Data Dictionary: Census 2000
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Survey: Census 2000
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: H8. Total Races Tallied For Householders [7]
Universe: Total races tallied for householders in occupied housing units
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Race
The data on race were derived from answers to the question on race that was asked of all people. The concept of race, as used by the Census Bureau, reflects self-identification by people according to the race or races with which they most closely identify. These categories are sociopolitical constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature. Furthermore, the race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.

The racial classifications used by the Census Bureau adhere to the October 30, 1997, Federal Register Notice entitled, "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity" issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). These standards govern the categories used to collect and present federal data on race and ethnicity. The OMB requires five minimum categories (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) for race. The race categories are described below with a sixth category, "Some other race," added with OMB approval. In addition to the five race groups, the OMB also states that respondents should be offered the option of selecting one or more races.

If an individual did not provide a race response, the race or races of the householder or other household members were assigned using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if race was missing for a natural-born child in the household, then either the race or races of the householder, another natural-born child, or the spouse of the householder were assigned. If race was not reported for anyone in the household, the race or races of a householder in a previously processed household were assigned. This procedure is a variation of the general imputation procedures described in "Accuracy of the Data."

White
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as White or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.

Black or African American
A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as Black, African Am., or Negro, or provide written entries such as African American, Afro American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.

American Indian or Alaska Native
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. It includes people who classified themselves as described below.

American Indian
Includes people who indicated their race as "American Indian," entered the name of an Indian tribe, or reported such entries as Canadian Indian, French American Indian, or Spanish-American Indian.

American Indian tribe
Respondents who identified themselves as American Indian were asked to report their enrolled or principal tribe. Therefore, tribal data in tabulations reflect the written entries reported on the questionnaires. Some of the entries (for example, Iroquois, Sioux, Colorado River, and Flathead) represent nations or reservations. The information on tribe is based on self identification and therefore does not reflect any designation of federally or state-recognized tribe. Information on American Indian tribes is presented in summary files. The information for Census 2000 is derived from the American Indian Tribal Classification List for the 1990 census that was updated based on a December 1997 Federal Register Notice, entitled "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Service From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, issued by the Office of Management and Budget.

Alaska Native
Includes written responses of Eskimos, Aleuts, and Alaska Indians as well as entries such as Arctic Slope, Inupiat, Yupik, Alutiiq, Egegik, and Pribilovian. The Alaska tribes are the Alaskan Athabascan, Tlingit, and Haida. The information for Census 2000 is based on the American Indian Tribal Classification List for the 1990 census, which was expanded to list the individual Alaska Native Villages when provided as a written response for race.

Asian
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes "Asian Indian," "Chinese," "Filipino," "Korean," "Japanese," "Vietnamese," and "Other Asian."

Asian Indian
Includes people who indicated their race as "Asian Indian" or identified themselves as Bengalese, Bharat, Dravidian, East Indian, or Goanese.

Chinese
Includes people who indicate their race as "Chinese" or who identify themselves as Cantonese, or Chinese American. In some census tabulations, written entries of Taiwanese are included with Chinese while in others they are shown separately.

Filipino
Includes people who indicate their race as "Filipino" or who report entries such as Philipino, Philipine, or Filipino American.

Japanese
Includes people who indicate their race as "Japanese" or who report entries such as Nipponese or Japanese American.

Korean
Includes people who indicate their race as "Korean" or who provide a response of Korean American.

Vietnamese
Includes people who indicate their race as "Vietnamese" or who provide a response of Vietnamese American.

Cambodian
Includes people who provide a response such as Cambodian or Cambodia.

Hmong
Includes people who provide a response such as Hmong, Laohmong, or Mong.

Laotian
Includes people who provide a response such as Laotian, Laos, or Lao.

Includes people who provide a response such as Thai, Thailand, or Siamese.

Other Asian
Includes people who provide a response of Bangladeshi; Bhutanese; Burmese; Indochinese; Indonesian; Iwo Jiman; Madagascar; Malaysian; Maldivian; Nepalese; Okinawan; Pakistani; Singaporean; Sri Lankan; or Other Asian, specified and Other Asian, not specified.

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian," "Guamanian or Chamorro," "Samoan," and "Other Pacific Islander."

Native Hawaiian
Includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian" or who identify themselves as "Part Hawaiian" or "Hawaiian."

Guamanian or Chamorro
Includes people who indicate their race as such, including written entries of Chamorro or Guam.

Samoan
Includes people who indicate their race as "Samoan" or who identify themselves as American Samoan or Western Samoan.

Other Pacific Islander
Includes people who provide a write-in response of a Pacific Islander group, such as Carolinian, Chuukese (Trukese), Fijian, Kosraean, Melanesian, Micronesian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Papua New Guinean, Pohnpeian, Polynesian, Solomon Islander, Tahitian, Tokelauan, Tongan, Yapese, or Pacific Islander, not specified.

Some other race
Includes all other responses not included in the "White," "Black or African American," "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander" race categories described above. Respondents providing write-in entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic/Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) in the "Some other race" write-in space are included in this category.

