Census 2000
you are here: choose a survey survey data set table details
Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: P21. Household Type By Age Of Householder [19]
Universe: Households
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Household Type and Relationship
Household
A household includes all of the people who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room occupied (or if vacant, intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live separately from any other people in the building and that have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated people who share living quarters.

In 100-percent tabulations, the count of households or householders always equals the count of occupied housing units. In sample tabulations, the numbers may differ as a result of the weighting process.

Average household size
A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in households by the number of households (or householders). In cases where household members are tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, household members are classified by the race or Hispanic origin of the householder rather than the race or Hispanic origin of each individual.

Relationship to Householder
The phrase "Coverage Improvement Adjustment" was included in the table outlines and the technical documentation before the review, analysis, and recommendation on whether to adjust Census 2000 data for coverage improvement was completed. As the data are not adjusted, a zero (0) will appear. This phrase does not refer to any other outreach or collection opertions that were introduced to improve coverage in Census 2000.

Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from the question "How is this person related to Person 1," which was asked of Persons 2 and higher in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder (Person 1). In most cases, this is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any household member 15 years old or over could be designated as the householder (that is, Person 1).

Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and nonfamily householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more people related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Spouse (husband/wife)
Includes a person married to and living with a householder. This category includes people in formal marriages, as well as people in common-law marriages. The number of spouses is equal to the number of "married-couple families" or "married-couple households" in 100-percent tabulations. Marital status categories cannot be inferred from the 100- percent tabulations since the marital status item was not included on the 100-percent form.

Child
Includes a son or daughter by birth, a stepchild, or an adopted child of the householder, regardless of the childs age or marital status. The category excludes sons-in-law, daughters-inlaw, and foster children.

Natural-born son/daughter
A son or daughter of the householder by birth, regardless of the age of the child.

Adopted son/daughter
A son or daughter of the householder by legal adoption, regardless of the age of the child. If the stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.

Stepson/stepdaughter
A son or daughter of the householder through marriage but not by birth, regardless of the age of the child. If the stepson/stepdaughter of the householder has been legally adopted by the householder, the child is then classified as an adopted child.

Own child
A child under 18 years old who is a son or daughter by birth, marriage (a stepchild), or adoption. In certain tabulations, own children are further classified as living with two parents or with one parent only. For 100-percent tabulations, own children consist of all sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years of age. For sample data, own children consist of sons/daughters of householders who are under 18 years of age and who have never been married, therefore, numbers of own children of householders may be different in these two tabulations.

"Related children" in a family include own children and all other people under 18 years of age in the household, who are related to the householder, except the spouse of the householder. Foster children are not included since they are not related to the householder.

Other relatives
Includes any household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another relationship category. In certain detailed tabulations, the following categories may be shown:

Grandchild
The grandson or granddaughter of the householder.

Brother/sister
The brother or sister of the householder, including stepbrothers, stepsisters, and brothers and sisters by adoption. Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law are included in the "Other relative" category on the questionnaire.

Parent
The father or mother of the householder, including a stepparent or adoptive parent. Fathers-in-law and mothers-in-law are included in the "Parent-in-law" category on the questionnaire.

Parent-in-law
Includes the mother-in-law or father-in-law of the householder.

Son-in-law/daughter-in-law
By definition, these are spouses of the children of the householder.

Other relatives
Anyone not listed in a reported category above who is related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (brother-in-law, grandparent, nephew, aunt, cousin, and so forth).

Nonrelatives
Includes any household member who is not related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, including foster children. The following categories may be presented in more detailed tabulations:

Roomer, boarder
Includes roomers or boarders, who live in a room in the household of Person 1 (householder). Some sort of cash or noncash payment (e.g., chores) is usually made for their living accommodations.

Housemate or roommate
A person who is not related to the householder and who shares living quarters primarily to share expenses.

Unmarried partner
A person who is not related to the householder, who shares living quarters, and who has a close personal relationship with the householder.

Foster child
Foster children are people under 18 placed by the local government in a household to receive parental care. They may be living in the household for just a brief period or for several years. Foster children are nonrelatives of the householder. If the foster child is also related to the householder, the child should be classified as that specific relative.

Other nonrelatives
A person who is not related by birth, marriage, or adoption to the householder and who is not described by the categories given above. When relationship is not reported for an individual, it is imputed according to the responses for the age and sex for that person while maintaining consistency with responses for other individuals in the household.

Unrelated Individual
An unrelated individual is: (1) a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only, (2) a household member who is not related to the householder, or (3) a person living in group quarters who is not an inmate of an institution.

Family Type
A family includes a householder and one or more other people living in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. All people in a household who are related to the householder are regarded as members of his or her family. A household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations. Not all households contain families since a household may be a group of unrelated people or one person living alone.

