Data Dictionary: Census 1990
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Survey: Census 1990
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: P144. Imputation Of Residence In 1985 [7]
Universe: Persons 5 years and over
Table Details
P144. Imputation Of Residence In 1985
Universe: Persons 5 years and over
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Confidentiality of the Data
To maintain the confidentiality required by law (Title 13, United States Code), the Bureau of the Census applies a confidentiality edit to the 1990 census data to assure that published data do not disclose information about specific individuals, households, or housing units. As a result, a small amount of uncertainty is introduced into the estimates of census characteristics. The sample itself provides adequate protection for most areas for which sample data are published since the resulting data are estimates of the actual counts; however, small areas require more protection. The edit is controlled so that the basic structure of the data is preserved.

The confidentiality edit is implemented by selecting a small subset of individual households from the internal sample data files and blanking a subset of the data items on these household records. Responses to those data items were then imputed using the same imputation procedures that were used for nonresponse. A larger subset of households is selected for the confidentiality edit for small areas to provide greater protection for these areas. The editing process is implemented in such a way that the quality and usefulness of the data were preserved.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Editing of Unacceptable Data
The objective of the processing operation is to produce a set of data that describes the population as accurately and clearly as possible. To meet this objective, questionnaires were edited during field data collection operations for consistency, completeness, and acceptability. Questionnaires also were reviewed by census clerks for omissions, certain specific inconsistencies, and population coverage. For example, write-in entries such as Dont know or NA were considered unacceptable. For some district offices, the initial edit was automated; however, for the majority of the district offices, it was performed by clerks. As a result of this operation, a telephone or personal visit followup was made to obtain missing information. Potential coverage errors were included in the followup, as well as a sample of questionnaires with omissions and/or inconsistencies. Subsequent to field operations, remaining incomplete or inconsistent information on the questionnaires was assigned using imputation procedures during the final automated edit of the collected data. Imputations, or computer assignments of acceptable codes in place of unacceptable entries or blanks, are needed most often when an entry for a given item is lacking or when the information reported for a person or housing unit on that item is inconsistent with other information for that same person or housing unit. As in previous censuses, the general procedure for changing unacceptable entries was to assign an entry for a person or housing unit that was consistent with entries for persons or housing units with similar characteristics. The assignment of acceptable codes in place of blanks or unacceptable entries enhances the usefulness of the data.

Another way in which corrections were made during the computer editing process was through substitution; that is, the assignment of a full set of characteristics for a person or housing unit. When there was an indication that a housing unit was occupied but the questionnaire contained no information for the people within the household or the occupants were not listed on the questionnaire, a previously accepted household was selected as a substitute, and the full set of characteristics for the substitute was duplicated. The assignment of the full set of housing characteristics occurred when there was no housing information available. If the housing unit was determined to be occupied, the housing characteristics were assigned from a previously processed occupied unit. If the housing unit was vacant, the housing characteristics were assigned from a previously processed vacant unit.

Table A. Unadjusted Standard Error for Estimated Totals [Based on a 1-in-6 simple random sample]
Estimated Total Size of publication area2
500 1,000 2,500 5,000 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000 1,000,000 5,000,000 10,000,000 25,000,000
50 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
100 20 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22
250 25 30 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35
500   35 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
1,000     55 65 65 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
2,500       80 95 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
5000         110 140 150 150 160 160 160 160 160 160
10,000           170 200 210 220 220 220 220 220 220
15,000           170 230 250 270 270 270 270 270 270
25,000             250 310 340 350 350 350 350 350
75,000               310 510 570 590 610 610 610
100,000                 550 630 670 700 700 710
250,000                   790 970 1 090 1 100 1 100
500,000                     1120 1 500 1 540 1 570
1,000,000                       2 000 2 120 2 190
5,000,000                         3 540 4 470
10,000,000                           5 480


Footnote:
1For estimated totals larger than 10,000,000, the standard error is somewhat larger than the table values. The formula given below should be used to calculate the standard error.

2The total count of persons in the area if the estimated total is a person characteristic, or the total count of housing units in the area if the estimated total is a housing unit characteristic.



