Documentation: Census 1980
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Publisher: U.S. Census Bureau
Survey: Census 1980
Document: Summary Tape File 1
citation:
Social Explorer, U.S. Census Bureau; Census of Population and Housing, 1980 [United States]: Summary Tape File 1a [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census [producer], 1982. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2002.
Chapter Contents
Glossary
Summary Tape File 1
Summary Tape File 1 -- Part II
Part II provides general information applicable to Summary Tape Files 1-5.

Overview: 1980 Census Summary Tape Program
Computer-readable data from the 1980 census include both summary data and microdata. Summary data include Summary Tape Files (STF's) 1 to 5, which are generally comparable to the First Count through Sixth Count files from the 1970 census. In addition to the files in the STF series, other summary data released by the Bureau include a P.L. 94-171 Population Counts file for use in reapportionment/redistricting (released in February/March, 1981) and the Master Area Reference File which provides geographic items from STF 1 and selected population and housing items (all individual State files released beginning September 1981). All of these files contain data summarized to various levels of geography. Microdata files, on the other hand, contain disclosure free household and person records from the census. These files are similar to the 1970 Public Use Sample files and will be available some time after the release of STF 4.

Content and Geographic Coverage of Summary Tape Files
Summary Tape Files vary by summary level of geography, detail of information, and whether they include l00-percent or sample data.STF's 1 and 2 provide data based on the set of census questions asked of all persons and housing units. These data are l00-percent data.STF's 3, 4, and 5 are based on sample data. These data are estimates based on the responses of a sample of the population and housing units and contain more extensive housing and population information. In 1980, the sampling rate was 1 in 2 in governmental units estimated to have less than 2,500 inhabitants and 1 in 6 elsewhere. Overall the sampling rate was approximately 1 in 5. The Bureau's 1977 population estimates were used to determine the sampling rate for a given area.

The geographic detail of STF 1 is the maximum possible detail available from the census: data for individual blocks in block numbered areas and for enumeration districts outside block-numbered areas. The lowest level of geography provided by STF 2 is census tract, or minor civil division/census county division (XD/CCD) and places of 1,000 or more inhabitants in nontracted areas. The lowest level for STF 3 is the block group or enumeration district, while the smallest geographic unit for STF 4 is census tract, or MCD/CCD and places of 2,500 or more inhabitants in nontracted areas. STF 5's lowest geographic level is the standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA), central city (ies), other places of 50,000 or more inhabitants, and counties of 50,000 or more inhabitants.

For comparison purposes, STF 1 is similar in subject matter and geographic detail to the First and Third Count files for 1970. STF's 2 and 4 are roughly comparable to the 1970 Second and Fourth Counts, respectively. STF 3 is comparable to the 1970 Fifth Count, while STF 5 corresponds to the 1970 Sixth Count. To summarize, STF 1 contains more detailed geography but less subject matter detail than STF 2.



Footnotes to Figure 8

1In addition to summary areas presented on the Summary Tape Files, geographic area codes are included for areas such as Ward, State Economic Subregion, District Office Code, Indian Subreservation, and Standard Federal Administrative Region.

2Population size cutoffs for the presentation of Place level data in the STF's are as follows:

STF 1A all places
STF 3A all places
STF 1B all places.
STF 1C 10,000 or more
STF 2A 10,000 or more
STF 2B 1,000 or more
STF 2C 10,000 or more
STF 3C 10,000 or more
STF 4A 10,000 or more
STF 4B 2,509 or more
STF 4C 10,000 or more
STF 5 50,000 or more

3Multiple summary level codes for a Summary Area indicate a series of very similar summary levels which are presented in identical STF files. A specific listing is shown below of summary levels which are grouped together from the chart. (A slash mark "/" will be used to indicate "within.")

Grouping 13, 14, 15, and 16:

13. Place/MCI) (CCD)/County/State
14. Tract (BNA)/Place/MCD (CCD)/County/State
15. BG/Tract (BNA)/Place/MCD (CCD)/County/State
16. ED/Tract (BNA)/Place/MCD (CCD)/County/State

Grouping 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22:

18. MCD (CCD)/County/SMSA/State
19. Place/MCD (CCD)/County/SMSA/State
20. Tract (BNA)/Place/MCD (CCD)/County/SMSA/State
21. Block/Tract (BNA)/Place/MCD (CCD)/County/SMSA/State
22. ED/Tract (BNA)/Place/MCD (CCD)/County/SMSA/State

Grouping 23 and 24:

23. Place/County/SMSA/State
24. Tract (BNA)/Place/County/SMSA/State

Grouping 25 and 26:

25. Block/Tract (BNA)/Place/County/SMSA/State
26. ED/Tract (BNA)/Place/County/SMSA/State

Grouping 30 and 31:

30. Indian Reservations and Alaskan Native Villages by State
31. Indian Reservations and Alaskan Native Villages by County within State

4STF 38, which was planned to provide 5-digit ZIP Code tabulations, has been cancelled. However, private groups are currently discussing the possibility of their funding Census Bureau tabulation of these data. The geographic structure of such a file will be decided at a later date.

Similarly, STF 3 contains more detailed geography but less subject matter detail than STF 4. STF's 1 and 2 contain complete count data, while STF's 3 and 4 contain sample estimates. Finally, STF 5 contains sample estimates aggregated to a higher level of geography than the other files, but which are presented in the most subject matter detail.

1980 Census Maps
Users may need certain types of maps for the geographic area(s) they are extracting from the file(s). To determine which maps best define the geographic area(s), compare the geographic coverage of each file (see Appendix A) with the description of each type of 1980 census map (see below).

The maps used in conjunction with the above summary tape files consist of five basic types: county maps, place maps, place-and-vicinity maps, Indian Reservation maps, and Metropolitan lap Series (MMS) or Vicinity Map Series (VMS). Ordering information for these maps may be obtained from Data User Services Division, Customer Services (Maps), Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

All five map types have several characteristics in common:

--To improve legibility, most 1980 maps are at a larger scale than were the comparable 1970 maps.

