Data Dictionary: Census 1990
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Survey: Census 1990
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: P46. Place Of Work---Place Level [5]
Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Table Details
P46. Place Of Work---Place Level
Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Place of Work
The data on place of work were derived from answers to questionnaire item 22, which was asked of persons who indicated in question 21 that they worked at some time during the reference week. (For more information, see discussion under "Reference Week.")

Data were tabulated for workers 16 years and over; that is, members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were at work during the reference week. Data on place of work refer to the geographic location at which workers carried out their occupational activities during the reference week. The exact address (number and street) of the place of work was asked, as well as the place (city, town, or post office); whether or not the place of work was inside or outside the limits of that city or town; and the county, State, and ZIP Code. If the person's employer operated in more than one location, the exact address of the location or branch where the respondent worked was requested. When the number and street name were unknown, a description of the location, such as the building name or nearest street or intersection, was to be entered.

Persons who worked at more than one location during the reference week were asked to report the one at which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons who regularly worked in several locations each day during the reference week were requested to give the address at which they began work each day. For cases in which daily work did not begin at a central place each day, the person was asked to provide as much information as possible to describe the area in which he or she worked most during the reference week.

In some tabulations, place-of-work locations may be defined as "in area of residence" and "outside area of residence." The area of residence may vary from table to table or even within a table, and refers to the particular area or areas shown. For example, in a table that provides data for counties, "in area of residence" refers to persons who worked in the same county in which they lived, while "outside area of residence" refers to persons whose workplace was located in a county different from the one in which they lived. Similarly, in a table that provides data for several types of areas, such as the State and its individual metropolitan areas (MA's), counties, and places, the place-of-work data will be variable and is determined by the geographic level (State, MA, county, or place) shown in each section of the tabulation.

In tabulations that present data for States, workplaces for the residents of the State may include, in addition to the State itself, each contiguous State. The category, "in noncontiguous State or abroad," includes persons who worked in a State that did not border their State of residence as well as persons who worked outside the United States.

In tabulations that present data for an MSA/PMSA, place-of-work locations are specified to show the main destinations of workers living in the MSA/PMSA. (For more information on metropolitan areas (MA's), see Appendix A, Area Classifications.) All place-of-work locations are identified with respect to the boundaries of the MSA/PMSA as "inside MSA/PMSA" or "outside MSA/PMSA." Locations within the MSA/PMSA are further divided into each central city, and each county or county balance. Selected large incorporated places also may be specified as places of work.

Within New England MSA/PMSA's, the places of work presented generally are cities and towns. Locations outside the MSA/PMSA are specified if they are important commuting destinations for residents of the MSA/PMSA, and may include adjoining MSA/PMSA's and their central cities, their component counties, large incorporated places, or counties, cities, or other geographic areas outside any MA. In tabulations for MSA/PMSA's in New England; Honolulu, Hawaii; and certain other MA's, some place-of-work locations are identified as "areas" (e.g., Area 1, Area 5, Area 12, etc.). Such areas consist of groups of towns, cities, census designated places (Honolulu MSA only), or counties that have been identified as unique place-of-work destinations. When an adjoining MSA/PMSA or MSA/PMSA remainder is specified as a place-of-work location, its components are not defined. However, the components are presented in the 1990 CP-1, General Population Characteristics for Metropolitan Areas and the 1990 CH-1, General Housing Characteristics for Metropolitan Areas reports. In tabulations that present data for census tracts outside MA's, place-of-work locations are defined as "in county of residence" and "outside county of residence."

In areas where the workplace address was coded to the block level, persons were tabulated as working inside or outside a specific place based on the location of that address, regardless of the response to question 22c concerning city/town limits. In areas where it was impossible to code the workplace address to the block level, persons were tabulated as working in a place if a place name was reported in question 22b and the response to question 22c was either "Yes" or the item was left blank. In selected areas, census designated places (CDP's) may appear in the tabulations as places of work. The accuracy of place-of-work data for CDP's may be affected by the extent to which their census names were familiar to respondents, and by coding problems caused by similarities between the CDP name and the names of other geographic jurisdictions in the same vicinity.

Place-of-work data are given for selected minor civil divisions (generally, cities, towns, and townships) in the nine Northeastern States, based on the responses to the place-of-work question. Many towns and townships are regarded locally as equivalent to a place and therefore, were reported as the place of work. When a respondent reported a locality or incorporated place that formed a part of a township or town, the coding and tabulating procedure was designed to include the response in the total for the township or town. The accuracy of the place-of-work data for minor civil divisions is greatest for the New England States. However, the data for some New England towns, for towns in New York, and for townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania may be affected by coding problems that resulted from the unfamiliarity of the respondent with the minor civil division in which the workplace was located or when a township and a city or borough of the same or similar name are located close together.