Two or more races
People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum race groups identified by the OMB, and the Census Bureau "Some other race" category. For data product purposes, "Two or more races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
  1. White
  2. Black or African American
  3. American Indian and Alaska Native
  4. Asian
  5. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  6. Some other race
There are 57 possible combinations (see Figure B-1) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of "White" and "Asian" was tallied as two or more races, while a response of "Japanese" and "Chinese" was not because "Japanese" and "Chinese" are both Asian responses. Tabulations of responses involving reporting of two or more races within the American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, or Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander categories are available in other data products.

Given the many possible ways of displaying data on two or more races, data products will provide varying levels of detail. The most common presentation shows a single line indicating "Two or more races." Some data products provide totals of all 57 possible combinations of two or more races, as well as subtotals of people reporting a specific number of races, such as people reporting two races, people reporting three races, and so on.

In other presentations on race, data are shown for the total number of people who reported one of the six categories alone or in combination with one or more other race categories. For example, the category "Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races" includes people who reported Asian alone and people who reported Asian in combination with White, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and Some other race. This number, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as Asian in the question on race. When this data presentation is used, the individual race categories will add to more than the total population because people may be included in more than one category.

Coding of write-in entries
During 100-percent processing of Census 2000 questionnaires, subject-matter specialists reviewed and coded written entries from four response categories on the race item American Indian or Alaska Native, Other Asian, Other Pacific Islander, and Some other race. The Other Asian and Other Pacific Islander response categories shared the same write-in area on the questionnaire.

Comparability
The data on race in Census 2000 are not directly comparable to those collected in previous censuses. The October 1997 revised standards issued by the OMB led to changes in the question on race for Census 2000. The Census 2000 Dress Rehearsal data were the first to reflect these changes. First, respondents were allowed to select more than one category for race. Second, the sequence of the questions on race and Hispanic origin changed. In 1990, the question on race (Item 4) preceded the question on Hispanic origin (Item 7) with two intervening questions. For Census 2000, the question on race immediately follows the question on Hispanic origin. Third, there were terminology changes to the response categories, such as spelling out "American" instead of "Amer." for the American Indian or Alaska Native category; and adding "Native" to the Hawaiian response category. The 1990 category "Other race" was renamed "Some other race."

Other differences that may affect comparability involve the individual categories on the Census 2000 questionnaire. The 1990 category, "Asian and Pacific Islander" was separated into two categories, "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander." Accordingly, on the Census 2000 questionnaire, there were seven Asian categories and four Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander categories. The two residual categories, "Other Asian" and "Other Pacific Islander," replaced the 1990 single category "Other API." The 1990 categories "American Indian," "Eskimo," and "Aleut" were combined into "American Indian and Alaska Native." American Indians and Alaska Natives can report one or more tribes.

As in 1990, people who reported a Hispanic or Latino ethnicity in the question on race and did not mark a specific race category were classified in the "Some other race" category ("Other race" in 1990). They commonly provided a write-in entry such as Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Latino. In the 1970 census, most of these responses were included in the "White" category. In addition, some ethnic entries that in 1990 may have been coded as White or Black are now shown in the "Some other race group."

For Puerto Rico, separate questions on race and Hispanic origin were included on their Census 2000 questionnaire, identical to the questions used in the United States. The 1950 census was the last census to include these questions on the Puerto Rico questionnaire.

Census 2000 included an automated review, computer edit, and coding operation on a 100- percent basis for the write-in responses to the race question, similar to that used in the 1990 census. Write-in responses such as Laotian or Thai, and Guamanian or Tongan were reviewed, coded, and tabulated as "Other Asian" and "Other Pacific Islander," respectively, in the census. All tribal entries were coded as either American Indian or as Alaska Native.
For more information on race, please telephone 301-457-2402.

Figure B-1. Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)

  1. White; Black or African American

  2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native

  3. White; Asian

  4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  5. White; Some other race

  6. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native

  7. Black; Asian

  8. Black; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  9. Black; Some other race

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian

  11. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander

  12. American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race

  13. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  14. Asian; Some other race

  15. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  16. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native

  17. White; Black; Asian

  18. White; Black; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  19. White; Black; Some other race

  20. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian

  21. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  22. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race

  23. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  24. White; Asian; Some other race

  25. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  26. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian

  27. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  28. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race

  29. Black; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  30. Black; Asian; Some other race

  31. Black; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  32. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  33. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race

  34. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  35. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  36. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian

  37. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  38. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race

  39. White; Black; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  40. White; Black; Asian; Some other race

  41. White; Black; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  42. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific mIslander

  43. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race

  44. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  45. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  46. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  47. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race

  48. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  49. Black; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  50. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  51. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

  52. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race

  53. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  54. White; Black; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  55. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific mIslander; Some other race

  56. Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race

  57. White; Black; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race



Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Summary File 1: Technical Documentation, 2001.
 
Householder
The data on relationship to householder were derived from the question "How is this person related to Person 1," which was asked of Persons 2 and higher in housing units. One person in each household is designated as the householder (Person 1). In most cases, this is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented. If there is no such person in the household, any household member 15 years old or over could be designated as the householder (that is, Person 1).

Households are classified by type according to the sex of the householder and the presence of relatives. Two types of householders are distinguished: family householders and nonfamily householders. A family householder is a householder living with one or more people related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption. The householder and all of the people in the household related to him or her are family members. A nonfamily householder is a householder living alone or with nonrelatives only.