--Symbols used for the various boundaries are consistent for all five types of maps.

--Names, identifying numbers, and boundaries are shown 'where appropriate on al1 maps for counties and equivalent entities, minor civil divisions (MCD's) or census county divisions (CCD's), places, American Indian reservations and Alaska Native villages, census tracts or block numbering areas (BNA's) where present, enumeration districts (ED'S)(in those areas which are not block numbered), and blocks.

--All maps show metric, feet, and mile scales.

--All maps containing block-numbered areas will be available from the U.S. Government Printing Office.

The following paragraphs present a brief description of each type of map. The inclusion of the maps with various 1980 census products reflect the Bureau's plans as of July 1961.

County Maps
County maps are the backbone of the Bureau's map coverage. Theoretically, with a complete set of these maps the overa11 picture of the census geographic framework for the entire United States and its possessions is shown. Most maps in the county series are at a scale of 1 inch: 1 mile. Most county maps are created by superimposing boundaries for most areas for which data are tabulated on base maps supplied by State transportation or highway departments. There are approximately 5,500 county map sheets for 1980. The following geographic area boundaries are defined on county maps where appropriate: State, county, minor civil divisions (MCD's) or census county divisions (CCD's), places, American Indian reservations, census tracts or block numbering areas (BNA's), and enumeration districts (ED's) or numbered blocks. In addition, the locations of Alaska Native villages are indicated.

Place Maps
For places not covered on MMS or VMS sheets where most of the development is contained within the corporate limits of a municipality or within the boundaries established for a census designated place (CDP), the Bureau uses place maps. The scale of the place maps varies from place to place. As with the county maps, most are created by superimposing boundaries for most areas for which data are tabulated on base maps supplied by local or State governments. On the county map, shading is added to indicate the area covered by the place map; i.e., the place map is regarded as an inset to the county map. There are about 12,300 place map sheets for 1980. The geographic area boundaries defined on place maps are the same as for county maps.

Place-and-Vicinity Maps
For places not covered on MMS or VMS sheets which have areas of development outside the corporate limits of a municipality or outside the boundaries established for a CDP, the Bureau uses place-and-vicinity maps. Also included in this are category maps of places which have parcels of land that are not part of the city but are completely surrounded by the city and where two or more places appear on the same map sheet. In all other respects, place-and-vicinity maps have the same characteristics as place maps. As with the place maps, all area covered by the place-and-vicinity map is shaded on the county map and the place-and-vicinity map is considered to be an inset to the county map. There are about 3,300 place-and-vicinity map sheets for 1980. The geographic area boundaries defined on place-and-vicinity maps are the same as those specified for county maps.

Indian Reservation Maps
The Census Bureau developed separate maps for 18 American Indian reservations which could not be depicted adequately on county maps; these maps are very similar in format to county maps. There are approximately 75 American Indian maps and reservation these maps are special insets to the county maps. The geographic area boundaries defined on these maps are the same as those specified for the county maps.

Metropolitan Map Series/Vicinity Map Series (MMS/VMS)
For the Nation's major built-up areas, the Bureau has developed its own malls to provide uniform coverage of the densely settled portions of the counties involved. These maps are referred to as the Metropolitan Map Series (MMS) when the maps cover SMSA counties and as the Vicinity Map Series (VMS) when the maps cover areas which are not in an SMSA. The predominant scale for the MMS and VMS is 1 inch: 1,600 feet. In selected areas with very dense development, some sheets are at 1 inch: 800 feet; conversely, some sparsely settled areas are mapped at 1 inch: 3,200 feet. The MMS and VMS are considered to be insets to the county maps and the areas covered by MMS and VMS are shaded on county maps. There are about 10,400 MMS and VMS sheets for 1980. (In a few instances, these map sheets entirely cover a county, in which case no separate county map exists.)

The geographic area boundaries defined on the MNS are the same as those specified for county maps, but also include urbanized areas.In addition to the five types of maps described above, there are a number of "outline" maps (maps that do not show any data, only the areas to which data can be related) that are prepared and published as part of the various report series. As was the case with the maps previously described, the maps included in the printed reports share common characteristics. Both metric and mile scales are shown. Map scale and content are similar to 1970 except where noted below; however, presentation has been improved to make the maps more readable and consistent from series to series.

The County Subdivision Map Series consists of at least one map page for each State showing the names and boundaries for the state, each component county or equivalent entity, minor civil divisions (MCD's) or census county divisions (CCD's), and all places, both incorporated and census designated. For most States, the scale of the maps requires that they be presented in sections. For 1980, the boundaries (not just the locations) of places with fewer than 2.500 inhabitants are shown for the first time. In addition, the name(s) of adjoining State(s) are shown along with a mark to indicate where the State boundaries intersect. These maps, which are based on the State base maps of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Mapping Program appear in PC80-1-A. Single-sheet versions of the county subdivision map series will be published at the USGS scale of 1:500,000 (1 inch equals about 8 miles) for all States except Alaska and the outlying areas, and may be fitted together to form multi-State maps. For those States in which American Indian reservations or Alaska Native villages are located, a special version of the county subdivision map showing these entities appears in PC80-1-B and HC80-1-A.

The Urbanized Area Outline Map Series consists of one or more map sheets for each urbanized area (UA) defined on the basis of the 1980 census results. The names and boundaries of all States, counties,MCD's/CCD's, and places on each map are shown, plus the extent of territory defined as "urbanized." These maps appear in PC80-l-A and HC80-1-A. In 1980, the report for each State containing part of a multi-state UA will include the map for the entire UA.

