Data Dictionary: Census 1980
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Survey: Census 1980
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T42. Place Of Work--SMSA Level [8]
Universe: Workers 16 Years And Over
Table Details
T42. Place Of Work--SMSA Level
Universe: Workers 16 Years And Over
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
Place of Work
The geographic location of the plant, office, store, or other establishment where the person worked most last week (see the discussion of reference week under Labor Force Status), ascertained for persons at work last week, including both civilian employed and Armed Forces at work, and tabulated for persons 16 years old and over. These data were obtained on a sample basis.

If the person worked at more than one location for the same employer (such as a grocery store chain or public school system), the exact address of the location or branch where the respondent worked most last week was requested. Persons working at more than one job were asked to report the location of the job at which they worked the greatest number of hours during the census week. Salespersons, delivery persons, and others who worked in several places each week were requested to give the address at which they began work each day, if they reported to a central headquarters. For cases in which daily work was not begun at a central place each day, the person was asked to report the exact address of the place where he or she worked the most hours last week.

Responses were coded in census processing offices but only for a sample of approximately one-half of the long-form questionnaires (a cost-saving measure). All entries were assigned codes which define the work location in terms of State, county, place of 2,500 or more (1,000 or more in Alaska and Hawaii) as estimated prior to the census, or in the Northeast region, minor civil division. For residents of SMSAs, place of work was coded further to tract and block (if in a blocked area) if the place was within the same SMSA or multi-SMSA commutershed.

Place-of-work tabulations vary considerably from one publication series to another. PC80-1-C reports furnish data for each of the following categories:

All workers

Place of work reported

Worked in area of residence

Worked outside area of residence

Percent of those reporting place of work

Place of work not reported

In these tabulations, the place of work is shown in terms of whether or not it is within the "area of residence," the definition of which varies with the geographic summary level. For instance, if a given column in a table presents data for a county, the place of work lines indicate the number of county residents who work inside and outside that county.

Census Tracts (PHC80-2) reports present up to 20 place-of-work categories for SMSA's, SMSA counties, places of 10,000 or more in SMSA'S, and census tracts as illustrated in the following list:

Inside SMSA

       Omaha, Nebr. central business district

       Remainder of Omaha city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Douglas County, Nebr.

       Bellevue city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Sarpy County, Nebr.

       Council Bluffs city, Iowa

       Carter Lake city, Iowa

       Remainder of Pottawattamie County, Iowa

Outside SMSA

       Lincoln city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Lancaster County, Nebr.

       Cass County, Nebr.

       Fremont city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Dodge County, Nebr.

       Washington County, Nebr.

       Mills County, Iowa


Place of work not reported

Up to 20 separate work locations are recognized in these PHC80-2 tabulations and on STF 4. The same 20 locations are used throughout each SMSA, but they vary from SXSA to SMSA and from county to county in nonmetropolitan areas.

Special tabulations can be prepared at user expense which make use of the additional detail available on census basic records. For instance, tabulations can be generated which show commuter flows by origin and destination in terms of census tracts within a given SMSA or multi-SMSA commutershed. Characteristics of workers by place of work can also be tabulated.

Public-use microdata "A" and "B" samples report place of work in the same terms as place of residence, i.e., States and "county groups" with 100,000 or more inhabitants. Within large SMSA's, individual counties and places over 100,000 are frequently identified as county groups making possible some analysis of commuting patterns by commuter characteristics. The "C" sample identifies place of work in central cities and in places in four size categories.

It should be noted that place-of-work tabulations do not necessarily give the total number of persons who work in the specified area, only those who also reside within the area summarized. In the above example, the number reported as working in the central business district would not include workers who commute from outside the SMSA being summarized.

Since Place of Work was coded only for a sample of one-half of all long-form questionnaires, along with Residence in 1975 and Travel Time to Work, it required an estimation scheme which differed from that used for full-sample items. As a consequence, the estimated number of workers 16 and over 35 derived from place-of-work tabulations will differ somewhat from the corresponding figure derived from tabulations of Means of Transportation to Work, a full sample item. Further, any cross-tabulation of place of work by other items is necessarily based only on the half-sample.

