Data Dictionary: Census 1980
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Survey: Census 1980
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T40. Place Of Work--State And County Level [6]
Universe: Workers 16 Years And Over
Table Details
T40. Place Of Work--State And County Level
Universe: Workers 16 Years And Over
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
Place of Work
The geographic location of the plant, office, store, or other establishment where the person worked most last week (see the discussion of reference week under Labor Force Status), ascertained for persons at work last week, including both civilian employed and Armed Forces at work, and tabulated for persons 16 years old and over. These data were obtained on a sample basis.

If the person worked at more than one location for the same employer (such as a grocery store chain or public school system), the exact address of the location or branch where the respondent worked most last week was requested. Persons working at more than one job were asked to report the location of the job at which they worked the greatest number of hours during the census week. Salespersons, delivery persons, and others who worked in several places each week were requested to give the address at which they began work each day, if they reported to a central headquarters. For cases in which daily work was not begun at a central place each day, the person was asked to report the exact address of the place where he or she worked the most hours last week.

Responses were coded in census processing offices but only for a sample of approximately one-half of the long-form questionnaires (a cost-saving measure). All entries were assigned codes which define the work location in terms of State, county, place of 2,500 or more (1,000 or more in Alaska and Hawaii) as estimated prior to the census, or in the Northeast region, minor civil division. For residents of SMSAs, place of work was coded further to tract and block (if in a blocked area) if the place was within the same SMSA or multi-SMSA commutershed.

Place-of-work tabulations vary considerably from one publication series to another. PC80-1-C reports furnish data for each of the following categories:

All workers

Place of work reported

Worked in area of residence

Worked outside area of residence

Percent of those reporting place of work

Place of work not reported

In these tabulations, the place of work is shown in terms of whether or not it is within the "area of residence," the definition of which varies with the geographic summary level. For instance, if a given column in a table presents data for a county, the place of work lines indicate the number of county residents who work inside and outside that county.

Census Tracts (PHC80-2) reports present up to 20 place-of-work categories for SMSA's, SMSA counties, places of 10,000 or more in SMSA'S, and census tracts as illustrated in the following list:

Inside SMSA

       Omaha, Nebr. central business district

       Remainder of Omaha city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Douglas County, Nebr.

       Bellevue city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Sarpy County, Nebr.

       Council Bluffs city, Iowa

       Carter Lake city, Iowa

       Remainder of Pottawattamie County, Iowa

Outside SMSA

       Lincoln city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Lancaster County, Nebr.

       Cass County, Nebr.

       Fremont city, Nebr.

       Remainder of Dodge County, Nebr.

       Washington County, Nebr.

       Mills County, Iowa

       Elsewhere

Place of work not reported

Up to 20 separate work locations are recognized in these PHC80-2 tabulations and on STF 4. The same 20 locations are used throughout each SMSA, but they vary from SXSA to SMSA and from county to county in nonmetropolitan areas.

Special tabulations can be prepared at user expense which make use of the additional detail available on census basic records. For instance, tabulations can be generated which show commuter flows by origin and destination in terms of census tracts within a given SMSA or multi-SMSA commutershed. Characteristics of workers by place of work can also be tabulated.

Public-use microdata "A" and "B" samples report place of work in the same terms as place of residence, i.e., States and "county groups" with 100,000 or more inhabitants. Within large SMSA's, individual counties and places over 100,000 are frequently identified as county groups making possible some analysis of commuting patterns by commuter characteristics. The "C" sample identifies place of work in central cities and in places in four size categories.

Limitations
It should be noted that place-of-work tabulations do not necessarily give the total number of persons who work in the specified area, only those who also reside within the area summarized. In the above example, the number reported as working in the central business district would not include workers who commute from outside the SMSA being summarized.

Since Place of Work was coded only for a sample of one-half of all long-form questionnaires, along with Residence in 1975 and Travel Time to Work, it required an estimation scheme which differed from that used for full-sample items. As a consequence, the estimated number of workers 16 and over 35 derived from place-of-work tabulations will differ somewhat from the corresponding figure derived from tabulations of Means of Transportation to Work, a full sample item. Further, any cross-tabulation of place of work by other items is necessarily based only on the half-sample.

Historical comparability
Place of work was asked first in 1960, when the inquiry was limited to the State, county, and city of work. In 1970, the question took on its current form, requesting the specific street address and ZIP code. A higher percentage of cases was successfully coded to tract and block of work in 1980 than in 1970, due to improvements in coding materials.

Data on place of work tabulated for inside and outside the area of residence, as discussed above, are new for 1980.

See also: "Transportation to Work, Means Of;" "Travel Time to Work".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
State
A major political unit of the United States. The District of Columbia is treated as a State-equivalent in all 1980 census data series. Puerto Rico is also, except that it does not appear in P.L. 94-171 Population Counts file. American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, the remainder of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are treated as State equivalents for the presentation of data in 1980 population and housing volume 1 reports, but data for these areas will be available on computer tape only on STF's 1 and 3.

States are identified by a 2-digit FIPS code which follows the alphabetic sequence of State names (including the District of Columbia), and by a 2-digit census geographic State code, the first digit of which identifies the census division of which the State is a part. Puerto Rico and the outlying areas have FIPS codes numerically following the State codes.

Historical comparability
There have been no significant changes to State boundaries in the last decade. Data for the Northern Mariana Islands are reported separate from remainder of the Trust Territory for the 1980 census.

See also: "Puerto Rico and Outlying Areas".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
County
The primary political and administrative subdivision of a State. In Louisiana, such divisions are called parishes. In Alaska 23 boroughs and "census areas" are treated as county equivalents for census purposes. Several cities (Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; Carson city, Nevada; and 41 Virginia cities) are independent of any county organization, and thereby constitute primary divisions of their States and are treated the same as counties in census tabulations.

County boundaries are shown on most census maps. A 3-digit Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) county code identifies each county uniquely within State. Counties are numbered in alphabetic sequence, with independent cities numbered separately at the end of the list.

There are 3,215 counties, and county equivalents (including 78 in Puerto Rico) recognized for the 1980 census. Tabulations for all counties appear in STF's 1 through 4, and in PC80-1-A, -B, and -C, HC80-1-A and -B, and PHC80-3 reports. Tabulations for counties of 30,000 or more inhabitants appear in STF 5.

Historical comparability
A number of changes have occurred to county boundaries since 1970. A new set of county equivalents (boroughs and census areas) has been defined for Alaska, and in some cases these county equivalents differ considerably from the census divisions recognized for 1970. In addition, there are minor changes in counties for South Dakota and Hawaii. In Virginia, county boundaries have changed as a result of the creation of new independent cities and annexations by independent cities. Most other changes represent minor adjustments of the boundaries between counties. Those counties which changed boundaries between 1970 and 1980 are noted in footnotes at the end of table 4 of the PC80-1-A report for each State.