The State SCSA/SMSA Map Series shows county names and boundaries, names and locations of all places with a population of 25,000 or more or designated as the central city of an SMSA, and names and boundaries of standard consolidated statistical areas (SCSA's) and standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) in the State. For 1980 the name of the capital of the State is underlined. These maps appear in PC80-1-A, B, C, D; HC80-l-A, B; and HC80-2. Map sets will be printed for all block-numbered areas, grouped by SMSA and nonSMSA balance-of-State.In addition to printed copies of the county, place, place-and vicinity, and Metropolitan Map Series/Vicinity Map Series (MMS/VMS) sheets having block-numbered areas, there will be an index map depicting the extent of the block-numbered area for the SMSA and State.

The SMSA Index to Block Numbered Areas Maps will show the extent of the SMSA; county, MCD/CCD, and place names and boundaries; and the extent of block-numbered area within the SMSA shown by means of shading.

The State Index to Block-Numbered Areas Maps were prepared by superimposing the extent of all block-numbered areas in the State over the county subdivision map. This index map will also show the boundaries of the SMSA(s) in the State so that the reader can determine whether the data for any block-numbered area in the State are available with the SMSA tabulations or the balance-of-State tabulations.

The Census Tract Outline Map Seriescovers each of the areas for which tracts have been defined in 1980. These maps show the boundaries and code identification numbers for each tract; the names of streets or other features used as census tract boundaries; and the names and boundaries for counties, MCD/CCD'S, and all places (not just those over 25,000 as in 1970). Street detail within the tracts is not shown. Separate insets of larger scale than the base maps are included for densely developed areas; however, fewer insets are used than in 1970. Scale varies from map to map. For 1980, tract outline maps will be prepared for tracted counties outside SMSA'S.

Relevant Articles and Publications
The following is a list of reference materials available presently or expected to be available shortly which provide additional information concerning the 1980 census.

Census '80 Introduction to Products and Services
This page publication provides a general outline of information and data available from the 1980 census. Limited free copies are available from Data User Services Division, Customer Services (Publications), Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

1980 Census User's Guide
This comprehensive guide to the 1980 census data will be available in 1981 through the Government Printing Office. The price has not yet been determined as of July 1981.

1980 Census Update
This publication was issued quarterly film January, 1977 to July, 1981. The updates were intended to keep the data user current on the 1980 census planning and preparatory activities. Back copies are available free of charge from Data user Services Division, Customer Services (Publications), Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

Data User News
This monthly newsletter provides continuous reporting on Census Bureau programs and products. A subscription is available from the Government Printing Office for $17 a year.

Monthly Product Announcement
This free announcement lists new products released each month from the Census Bureau. These products include publications, technical documentation, data files, published maps, and microfiche. To be added to the mailing list, contact Data User Services Division, Customer Services (Publications), Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

STF 1 Technical Information
Nonsampling errors
Since 1980 population counts shown in this file were tabulated from the entries for persons on all questionnaires, these counts are not subject to sampling error. In any large-scale statistical operation such as a decennial census, human and mechanical errors do occur. These errors are commonly referred to as nonsampling errors. Such errors include failure to enumerate every household or person in the population, not obtaining all required information from respondents, obtaining incorrect or inconsistent information, and recording information incorrectly. Errors can also occur during the field review of the enumerators' work, the clerical handling of the census questionnaires, or the electronic processing of the questionnaires.

In an attempt to reduce various types of nonsampling errors in the 1980 census, a number of techniques were introduced on the basis of experience in previous censuses and in tests conducted prior to the census. These quality control and review measures were utilized throughout the data collection and processing phases of the census to minimize undercoverage of the population and housing units and to keep the errors at a minimum. As was done after the 1950, 1960, and 1970 censuses, there were programs at the conclusion of the 1980 census to measure various aspects of the quality achieved in the census. Reports on many aspects of the 1980 census evaluation program will be published as soon as the appropriate data are accumulated and analyzed.

A major component of the evaluation work is to ascertain, insofar as possible, the degree of completeness of the count of persons and housing units. The Census Bureau has estimates that the 1970 census did not count 2.5 percent of the population. For 1980, the Census Bureau's extensive evaluation program will encompass a number of different approaches to the task of estimating the coverage of the census. Although these studies have not been completed at the time of this file's release, preliminary estimates indicate that the rate of undercoverage in the 1380 census was reduced from 1970 census levels.

Editing and Allocation of Data Items
The objective of the processing operation is to produce a set of statistics that describes the population as accurately and clearly as possible. To meet this objective, certain unacceptable entries and blank items were edited.

Editing
In the field, questionnaires were reviewed for omissions and certain inconsistencies of a census clerk or an enumerator and, if necessary, a followup was made for missing information. In addition, a similar review of questionnaires was done in the central processing offices. As a rule, however, editing was performed by hand only when it could not be done effectively by machine.

As one of the first steps in computerized editing, the configuration of marks on the questionnaire column was scanned electronically to determine whether it contained information for a person or merely spurious marks. If the column contained entries for at least two of the basic characteristics (relationship, sex, race, age, marital status, Spanish origin), the inference was made that the marks represented a person. In cases in which two or more basic characteristics were available for only a portion of the people in the unit, other information on the questionnaire provided by an enumerator was used to determine the total number of persons. Names were not used as a criterion of the presence of a person because the electronic scanning was unable to distinguish an entry in the name space.

Allocation
Allocations, or assignments of acceptable codes in place of unacceptable entries, are needed most often when an entry for a given item is lacking or when the information reported for a person or housing unit on that item is inconsistent with other information for the person or housing unit. The usefulness of the data is considered to be enhanced through the assignment of acceptable codes in place of blanks or unacceptable entries.

For housing data, the assignment is based on related information reported for the housing unit or on information reported for a similar unit in the immediate neighborhood. For example, if tenure for an occupied unit is omitted but a rental amount is reported for the unit, the computer edits tenure to rented for "cash rent." On the other hand, if the unit is reported as rented but the amount of rent is missing, the computer assigns the rent from the preceding renter-occupied unit that had a rental amount reported.

