Data Dictionary: Census 1980
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Survey: Census 1980
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Social Explorer
Table: T59. Average Family Income by Race (In 1979 Dollars) [6]
Universe: Average Family Income
Table Details
T59. Average Family Income by Race (In 1979 Dollars)
Universe: Average Family Income
Variable Label
T059_001
T059_002
T059_003
T059_004
T059_005
T059_006
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
Family Income In 1979
Total money income received in calendar year 1979 by all family members 15 years old and over, tabulated for all families. Family income differs from household income by excluding income received by household members not related to the householder, persons living alone, and others in nonfamily households. (Income of these unrelated persons along with income of persons living in noninstitutional group quarters is tabulated as income of unrelated individuals 15 years old and over.) See the definitions of "Income In 1979" and "Income Type" for a discussion of the sources of income recorded, means, medians, limitations, and comparability.

In income tables for families, the lowest income group (e.g., less than $2,500) includes families that were classified as having no 1979 income as defined in the census. Many of these were living on income "in kind," savings, or gifts; were newly created families: or were families in which the sole breadwinner had recently died or left the household. However, many of the families who reported no income probably had some money income which was not recorded in the census. Family income is recorded on public-use microdata in $10 intervals up to $75,000 or down to a net loss of $9,990 or more.

Median and mean family income figures are based on all families, unlike mean or median income figures for persons 15 years old and over, which exclude persons with no income. This item was derived on a sample basis.
Historical comparability: Family income distributions have been tabulated in each census since 1950. Family income has been replaced by household income distributions in certain tabulations for 1980.

See also: "Income In 1979".

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape File 3 [machine-readable data file] / conducted By the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 1982.
 
Race
All persons wore asked to identify themselves according to the following race categories on the 1980 questionnaire: White, Black or Negro, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian, Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, and Other. The "Other" category includes Malayan, Polynesian, Thai, and other groups not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

The concept of race as used by the Census bureau reflects self-identification by respondents; it does not denote any clear-cut scientific definition of biological stock. Since the 1980 census obtained information on race through self-identification, the data represent self-classification by people according to the race with which they identify themselves. For persons with parents of different races who could not provide a single response to the race question, the race of the person's mother was used; however, if a single response could not be provided for the person's mother, the first race reported by the person was used.

Counts of the population by race in complete-count tabulations are provisional. Final counts for race will be determined after the sample data have been processed. The sample counts will first appear on tape on STF 3 and in print in Characteristics of the Population, General Social and Economic Characteristics (PC80-1-C) reports.

Limited edit and review operations were performed during the complete-count operations; write-in responses were reviewed in an attempt to classify entries to specific categories, where appropriate. For instance, if the "Other" circle was marked with a write-in entry "Caucasian," then the response was recoded as White. (Additional examples are noted below.) However, all such cases were not identified in the complete-count processing. During the processing of sample questionnaires, a more thorough review and additional editing was done to resolve inconsistent or incomplete responses. Also, during the processing of sample questionnaires, write-in entries for the "Other" category were assigned specific codes, which is included on the person's basic record in the census sample detailed tape files.

Asian and Pacific Islander write-in entries, such as Indo-Chinese, Cambodian, or Polynesian, included in the "Other" category during 100-percent processing, are collectively tabulated and shown as "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" in the census sample tabulations; this group, "Other Asian and Pacific Islanders," will be included in the broader Asian and Pacific Islander category in all sample tabulations by race. This shift of "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" entries out of the "Other races" category in sample tabulations and the recoding of write-in entries in the "Other" category to specific categories where appropriate Will affect the comparability between complete-count and sample data for some groups.

Persons who indicated their race as White, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories listed on the questionnaire but entered a response such as Canadian, German, Italian, Lebanese, or Polish. (Persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specified race categories but wrote in entries such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Mexican, or Dominican were included in the "Other races" category; in the 1970 census most of these persons were included in the "White" category.)

Persons who indicated their race as Black or Negro, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Black Puerto Rican, Haitian, Jamaican, Nigerian, or West Indian.

American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut
American Indian
Persons who indicated their race as "Indian (American)" or who did not indicate a specific race category but reported the name of an Indian tribe.

Eskimo
Persons who indicated their race as "Eskimo."

