Data Dictionary: Census 1990
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Survey: Census 1990
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: P154. Imputation Of Place Of Work [5]
Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Table Details
P154. Imputation Of Place Of Work
Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Confidentiality of the Data
To maintain the confidentiality required by law (Title 13, United States Code), the Bureau of the Census applies a confidentiality edit to the 1990 census data to assure that published data do not disclose information about specific individuals, households, or housing units. As a result, a small amount of uncertainty is introduced into the estimates of census characteristics. The sample itself provides adequate protection for most areas for which sample data are published since the resulting data are estimates of the actual counts; however, small areas require more protection. The edit is controlled so that the basic structure of the data is preserved.

The confidentiality edit is implemented by selecting a small subset of individual households from the internal sample data files and blanking a subset of the data items on these household records. Responses to those data items were then imputed using the same imputation procedures that were used for nonresponse. A larger subset of households is selected for the confidentiality edit for small areas to provide greater protection for these areas. The editing process is implemented in such a way that the quality and usefulness of the data were preserved.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Editing of Unacceptable Data
The objective of the processing operation is to produce a set of data that describes the population as accurately and clearly as possible. To meet this objective, questionnaires were edited during field data collection operations for consistency, completeness, and acceptability. Questionnaires also were reviewed by census clerks for omissions, certain specific inconsistencies, and population coverage. For example, write-in entries such as Dont know or NA were considered unacceptable. For some district offices, the initial edit was automated; however, for the majority of the district offices, it was performed by clerks. As a result of this operation, a telephone or personal visit followup was made to obtain missing information. Potential coverage errors were included in the followup, as well as a sample of questionnaires with omissions and/or inconsistencies. Subsequent to field operations, remaining incomplete or inconsistent information on the questionnaires was assigned using imputation procedures during the final automated edit of the collected data. Imputations, or computer assignments of acceptable codes in place of unacceptable entries or blanks, are needed most often when an entry for a given item is lacking or when the information reported for a person or housing unit on that item is inconsistent with other information for that same person or housing unit. As in previous censuses, the general procedure for changing unacceptable entries was to assign an entry for a person or housing unit that was consistent with entries for persons or housing units with similar characteristics. The assignment of acceptable codes in place of blanks or unacceptable entries enhances the usefulness of the data.

Another way in which corrections were made during the computer editing process was through substitution; that is, the assignment of a full set of characteristics for a person or housing unit. When there was an indication that a housing unit was occupied but the questionnaire contained no information for the people within the household or the occupants were not listed on the questionnaire, a previously accepted household was selected as a substitute, and the full set of characteristics for the substitute was duplicated. The assignment of the full set of housing characteristics occurred when there was no housing information available. If the housing unit was determined to be occupied, the housing characteristics were assigned from a previously processed occupied unit. If the housing unit was vacant, the housing characteristics were assigned from a previously processed vacant unit.

Table A. Unadjusted Standard Error for Estimated Totals [Based on a 1-in-6 simple random sample]
Estimated Total Size of publication area2
500 1,000 2,500 5,000 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000 1,000,000 5,000,000 10,000,000 25,000,000
50 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
100 20 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22
250 25 30 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35
500   35 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
1,000     55 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
2,500       80 95 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
5000         110 140 150 150 160 160 160 160 160 160
10,000           170 200 210 220 220 220 220 220 220
15,000           170 230 250 270 270 270 270 270 270
25,000             250 310 340 350 350 350 350 350
75,000               310 510 570 590 610 610 610
100,000                 550 630 670 700 700 710
250,000                   790 970 1 090 1 100 1 100
500,000                     1120 1 500 1 540 1 570
1,000,000                       2 000 2 120 2 190
5,000,000                         3 540 4 470
10,000,000                           5 480


Footnote:
1For estimated totals larger than 10,000,000, the standard error is somewhat larger than the table values. The formula given below should be used to calculate the standard error.

2The total count of persons in the area if the estimated total is a person characteristic, or the total count of housing units in the area if the estimated total is a housing unit characteristic.



Table B. Unadjusted Standard Error in Percentage Points for Estimated Percentage [Based on a 1 in-6 simple random sample]
Estimated percentage Base of percentage1
500 750 1,000 1,500 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000
2 or 98 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
5 or 95 2.2 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
10 or 90 3.0 2.4 2.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
15 or 85 3.6 2.9 2.5 2.1 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
20 or 80 4.0 3.3 2.8 2.3 1.8 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
25 or 75 4.3 3.5 3.1 2.5 1.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
30 or 70 4.6 3.7 3.2 2.6 2.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1
35 or 65 4.8 3.9 3.4 2.8 2.1 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2
50 5.0 4.1 3.5 2.9 2.2 1.6 1.3 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2


Footnote:
1For a percentage and/or base of percentage not shown in the table, the formula given below may be used to calculate the standard error. This table should only be used for proportions, that is, where the numerator is a subset of the denominator.



Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Place of Work
The data on place of work were derived from answers to questionnaire item 22, which was asked of persons who indicated in question 21 that they worked at some time during the reference week. (For more information, see discussion under "Reference Week.")

Data were tabulated for workers 16 years and over; that is, members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were at work during the reference week. Data on place of work refer to the geographic location at which workers carried out their occupational activities during the reference week. The exact address (number and street) of the place of work was asked, as well as the place (city, town, or post office); whether or not the place of work was inside or outside the limits of that city or town; and the county, State, and ZIP Code. If the person's employer operated in more than one location, the exact address of the location or branch where the respondent worked was requested. When the number and street name were unknown, a description of the location, such as the building name or nearest street or intersection, was to be entered.

Persons who worked at more than one location during the reference week were asked to report the one at which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons who regularly worked in several locations each day during the reference week were requested to give the address at which they began work each day. For cases in which daily work did not begin at a central place each day, the person was asked to provide as much information as possible to describe the area in which he or she worked most during the reference week.

In some tabulations, place-of-work locations may be defined as "in area of residence" and "outside area of residence." The area of residence may vary from table to table or even within a table, and refers to the particular area or areas shown. For example, in a table that provides data for counties, "in area of residence" refers to persons who worked in the same county in which they lived, while "outside area of residence" refers to persons whose workplace was located in a county different from the one in which they lived. Similarly, in a table that provides data for several types of areas, such as the State and its individual metropolitan areas (MA's), counties, and places, the place-of-work data will be variable and is determined by the geographic level (State, MA, county, or place) shown in each section of the tabulation.

In tabulations that present data for States, workplaces for the residents of the State may include, in addition to the State itself, each contiguous State. The category, "in noncontiguous State or abroad," includes persons who worked in a State that did not border their State of residence as well as persons who worked outside the United States.

In tabulations that present data for an MSA/PMSA, place-of-work locations are specified to show the main destinations of workers living in the MSA/PMSA. (For more information on metropolitan areas (MA's), see Appendix A, Area Classifications.) All place-of-work locations are identified with respect to the boundaries of the MSA/PMSA as "inside MSA/PMSA" or "outside MSA/PMSA." Locations within the MSA/PMSA are further divided into each central city, and each county or county balance. Selected large incorporated places also may be specified as places of work.

Within New England MSA/PMSA's, the places of work presented generally are cities and towns. Locations outside the MSA/PMSA are specified if they are important commuting destinations for residents of the MSA/PMSA, and may include adjoining MSA/PMSA's and their central cities, their component counties, large incorporated places, or counties, cities, or other geographic areas outside any MA. In tabulations for MSA/PMSA's in New England; Honolulu, Hawaii; and certain other MA's, some place-of-work locations are identified as "areas" (e.g., Area 1, Area 5, Area 12, etc.). Such areas consist of groups of towns, cities, census designated places (Honolulu MSA only), or counties that have been identified as unique place-of-work destinations. When an adjoining MSA/PMSA or MSA/PMSA remainder is specified as a place-of-work location, its components are not defined. However, the components are presented in the 1990 CP-1, General Population Characteristics for Metropolitan Areas and the 1990 CH-1, General Housing Characteristics for Metropolitan Areas reports. In tabulations that present data for census tracts outside MA's, place-of-work locations are defined as "in county of residence" and "outside county of residence."

In areas where the workplace address was coded to the block level, persons were tabulated as working inside or outside a specific place based on the location of that address, regardless of the response to question 22c concerning city/town limits. In areas where it was impossible to code the workplace address to the block level, persons were tabulated as working in a place if a place name was reported in question 22b and the response to question 22c was either "Yes" or the item was left blank. In selected areas, census designated places (CDP's) may appear in the tabulations as places of work. The accuracy of place-of-work data for CDP's may be affected by the extent to which their census names were familiar to respondents, and by coding problems caused by similarities between the CDP name and the names of other geographic jurisdictions in the same vicinity.

Place-of-work data are given for selected minor civil divisions (generally, cities, towns, and townships) in the nine Northeastern States, based on the responses to the place-of-work question. Many towns and townships are regarded locally as equivalent to a place and therefore, were reported as the place of work. When a respondent reported a locality or incorporated place that formed a part of a township or town, the coding and tabulating procedure was designed to include the response in the total for the township or town. The accuracy of the place-of-work data for minor civil divisions is greatest for the New England States. However, the data for some New England towns, for towns in New York, and for townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania may be affected by coding problems that resulted from the unfamiliarity of the respondent with the minor civil division in which the workplace was located or when a township and a city or borough of the same or similar name are located close together.

Place-of-work data may show a few workers who made unlikely daily work trips (e.g., workers who lived in New York and worked in California). This result is attributable to persons who worked during the reference week at a location that was different from their usual place of work, such as persons away from home on business.