Table B. Unadjusted Standard Error in Percentage Points for Estimated Percentage [Based on a 1 in-6 simple random sample]
Estimated percentage Base of percentage1
500 750 1,000 1,500 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000
2 or 98 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
5 or 95 2.2 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
10 or 90 3.0 2.4 2.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
15 or 85 3.6 2.9 2.5 2.1 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
20 or 80 4.0 3.3 2.8 2.3 1.8 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
25 or 75 4.3 3.5 3.1 2.5 1.9 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
30 or 70 4.6 3.7 3.2 2.6 2.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1
35 or 65 4.8 3.9 3.4 2.8 2.1 1.5 1.2 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2
50 5.0 4.1 3.5 2.9 2.2 1.6 1.3 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2


Footnote:
1For a percentage and/or base of percentage not shown in the table, the formula given below may be used to calculate the standard error. This table should only be used for proportions, that is, where the numerator is a subset of the denominator.



Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Residence in 1985
The data on residence in 1985 were derived from answers to question 14b, which asked for the State (or foreign country), county, and place of residence on April 1, 1985, for those persons reporting in question 14a that on that date they lived in a different house than their current residence. Residence in 1985 is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population and the resulting redistribution of the population across the various States, metropolitan areas, and regions of the country.

When no information on residence in 1985 was reported for a person, information for other family members, if available, was used to assign a location of residence in 1985. All cases of nonresponse or incomplete response that were not assigned a previous residence based on information from other family members were allocated the previous residence of another person with similar characteristics who provided complete information.

The tabulation category, "Same house," includes all persons 5 years old and over who did not move during the 5 years as well as those who had moved but by 1990 had returned to their 1985 residence. The category, "Different house in the United States," includes persons who lived in the United States in 1985 but in a different house or apartment from the one they occupied on April 1, 1990. These movers are then further subdivided according to the type of move.

In most tabulations, movers are divided into three groups according to their 1985 residence: "Different house, same county," "Different county, same State," and "Different State." The last group may be further subdivided into region of residence in 1985. The category, "Abroad," includes those persons who were residing in a foreign country, Puerto Rico, or an outlying area of the U.S. in 1985, including members of the Armed Forces and their dependents. Some tabulations show movers who were residing in Puerto Rico or an outlying area in 1985 separately from those residing in other countries.

In tabulations for metropolitan areas, movers are categorized according to the metropolitan status of their current and previous residences, resulting in such groups as movers within an MSA/PMSA, movers between PMSA's, movers from nonmetropolitan areas to MSA/PMSA, and movers from central cities to the remainder of an MSA/PMSA. In some tabulations, these categories are further subdivided by size of MSA/PMSA, region of current or previous residence, or movers within or between central cities and the remainder of the same or a different MSA/PMSA.

The size categories used in some tabulations for both 1985 and 1990 residence refer to the populations of the MSA/PMSA on April 1, 1990; that is, at the end of the migration interval.

Some tabulations present data on inmigrants, outmigrants, and net migration. "Inmigrants" are generally defined as those persons who entered a specified area by crossing its boundary from some point outside the area. In some tabulations, movers from abroad are included in the number of inmigrants; in others, only movers within the United States are included.

"Outmigrants" are persons who depart from a specific area by crossing its boundary to a point outside it, but without leaving the United States. "Net migration" is calculated by subtracting the number of outmigrants from the number of inmigrants and, depending upon the particular tabulation, may or may not include movers from abroad.

The net migration for the area is net inmigration if the result was positive and net outmigration if the result was negative. In the tabulations, net outmigration is indicated by a minus sign (-).

Inmigrants and outmigrants for States include only those persons who did not live in the same State in 1985 and 1990; that is, they exclude persons who moved between counties within the same State. Thus, the sum of the inmigrants to (or outmigrants from) all counties in any State is greater than the number of inmigrants to (or outmigrants from) that State. However, in the case of net migration, the sum of the nets for all the counties within a State equal the net for the State. In the same fashion, the net migration for a division or region equals the sum of the nets for the States comprising that division or region, while the number of inmigrants and outmigrants for that division or region is less than the sum of the inmigrants or outmigrants for the individual States.

The number of persons who were living in a different house in 1985 is somewhat less than the total number of moves during the 5-year period. Some persons in the same house at the two dates had moved during the 5-year period but by the time of the census had returned to their 1985 residence. Other persons who were living in a different house had made one or more intermediate moves. For similar reasons, the number of persons living in a different county, MSA/PMSA, or State or moving between nonmetropolitan areas may be understated.

Comparability
Similar questions were asked on all previous censuses beginning in 1940, except the questions in 1950 referred to residence 1 year earlier rather than 5 years earlier. Although the questions in the 1940 census covered a 5-year period, comparability with that census was reduced somewhat because of different definitions and categories of tabulation. Comparability with the 1960 and 1970 census is also somewhat reduced because nonresponse was not allocated in those earlier censuses. For the 1980 census, nonresponse was allocated in a manner similar to the 1990 allocation scheme.