Persons who indicated their race as "Aleut."

Asian and Pacific Islander
In complete-count tabulations, includes all of the groups listed below except "Other Asian and Pacific Islander." In sample tabulations, it includes all of the groups listed below.

Japanese
Persons who indicated their race as Japanese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Nipponese or Japanese American.

Chinese
Persons who indicated their race as Chinese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Cantonese, Formosan, Taiwanese, or Tibetan.

Filipino
Persons who indicated their race as Filipino, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Filipino American or Philippine.

Korean
Persons who indicated their race as Korean, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Korean American.

Asian Indian
Persons who indicated their race as Asian Indian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Bengali, Bharati, Dravidian, East Indian, Goanese, Hindu Indic, Kashmiri, or South Asian.

Vietnamese
Persons who indicated their race as Vietnamese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Vietnam.

Hawaiian
Persons who indicated their race as Hawaiian. In the State of Hawaii, al1 persons who reported "Part-Hawaiian" were included in this category. Guamanian. Persons who indicated their race as Guamanian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the race categories, but reported an entry such as Chamorro or Guam.

Samoan
Persons who indicated their race as Samoan, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as American Samoan or Western Samoan.

Other Asian and Pacific Islander
In sample tabulations only, persons who reported Cambodian, Hmong, Indo-Chinese, Laotian, Pakistani, Polynesian, Fiji Islander, Tahitian, Thai, or similar responses. Census basic records include codes for over 50 separate race group s within this category. In complete-count tabulations, this group is part of the "Other races" category below.

Other (Race n.e.c. "not elsewhere classified")
Includes all other races (except "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" groups) which were not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. For example, persons reporting in the "Other" race category and providing write-in entries such as Eurasian, Cosmopolitan, Inter-racial, or a Spanish origin group (e.g., Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican) were included in Race, n.e.c. Other Asian and Pacific Islanders are included in the "Other" category in 100-percent tabulations. Persons who did not report a specific race but wrote in entries such as "Mexican," "Cuban," "South American, "Chicano," or "La Raza" remained in the "Other races" category for complete-count tabulations, and in the "Race, n.e.c." category for sample tabulations. (STF 3, STF 4, and public-use microdata samples separately identify, as a subcategory within "Race. n.e.c.," persons who wrote in an entry implying Spanish origin. Such entries are not necessarily consistent with responses in the Spanish origin question.)

In a few tables in which data for American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Asian and Pacific Islander are not presented separately, the "Other" category encompasses all race categories not shown separately.

In some tabulations, the "Other" or "Race, n.e.c." category is omitted to save space; data for this category are derivable by subtracting the sum of the specified race categories from the total.

In certain printed tables, where space is limited, data for persons of Spanish origin are presented alongside data for up to four major race groups. In such situations, users should not be misled by the proximity of these two types of data. Spanish origin is not a race category, and persons of Spanish origin may be of any race. Tabulations in a number of sources present data separately for race categories (e.g., White, Black, and "Other") for persons not of Spanish origin. In addition, the number of Spanish-origin persons is given by race.

Limitations
In previous censuses, undercoverage of the population has been associated with race. The 1970 census missed Blacks at a much higher rate than Whites. The Bureau has not prepared undercoverage rates for races other than White or Black, because vital records and other sources of relevant statistics do not consistently distinguish among other races.

Historical comparability
Questions on "race" or "color" have been asked in each census since 1790. In 1970, when persons with parents of different races were in doubt 8s to their classification, the race of the father was used. In 1980, the race of the mother was used for persons who could not provide a single response. The 1970 category "Negro or Black" has been retitled "Black or Negro. Individual categories for Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Guamanian, and Samoan have been added. In 1970, the categories Eskimo and Aleut appeared only on questionnaires used in Alaska; they were replaced by Hawaiian and Korean in all other States. In 1980, all four categories appeared on the questionnaire. As a result of the additions, the 1980 questionnaire had 14 specific race categories instead of 8 as in 1970.

In 1970, persons who did not report a specific race but wrote in Hispanic categories such as "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" in the race question were assigned to White; for 1980 these persons remain in the "Other races" category.

See also: "Ancestry;" "Race of Householder;" "Spanish Origin".