The general procedure for changing unacceptable population entries is to assign an entry for a person that is consistent with entries for other persons with similar characteristics. Thus, a person who is reported as a 20-year old son of the householder but for whom marital status is not reported, is assigned the same marital status as that of the last, son processed in the same age group. The allocation technique may be illustrated by the procedure used in the assignment for unknown age. The process is carried out in the following steps:

  • The computer stores reported ages of persons by selected characteristics, including sex, relationship, marital Status, and characteristics of other household members.
  • Each stored age is retained in the computer only until a person having the same set of characteristics and with age reported is processed through the computer in the edit operation. Then the age of this succeeding person is substituted for the age previously stored.
  • When a person processed has no report of age, or the entry is unacceptable, the age assigned to him or her is then stored for the last person who otherwise has the same set of characteristics.


Substitution
The editing process also includes another type of correction, namely the assignment of a full set of characteristics for a person or a housing unit. The assignment of the full set of housing characteristics occurs when there is no housing information available. If the housing unit is determined to be occupied, the housing characteristics are assigned from the previously processed occupied units. If the housing unit is vacant, the housing characteristics are assigned from the previously processed vacant unit.

The assignment of a full set of characteristics for a person in a household containing no information for all or most of the people, although persons were known to be present, is done in the following manner. A previously processed household is selected as a substitute and the full set of population characteristics for each substituted person is duplicated. These duplications fall into two classes: (1) "persons substituted due to noninterview, e.g., a housing unit indicated as occupied but the occupants are not listed on the questionnaire, and (2) "persons substituted due to mechanical failure, e.g., where the questionnaire page on which persons are listed was not properly microfilmed.

The editing process ensures that the distribution of characteristics for persons and housing units assigned by the computer corresponds closely to the distribution of characteristics for persons and housing units actually reported in the census. Before the advent of the computer, this type of process was not feasible and the distribution of characteristics to be used for assignment purposes was drawn from the preceding census or another source.

Specific tolerances are established for the number of computer allocations and substitutions that are permitted. If the number of corrections is beyond tolerance, the questionnaires in which the errors occurred are clerically reviewed. If it is found that the errors resulted from damaged questionnaires, from improper microfilming, from faulty reading by FOSDIC1 of undamaged questionnaires', or from other types of machine failure, the questionnaires are reprocessed.

STF 1 includes four tables (56, 57, 58, 59) that allow users to determine the extent of allocation and substitution for a given geographic area. For example, if a user wants to determine the extent of substitution in a particular county, table 56 provides the total number of substituted persons in creating tabulations for that county. Similarly, table 58 provides a count of housing units substituted. In addition, tables 57 and 59 provide data on the extent of allocation. For example, a user interested in the number of persons with sex or marital status allocated for a particular geographic area would want to know the value in the appropriate cells (3 and 7) of table 57. Similarly, the 9 cells of table 59 provide data on the number of housing units for which particular characteristics were allocated.

1Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers.

Glossary
Complete Count Concept Definitions
The following definitions pertain to data items included in STF 3 and were taken from the 1980 Census Users' Guide. Since the items described here are only those which appear in STF 1, there may be references to other terms which are not defined in this glossary. A complete glossary will be available in the Users' Guide, scheduled to be published later this year.

Age at last birthday, i.e., number of completed years from birth to April 1, 1980, based on replies to a question on month and year of birth. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

Because of the central importance of the data on age, the question contains redundancies. The age entry on the basic tape record is derived from the FOSDIC entries of quarter and year of birth. For those persons who do not provide this information but who do provide "age at last birthday," the census enumerator or clerk uses an equivalency table to mark the appropriate FOSDIC circles. The item "age at last birthday" is used only secondarily because of the tendency of some people, in reporting their ages, to round off to "0" or "5" (and to report even rather than odd numbers). The write-in entries of month and year of birth are requested because some people have difficulty with (and therefore skip) the FOSDIC marking system in this question.

Age is tabulated by single years of age and by many different groupings such as 5-year age groups. Basic records identify single years (and quarter years on sample basic records) to 112.

Median age
Calculated as the value which divides the age distribution into two equal parts, one-half the cases falling below this value, one-half above. Median age is computed from the age intervals or groupings shown in the particular tabulation, and thus a median based on a less detailed distribution may differ slightly from a corresponding median for the same population based on a more detailed distribution. If the median falls in the terminal category, e.g., 75 years and over, the median is shown as the initial age of the category with a plus sign, e.g., 75+.

Limitations
In previous censuses, undercoverage of the population has been associated with age. Young adults, especially Black males, were missed at a higher rate than other segments of the population.

Historical comparability
Age data have been collected in each census since 1790. Counts in 1970 and 1980 for persons 100 years old and over were substantially overstated.

See also: "Age of Householder."

Age of Householder
Derived from the age responses for the householders. (See the definition of householder under Household Relationship.) Age and household relationship were determined on a complete-count basis.

The most frequent applications of age of householder in 1980 tabulations involve only two categories: under 65 years old and 65 years and over. More detailed categories appear among the housing tabulations, for example: less than 25 years, 25 to 29, 30 to 34, 35 to 44, 45 to 59, 60 to 64, and 65 years and over. Age of householder is also derivable from age tabulations cross-classified by household relationship (STF 2). Age of householder is derivable from basic records in single years, 15 to 112.

Historical comparability
In 1970 and previous censuses, Age of Head was tabulated instead of Age of Householder (See: Household Relationship).

Age of Structure
See: "Year Structure Built."

Aged, Homes For
See: "Group Quarters Type."

Air Conditioning
Presence of equipment with a refrigeration unit to cool air in occupied and vacant housing units. Evaporative coolers and fans or blowers not connected to a refrigerating apparatus are excluded, but refrigerating heat pumps are included. This item was asked on a sample basis.

Central system
A central installation designed to deliver cooled air to a number of rooms in a house or apartment. The system may have individual room controls. In an apartment building, a central system may coo1 all apartments in the building, each apartment may have its own central system, or there may be several systems, each providing central air conditioning for a group of apartments.