Families are classified by type as either a "married-couple family" or an "other family" according to the presence of a spouse. "Other family" is further broken out according to the sex of the householder. The data on family type are based on answers to questions on sex and relationship that were asked on a 100-percent basis.

Married-couple family
A family in which the householder and his or her spouse are enumerated as members of the same household.

Other family
Male householder, no wife present
A family with a male householder and no spouse of the householder present.

Female householder, no husband present
A family with a female householder and no spouse of the householder present.

Nonfamily household
A householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.

Average family size
A measure obtained by dividing the number of people in families by the total number of families (or family householders). In cases where this measure is tabulated by race or Hispanic origin, the race or Hispanic origin refers to that of the householder rather than to the race or Hispanic origin of each individual.

Unmarried-Partner Household
An unmarried-partner household is a household other than a "married-couple household" that includes a householder and an "unmarried partner." An "unmarried partner" can be of the same sex or of the opposite sex of the householder. An "unmarried partner" in an "unmarried-partner household" is an adult who is unrelated to the householder, but shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship with the householder.

Comparability
The 1990 relationship category "Natural-born or adopted son/daughter" has been replaced by "Natural-born son/daughter" and "Adopted son/daughter." The following categories have been added: "Parent-in-law" and "Son-in-law/daughter-in-law." The 1990 nonrelative category, "Roomer, boarder, foster child" has been replaced by two categories, "Roomer, boarder" and "Foster child." In 2000, foster children had to be in the local governments' foster care system to be so classified. In 1990, foster children were estimated to be those children in households who were not related to the householder nor who had any people over 18 who may have been their parents. In 1990, stepchildren who were adopted by the householder were still classified as stepchildren. In 2000, stepchildren who were legally adopted by the householder were classified as adopted children.

For more information on household type or relationship to householder, please telephone 301-457-2416.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to a question that was asked of all people. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years as of April 1, 2000. The age of the person was usually derived from their date of birth information. Their reported age was used only when date of birth information was unavailable.

Data on age are used to determine the applicability of some of the sample questions for a person and to classify other characteristics in census tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and examine many programs and policies.

Median age
This measure divides the age distribution into two equal parts: one-half of the cases falling below the median value and one-half above the value. Median age is computed on the basis of a single year of age distribution.

Limitation of the data
The most general limitation for many decades has been the tendency of people to overreport ages or years of birth that end in zero or five. This phenomenon is called "age heaping." In addition, the counts in the 1970 and 1980 censuses for people 100 years old and over were substantially overstated. So also were the counts of people aged 69 in 1970 and aged 79 in 1980. Improvements have been made since then in the questionnaire design, and in the allocation procedures which have further minimized these problems. The count of people aged 89 in the 1990 census was not overstated.

Review of detailed 1990 census information indicated that respondents tended to provide their age as of the date they completed the questionnaire, not their age as of April 1, 1990. One reason this happened was that respondents were not specifically instructed to provide their age as of April 1, 1990. Another reason was that data collection efforts continued well past the census date. In addition, there may have been a tendency for respondents to round their age up if they were close to having a birthday. It is likely that approximately 10 percent of people in most age groups were actually one year younger. For most single years of age, the misstatements were largely offsetting. The problem is most pronounced at age zero because people lost to age one probably were not fully offset by the inclusion of babies born after April 1, 1990. Also, there may have been more rounding up to age one to avoid reporting age as zero years. (Age in complete months was not collected for infants under age one.)

The reporting of age one year older than true age on April 1, 1990, is likely to have been greater in areas where the census data were collected later in calendar year 1990. The magnitude of this problem was much less in the 1960, 1970, and 1980 censuses where age was typically derived from respondent data on year of birth and quarter of birth.

These shortcomings were minimized in Census 2000 because age was usually calculated from exact date of birth and because respondents were specifically asked to provide their age as of April 1, 2000. (For more information on the design of the age question, see the section below that discusses "Comparability.")

Comparability
Age data have been collected in every census. For the first time since 1950, the 1990 data were not available by quarter year of age. This change was made so that coded information could be obtained for both age and year of birth. In 2000, each individual has both an age and an exact date of birth. In each census since 1940, the age of a person was assigned when it was not reported. In censuses before 1940, with the exception of 1880, people of unknown age were shown as a separate category. Since 1960, assignment of unknown age has been performed by a general procedure described as "imputation." The specific procedures for imputing age have been different in each census. (For more information on imputation, see "Accuracy of the Data.")
For more information on age, please telephone 301-457-2428.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from the question "How is this person related to Person 1," which was asked of Persons 2 and higher in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder (Person 1). In most cases, this is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any household member 15 years old or over could be designated as the householder (that is, Person 1).

Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and nonfamily householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more people related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.