Historical comparability
Place of work was asked first in 1960, when the inquiry was limited to the State, county, and city of work. In 1970, the question took on its current form, requesting the specific street address and ZIP code. A higher percentage of cases was successfully coded to tract and block of work in 1980 than in 1970, due to improvements in coding materials.

Data on place of work tabulated for inside and outside the area of residence, as discussed above, are new for 1980.

See also: "Transportation to Work, Means Of;" "Travel Time to Work".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)
A large population nucleus and nearby communities which have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. Each SMSA consists of one or more entire counties (or county equivalents) that meet specified standards pertaining to population, commuting ties, and metropolitan character. In New England, towns and cities, rather than counties, are the basic units and should be substituted for "counties" where counties are cited below. SMSA's are designated by the Office of Management and Budget.

Data products from the 1980 census will report on 323 SMSA's:

(1) 287 defined before January 1, 1980 (including 4 in Puerto Rico); and
(2) an additional 36 (including one in Puerto Rico) established as a result of 1980 census population counts. The 36 new SMSAs were designated when 1980 counts showed that they met one or both of the following criteria:

1.Included a city with a population of at least 50,000 within its corporate limits, or
2.Included a Census Bureau-defined urbanized area (which must have a population of at least 50,000) and a total SMSA population of at least 100,000 (or, in New England, 75,000).

An SMSA includes a city and, generally, its entire UA and the remainder of the county or counties in which the UA is located. An SMSA also includes such additional outlying counties which meet specified criteria relating to metropolitan character and level of commuting of workers into the central city or counties. Specific criteria governing the definition of SMSA's recognized before 1980 are published in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1975, issued by the Office of Management and Budget.

With two exceptions, each SMSA has one or more central cities, up to a maximum of three, and the names of these cities form the title of the SMSA. The Nassau-Suffolk, NY, SMSA has no central city, and the title of the Northeast Pennsylvania SMSA does not contain the names of its three central cities: Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Hazleton.

SMSA's are identified by a FIPS 4-digit numeric code, which follows the alphabetic sequence of SMSA names. SMSA's are outlined on small scale maps in several 1980 report series. SMSA data appear in most 1980 census publications and summary tape files. Many SMSA's cross State boundaries, and reports in several series provide summaries for the State parts of multi-State SMSA s, as well as SUSA totals. Summary tape files present data only for State parts of SMSA's, except for the "national" files: STF's lC, 2C, 3C, and 4C.

Historical comparability
A comparison of 1970 and 1980 census products reveals two types of changes in metropolitan territory. First, 69 new SMSAs were created from previously nonmetropolitan territory: 36 were defined in 1981 based on 1980 population counts and 33 were defined between 1973 and 1979 based on current population estimates. (An additional SMSA--Rapid City, SD--was provisionally recognized based on population estimates, but it did not qualify according to 1980 census data.)

The second component of change to metropolitan territory between 1970 and 1980 was the redefinition of many of the SMSA's which were recognized in 1970 census tabulations. Of the 247 1970 SMSA's, 101 were redefined in 1973 based on 1970 census commuting data, most by the addition of 1 or more counties (or towns and cities in New England). In addition, one SMSA was redefined by the addition of one area and the deletion of another (Wichita Falls, Texas), one was subdivided (Nassau-Suffolk SMSA was created from a part of the New York SMSA), four pairs of SMSA's were combined into single SMSA'S (for example, Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas), and four SMSA's lost area that was added to other SMSA's. In addition, the names of several SMSA's were changed in 1973, one in such a way that the SMSA code also changed (San Bernardino-Riverside-Ontario to Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, California).

Since SMSA's are always defined in terms of whole counties (towns or cities in New England) for which extensive data are available, users can usually compile figures for comparisons over time.

In 1982 or 1983, SMSA boundaries will be reevaluated using 1980 census data on commuting, labor force, population density, type of residence, and population growth, according to new criteria spelled out in the Federal Register, January 3, 1980 (vol. 45, no. 2, pt. VI). At that time, new outlying counties may be added or existing ones deleted, some area titles will be changed and new central cities designated, some areas may be consolidated, and a few new SMSA's may be created. Further, the term "standard metropolitan statistical area" will be shortened to "metropolitan statistical area" (MSA). These changes will not affect publication of for SMSA's.