Place-of-work data may show a few workers who made unlikely daily work trips (e.g., workers who lived in New York and worked in California). This result is attributable to persons who worked during the reference week at a location that was different from their usual place of work, such as persons away from home on business.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [machine-readable data files] / prepared by the Bureau of the Census. Washington: The Bureau [producer and distributor], 1991.
 
Place
Places, for the reporting of decennial census data, include census designated places and incorporated places. Each place is assigned a four-digit census code that is unique within State. Each place is also assigned a five-digit FIPS code that is unique within State. Both the census and FIPS codes are assigned based on alphabetical order within State. Consolidated cities (see below) are assigned a one-character alphabetical census code that is unique nationwide and a five-digit FIPS code that is unique within State.

Census Designated Place (CDP)
Census designated places (CDP's) are delineated for the decennial census as the statistical counterparts of incorporated places. CDP's comprise densely settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by name, but are not legally incorporated places. Their boundaries, which usually coincide with visible features or the boundary of an adjacent incorporated place, have no legal status, nor do these places have officials elected to serve traditional municipal functions. CDP boundaries may change with changes in the settlement pattern; a CDP with the same name as in previous censuses does not necessarily have the same boundaries.

Beginning with the 1950 census, the Census Bureau, in cooperation with State agencies and local census statistical areas committees, has identified and delineated boundaries for CDP's. In the 1990 census, the name of each such place is followed by "CDP." In the 1980 census, "(CDP)" was used; in 1970, 1960, and 1950 censuses, these places were identified by "(U)," meaning "unincorporated place."

To qualify as a CDP for the 1990 census, an unincorporated community must have met the following criteria:

1. In all States except Alaska and Hawaii, the Census Bureau uses three population size criteria to designate a CDP. These criteria are:
a. 1,000 or more persons if outside the boundaries of an urbanized area (UA) delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census.
b. 2,500 or more persons if inside the boundaries of a UA delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census.
c. 250 or more persons if outside the boundaries of a UA delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census, and within the official boundaries of an American Indian reservation recognized for the 1990 census.

2. In Alaska, 25 or more persons if outside a UA, and 2,500 or more persons if inside a UA delineated for the 1980 census or a subsequent special census.
3. In Hawaii, 300 or more persons, regardless of whether the community is inside or outside a UA.

For the 1990 census, CDP's qualified on the basis of the population counts prepared for the 1990 Postcensus Local Review Program. Because these counts were subject to change, a few CDP's may have final population counts lower than the minimums shown above. Hawaii is the only State with no incorporated places recognized by the Bureau of the Census. All places shown for Hawaii in the data products are CDP's. By agreement with the State of Hawaii, the Census Bureau does not show data separately for the city of Honolulu, which is coextensive with Honolulu County.

Consolidated City
A consolidated government is a unit of local government for which the functions of an incorporated place and its county or minor civil division (MCD) have merged. The legal aspects of this action may result in both the primary incorporated place and the county or MCD continuing to exist as legal entities, even though the county or MCD performs few or no governmental functions and has few or no elected officials. Where this occurs, and where one or more other incorporated places in the county or MCD continue to function as separate governments, even though they have been included in the consolidated government, the primary incorporated place is referred to as a "consolidated city."

The data presentation for consolidated cities varies depending upon the geographic presentation. In hierarchical presentations, consolidated cities are not shown. These presentations include the semi-independent places and the "consolidated city (remainder)." Where the consolidated city is coextensive with a county or county subdivision, the data shown for those areas in hierarchical presentations are equivalent to those for the consolidated government.

For inventory geographic presentations, the consolidated city appears at the end of the listing of places. The data for the consolidated city include places that are part of the consolidated city. The "consolidated city (remainder)" is the portion of the consolidated government minus the semi-independent places, and is shown in alphabetical sequence with other places.

In summary presentations by size of place, the consolidated city is not included. The places semi-independent of consolidated cities are categorized by their size, as is the "consolidated city (remainder)."

Each consolidated city is assigned a one-character alphabetic census code. Each consolidated city also is assigned a five-digit FIPS code that is unique within State. The semi-independent places and the "consolidated city (remainder)" are assigned a four-digit census code and a five-digit FIPS place code that are unique within State. Both the census and FIPS codes are assigned based on alphabetical order within State.

Incorporated Place
Incorporated places recognized in 1990 census data products are those reported to the Census Bureau as legally in existence on January 1, 1990 under the laws of their respective States as cities, boroughs, towns, and villages, with the following exceptions: the towns in the New England States, New York, and Wisconsin, and the boroughs in New York are recognized as minor civil divisions for census purposes; the boroughs in Alaska are county equivalents.