Individual room unit
An individual air conditioner which is installed in a window or an outside wall, and is generally intended to deliver cooled air to the room in which it is located, although it may sometimes be used to cool more than one room.

No air conditioning present.

Historical comparability
Similar data have been collected since 1960.

Asian Population
See: "Race."

Barrio
See: "Puerto Rico."

Black Population
See: "Race."

Normally a rectangular piece of land, bounded by four streets. However, a block may also be irregular in shape or bounded by railroad, tracks, streams, or other features. Blocks do not cross the boundaries of counties, census tracts, or block numbering areas (BNA's). They may cross place boundaries and the boundaries of minor civil divisions (MCD's). When blocks cross place boundaries and, in 20 States (see figure 5, column 3), when they cross MCD boundaries, separate statistical summaries are presented for each part of the block.

Census blocks are normally compact units, but there are important exceptions. For example, in some suburbs, houses cluster around cul-de-sacs. In these areas a census block may be fairly large since only those features that serve as the perimeter of an enclosed area are treated as block boundaries. Also, in those rural areas where they are numbered, blocks may include many square miles, depending on the frequency of intersections of roads, rivers, mountain ridges, or other physical features.

Census data are tabulated by block in all urbanized areas (UA's) and generally for some territory extending beyond the UA boundaries. Data also are tabulated by block in incorporated places with 10,000 or more inhabitants outside UA's, and in other areas which contracted with the Census Bureau for the preparation of block statistics. Places outside of UA's are included in the block statistics program if they met the 10,000 population criterion in the 1970 census, in official Bureau estimates through 1976, or in a special census taken on or before December 31, 1977. Block coverage for qualifying places is within boundaries as of January 1, 1980. Five States contracted for the preparation of block statistics for all of their territory, both urban and rural, not already in the block statistics program. These States are Georgia, Mississippi, New York, Rhode Island, and Virginia.

A block is identified by a 3-digit code which is unique within census tract or, where tracts do not exist, BNA. Since separate summaries are provided for the parts of a block split by a place boundary or, in 20 States, an MCD boundary, tape users often will need to specify the place or MCD code, along with other codes, to retrieve data for a block. Blocks are defined on detailed census maps: Metropolitan Map Series (MMS), Vicinity Map Series (VMS), place and county maps. The extent of block statistics coverage is reflected on maps by the presence of the 3-digit block number and the absence of ED boundaries and numbers.

On census maps, when a block boundary ignores a minor physical feature, such as a railroad track, a "fishhook" across the feature indicates that the block includes area on both sides of the feature. Alternatively, the separate parts of such a block may have identical block numbers, each followed by an asterisk.The maps used for enumeration activities were, of necessity, obtained several years prior to the census and therefore do not reflect recently constructed streets. Only those features shown on the maps can serve as block boundaries.

Statistics were collected for approximately 2.6 million blocks in the 1980 census. Block statistics are included in PHC80-1 Block Statistics microfiche series and in file B of Summary Tape File 1 (STF 1B).



Historical comparability
In 1970, block statistics were prepared for UA's (and some territory beyond) located in SMSA's existing at the time of the census, as well as for contract areas. Unlike 1980, they were not prepared for places of 10,000 population or more outside UA's unless done under contract, nor for UA's in not-yet-defined SMSA's.Some blocks defined for 1970 will have new boundaries in 1980, primarily those on the edges of UAs and other areas of new development where the street patterns have changed. To help the user notice a change wherever a block has been redefined by splitting or other adjustment, the 1970 block number wi11 generally not be reused. Where blocks were recognized for the 1970 census, their boundaries and numbers generally will be the same in 1980, except for a few areas where blocks were renumbered by local GBF/DIME-File coordinating agencies in order to define more desirable block groups.

Block Group (BG)
A combination of numbered census blocks that is a subdivision of a census tract or (BNA) and is defined in all areas where block statistics are collected. (In areas where blocks are not identified, ED's are used.)

BG's are not outlined on census maps, but are defined as that set of numbered blocks sharing the same first digit within a census tract or BNA. For example, Block Group "3" within a particular census tract would include any blocks numbered between 301 and 399. In most cases, the numbering would involve substantially fewer than 50 blocks, since gaps are occasionally left in the numbering; e.g. Block 312 might be followed by Block 316.

BG's are defined within census tract or BNA. They may cross, and be split by, the boundaries of minor civil divisions (MCD's) or census county divisions (CCD's), places, congressional districts, urbanized areas, and Indian reservations. When this occurs, statistical summaries (data records) are provided for each component or part. To avoid mistaking a component summary for a complete BG summary, users should carefully study census maps to note any BG's split by place, MCD or CCD, urbanized area, or Indian reservation boundaries. Congressional district (CD) boundaries are not shown on census maps, so the maps will not be of use in detecting BGs split by CD boundaries.

BG summaries observe boundaries of some areas (specifically, CCD's and, in 10 States, UCD's) which are ignored in summarizing data for the block statistics presentations in reports and on tape. As a result, it occasionally will be necessary to add BG components together to match the sum of blocks in the same hundreds series.

Statistics will be prepared for almost 200,000 BGs. BG data, together with data for ED's, appear on STF's 1A and 3A, and in any corresponding microfiche. There are no printed data for BG's.

Historical comparability
In areas where BG's were tabulated in,1970, many 1980 BG's will be the same as their 1970 counterparts, with exceptions occurring primarily in areas where tract boundaries have changed or where substantial development has taken place. Also, BG parts, created when BG's are split by the boundaries of higher level areas, will change if such boundaries have changed.

Many areas with BG's in 1980 had data reported by ED's in 1970, a change occasioned in part by the expansion of the block statistics program, and in part because ED's were used for tabulation purposes in 1970 instead of BG's in some block-numbered areas. Where BGs have replaced ED's, there will be little comparability between 1970 ED's and 1980 BG's.

Block Numbering Area (BNA)
An area defined for the purpose of grouping and numbering blocks in block-numbered areas where census tracts have not been defined--typically, in nonSMSA places of 10,000 or more population and in contract block areas. BNA's do not cross county boundaries. They are identified by census tract-type numbers ranging from 9901.00 to 9989.99 which are unique within a county. While BNA numbers are similar to census tract numbers, BNA's are not census tracts and are not included in STF's 2 or 4.

BNAs may be split by the boundaries of places, MCD's, and CCD's. Statistical summaries appear in STF 1B and PHC80-1 Block Statistics microfiche series for the component parts of BNA's created when BNA's are split by the boundaries of places and, in 20 States, MCD's. (See figure 5, column 3.) Such component summaries appear in STF 1A and 3A when BNA's are split by the boundaries of CCD's in 20 States (see figure 5, column 1), and MCD's in 10 other States and Puerto Rico.

Historical comparability
While BNA's were also used in previous censuses, any historical comparability is generally coincidental.

Boarded-Up Status
Determined for vacant units intended for year-round use. Boarded-up units have windows and doors covered by wood, metal, or similar materials to protect the interior and prevent entry. A single-unit structure or a unit(s) in a multi-unit structure may be boarded-up in this way.

Historical comparability
This item is new for 1980.

Borough (in Alaska)
See: "County."

Census Area (in Alaska)
See: "County."

Census County Division (CCD)
A statistical subdivision of a county, roughly comparable to a minor civil division (MCD). CCD's are defined in 20 States (see figure 5, column 1) which do not have MCD's suitable for reporting census statistics (i.e., the MCD's have lost their original significance, are very small in population, have frequent boundary changes, and/or have indefinite boundaries). CCD'S are established cooperatively by the Census Bureau and both State and local government authorities. They are generally defined by boundary features that seldom change and can be easily located, such as roads, rivers, and powerlines.

CCD boundaries are represented on detailed census maps, such asMMS/VMS sheets and county maps. In addition, CCD outlines appear at a small scale on maps published in several 1980 reports. CCD's in alphabetic sequenc, are assigned unique, incremental 3-digit numeric codes within counties.

Statistics for all CCD's appear in STF's 1A, 2B, 3A, and (under tentative plans) 4B, and in PC80-1-A and -B and HC80-1-A reports.

Historical comparability
In 1980, CCD's are defined in one fewer State than in 1970--North Dakota returned to the use of its MCD's (townships). In the past, cities with 10,000 or more inhabitants generally were defined as separate CCD's. When these cities annexed territory, CCD boundaries also had to be adjusted. For 1980, many of these CCD boundaries were revised to conform with census tract boundaries where tracts exist, and permanent physics1 features elsewhere, in an attempt to minimize future CCD boundary adjustments. CCD's which changed boundaries between 1970 and 1980 are noted in footnotes to table 4 of the PC80-1-A reports for States with CCD's.

Census Subarea
A statistical subdivision of a "census area" or borough (county equivalent) in Alaska. Census subareas take the place of minor civil divisions (MCD's) or census county divisions (CCD's).

Historical comparability
In 1970, Alaska county equivalents were called "divisions," and some were subdivided further. Some of the census subareas used in the 1980 census approximate the 1970 divisions or their subdivisions.

Census Tract
A small statistical subdivision of a county. Tracts generally have stable boundaries. When census tracts are established, they are designed to be relatively homogeneous areas with respect to population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions. Tracts generally have between 2,500 an3 8,000 residents. All standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) recognized for the 1980 census have census tracts. Most of these SMSA's are completely tracted, but seven SMSA's newly created as a result of the 1980 census include outlying counties which are not tracted. In addition, an estimated 3,000 census tracts have been established in 221 counties outside SMSA's. Five States and theDistrict of Columbia are entirely tracted: Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, New Jersey, and Rhode Island. In all, there are over 43,300 census tracts for the 1980 census (including 465 in Puerto Rico).

Census tract boundaries are established cooperatively by local Census Statistical Areas Committees and the Census Bureau in accordance with guidelines that impose limitations on population size and specify the need for visible boundaries. Geographic shape and area size of tracts are of relatively minor importance. Tract boundaries are established with the intention of being maintained over a long time so that statistical comparisons can be made from census to census. Census tracts observe county lines and cover all of the territory within each tracted county. Within a county, tract boundaries may be split by other geographic boundaries.

Census tracts are identified by a 4-digit basic code and may have a 2-digit suffix, e.g., 6059.02. On tape, the decimal is implied. Many census tracts do not have a suffix. In such cases, tapes give the 4-digit code followed by two blanks. Leading zeros in a tract number (e.g., 0025.02) do not appear on the maps (e.g., 25.02).

Tract numbers are always unique within a county and, except for the New York SMSA, are also unique within an SMSA. All valid census tract numbers are in the range 0001 to 9899.99; a number between 9901 and 9989.99 denotes a block numbering area (BNA).

Census tract boundaries are shown on all detailed census maps, such as place and county maps. In addition, census tract outline maps are being created for each SMSA and each tracted county outside SMSA's. Tract outline maps show only those streets and physical features which serve as census tract boundaries. In addition, the boundaries of places, MCD's, CCD's, counties, and States appear on tract outline maps.

Census tract data are presented in STF's 1A, 1B, 2A, 3A, and 4A, and in PHC80-2 Census Tracts reports. In STF 1A and 3A, tract data are presented in hierarchical sequence within place within MCD or CCD. In a case where a tract is split by place, MCD, or CCD boundaries, the tape files will have summaries for each of its parts. To get data for the whole tract, it will be necessary to add up the components. In STF 1B the situation is similar except that MCD boundaries are observed in only 20 States and Puerto Rico. (See figure 5, column 3.) MCD boundaries in the other 10 States with MCD'S and CCD boundaries in the remaining 20 States are ignored. In the major summaries for census tracts--those in STF 2A and 4A and in PXC80-2 Census Tracts reports--tract summaries observe the boundaries of places of 10,000 or more population. Separate summaries provide totals for split tracts.

Historical comparability
Census tracts are defined with an overall goal of census-to-census comparability. Some 1970 tracts have been subdivided due to increased population, but the new tracts can be recombined by the user for comparison with 1970 tracts. This affects about 8 percent of all 1970 tracts. Other changes have included combinations of two or more small 1970 tracts (less than 1 percent of all 1970 tracts) and adjustments to tracts boundaries where old boundary features have disappeared or better boundaries (e.g., freeways) have come into being. In a few areas, local Census Statistical Areas Committees undertook extensive redefinition of census tracts.

Both the number of tracted counties and the number of census tracts increased by over 20 percent between 1970 and 1980. The reporting of data for split tracts has also increased. Whereas 1970 Census Tracts reports gave data for tract parts created when tracts were split by the boundaries of only those places with 25,000 or more population, 1980 reports observe boundaries of places as small as 10,000. 1980 STF's 2 and 4 present data for the components of split tracts, as well as for whole tracts, whereas their 1970 counterparts did not provide separate summaries for the components of split tracts.

Central Business District (CBD)
An area of high land valuation characterized by a high concentration of retail businesses, service businesses, offices, theaters, and hotels, and by high traffic flour. A CBD follows census tract boundaries, i.e., it consists of one or more whole census tracts. CBD's are identified only in central cities of SMSA's and other cities with a population of 50,000 or more, and are designated by local Census Statistical Areas Committees in consultation with the Census Bureau. However, some eligible cities have chosen not to participate in the CBD delineation program. CBD's generally do not extend beyond the boundaries of the city.

The CBD's now recognized were delineated for the 1977 economic censuses. The Bureau does not plan to prepare 1980 statistics for CBD's, but users may derive data by aggregating data for component census tracts or smaller areas. Records for such areas in the Geographic Identification Code Scheme report and on machine-readable 1980 files include a CBD code when the area is in a CBD.

Historical comparability
At the time of the 1970 census, CBD's were defined only in cites of 100,000 or more persons.

Central City
See: "Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area"; "Urbanized Area."

Children
See: "Household Relationship."

Condominium Status
A type of ownership of an apartment in a building--or a house in a development--where ownership of common areas is shared.

Condominium
Ownership in which the owner has an individual deed (and-likely also an individual mortgage) on the unit, and also holds a common or joint ownership in all common areas, such as grounds, lobbies, and elevators. A condominium unit need not be occupied by the owner to be counted as such.

Noncondominium
All other types of ownership, including cooperative where a share in a corporation with title to a multiunit property entitles the owner to occupy a specific unit.

Limitations
In a test survey taken before the census, an overstatement of condominiums was noted.

Historical comparability
In 1970, owner-occupied cooperative and condominium housing units were identified together. In 1980, only condominium units are identified. The 1980 data also include vacant and renter-occupied condominium housing units, not just owner occupied condominium housing units as in 1970.

Congressional District
One of the 435 State or sub-State areas from which persons are elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. Two sets of congressional districts are recognized in 1980 census products. Districts of the 97th Congress (1981-1982) are summarized on STF 1A and STF 3A. Districts of the 98th Congress (1983-1984) will be defined by the States after 1980 population counts become available.Small-scale maps of congressional districts appear in the Congressional District Data Book and the Congressional District Atlas. Congressional district boundaries are not shown on 1980 census map series.

Historical comparability
1970 census data are available for congressional districts as defined for the 94th - 97th Congresses in the Congressional District Data Book, except for the Tennessee change noted above.

County
The primary political and administrative subdivision of a State. In Louisiana, such divisions are called parishes. In Alaska 23 boroughs and "census areas" are treated as county equivalents for census purposes. Several cities (Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; Carson city, Nevada; and 41 Virginia cities) are independent of any county organization, and thereby constitute primary divisions of their States and are treated the same as counties in census tabulations.

County boundaries are shown on most census maps. A 3-digit Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) county code identifies each county uniquely within State. Counties are numbered in alphabetic sequence, with independent cities numbered separately at the end of the list.

There are 3,137 counties, and county equivalents (including 78 inPuerto Rico) recognized for the 1980 census. Tabulations for all counties appear in STF's 1 through 4, and in PC80-1-A, -B, and -C, HC80-1-A and -B, and PHC80-3 reports. Tabulations for counties of 30,000 or more inhabitants appear in STF 5.

Historical comparability
A number of changes have occurred to county boundaries since 1970. A new set of county equivalents (boroughs and census areas) has been defined for Alaska, and in some cases these county equivalents differ considerably from the census divisions recognized for 1970. In addition, there are minor changes in counties for South Dakota and Hawaii. In Virginia, county boundaries have changed as a result of the creation of new independent cities and annexations by independent cities. Most other changes represent minor adjustments of the boundaries between counties. Those counties which changed boundaries between 1970 and 1980 are noted in footnotes at the end of table 4 of the PC80-l-A report for each State.

County Equivalent
See: "County."

County Subdivision
See: "Census County Division"; "Census Subarea"; "Minor Civil Division."

Division (Census Geographic)
A census geographic division is one of the nine groups of States which are subdivisions of the four census geographic regions of the United States. (See figure 6.) Census geographic divisions are identified by a 1-digit code which is also the first digit of the 2-digit census geographic code for each State in the division.

Historical comparability
Census divisions have remained unchanged since the 1910 census, except for the expansion of the Pacific division to include Alaska and Hawaii.

Economic Subregion (ESR)
A grouping of State economic areas (SEA's) which brings together those SEA's which are most closely related in terms of their economic and social characteristics. The areas were first defined following the 1950 census and updated after the 1960 census. In order to achieve such homogeneity, State boundaries are frequently crossed. The 510 SEA's are grouped into 121 ESR's. A 3-digit numeric code is assigned to each ESR. No data summaries will be prepared for ESR's, although the ESR code appears on the geographic records of the summary tape files.

Historical comparability
ESR boundaries have remained the same since 1960.

Election Precinct
In census usage, any of a variety of types of areas (e.g., election districts, precincts, legislative districts, wards) defined by States and local governments for purposes of elections. Under a cooperative Census Bureau/State program, the boundaries of election precincts and ED's or census blocks were drawn so as to be compatible in many States.The Bureau prepared election precinct data for all or portions of 23 States; in some other States, users may aggregate block data to create election precinct statistics. The election precinct data appear in the P.L. 94-171 Population Counts tape file and on microfiche of that file.

Historical comparability
Election precincts have not been recognized in past censuses, except where they have served as minor civil division boundaries.



Enumeration District(ED)
An area used in the 1980 census for data collection activities and as a tabulation area where blocks are not present. ED's do not cross the boundaries of legal or statistical areas; for example, census tracts, MCD's/CCD's, places, counties, congressional districts, and States. Because of these constraints, they vary widely in population size, although they do not generally exceed a population of 1,600 in areas where the census was taken by mail, or a population of 1,000 in areas where the census was taken by conventional enumerator canvassing. The population limits are designed so that an ED generally represents a reasonable workload for one enumerator. About 1,000 jurisdictions in 47 States participated in a program for local definition of ED's. In areas without blocks, ED's are the smallest unit of census geography for which statistics are prepared.

ED boundaries are show" on MMS/VMS, place, and county maps in areas where there are no block numbers. ED's are identified by a 4-digit number (except that leading zeros, when they occur in ED numbers, do not appear on the maps). An ED number may be followed by a 1-letter alphabetic suffix. The suffix is used to identify subdivisions of ED's made during data collection and processing activities where the original ED proved to be too populous for an efficient work unit, or to accommodate a revision to a place or other boundary made after January 1, 1978 in mail-out/mail-back areas or January 1, 1979 in conventional census areas. An ED number may also have a 1-letter prefix indicating that the ED is of a special type (e.g., an American Indian reservation), but the prefix is not necessary for unique identification of the ED. ED numbers do not repeat within a county. Any ED may be uniquely identified by accompanying its ED code with the 2-digit State code and 3-digit county code.

Statistics will be prepared for about 100,000 ED's. ED data, together with data for BG's, appear on STF's 1A and 3A and corresponding microfiche. In addition, ED data appear on STF 1B to complement the summaries for blocks. There are no printed data for ED's.

Historical Comparability
Many areas which were covered by ED's in 1970 are summarized in terms of blocks and BG's for 1980. In some cases it may be possible to add up blocks to approximate the 1970 ED'S, based on detailed comparison of 1980 and 1970 maps.In areas covered by ED's for 1980, enumeration considerations dictated ED size and design, and historical comparability does not normally enter into consideration.

Eskimo Population
See: "Race."

Extended City
See: "Urbanized Area."

Family
Two or more persons, including the householder, who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption, and who live together as one household; all such persons are considered as members of one family. (Persons not in families and not inmates of institutions are classified as unrelated individuals.) Families are defined using responses to the complete-count household relationship question.

If the son/daughter of the person or couple who maintains the household and the son's or daughter's spouse and /or children are members of the household, they are treated as part of the householder's family. 1 roomer/boarder and his/her spouse who are not related to the person or persons who maintain the household, or a resident employee and his/her spouse living in are not counted as a family, but as individuals unrelated to the householder. Thus, a household can contain only one family for purposes of census tabulations.

A person maintaining a household alone, or two or more unrelated persons are regarded as a household but not as a family. Thus, some households do not contain a family.

(In certain Census Bureau surveys, families as defined here are referred to as "primary families." The term "secondary family" refers to a resident family unrelated to the householder, such as a roomer and his/her spouse. Tabulations of families from such surveys include secondary families.)

Historical comparability
A similar definition for family was used in 1970. In 1960, secondary families were also identified.

See also: "Household Relationship"; "Unrelated Individual."

Family Type
Families are classified by type according to sex of the householder and the presence of relatives, based on questions on sex and household relationship asked on a complete-count basis.

Married-couple family
A family in which the householder and his/her spouse are enumerated as members of the same household.

Other family
Male householder, no wife present
A family with a male householder and no spouse of householder present.

Female householder, no husband Present
Family with a female householder and no spouse of householder present.

Historical comparability
The terminology for the family-type categories is new for 1980. The categories are reasonably compatible with the 1970 categories, "husband-wife families," "families with other male head," and "families with female head."

See also: "Family"; "Household Type."

Group Quarters, Persons In
Persons in living arrangements, such as nursing homes or rooming houses, which are not households. Group quarters status was determined on a complete-count basis.Two general categories of persons in group quarters are recognized.

Inmate of institution
A person under care or custody at the time of enumeration. Inmates are persons in such facilities as homes, schools, hospitals, or wards for the physically or mentally handicapped; persons in hospitals or wards for mental, tubercular, or chronic diseases; persons in homes for unmarried mothers; persons in nursing, convalescent, and rest homes for the aged and dependent; persons in orphanages; and persons in correctional institutions. These persons are enumerated as residents of an institution--regardless of their length of stay in the particular place and regardless of the number of people in the places. Some tabulations include data by major types of institutions (home for the aged, mental hospital, correctional institution and other institutions).

Other persons in group quarters
Persons living in group quarters who are not inmates of institutions. Rooming and boarding houses, communes, farm and nonfarm workers' dormitories, convents or monasteries, and other living quarters are classified as "other" group quarters if there are 9 or more persons unrelated to the person listed in column 1 of the census questionnaire; or if 10 or more unrelated persons share the unit. Persons residing in certain other types of living arrangements are classified as living in "other" group quarters regardless of the number or relationship of people in the unit. These include persons residing in military barracks, on ships, in college dormitories, or in sorority and fraternity houses; patients in general or maternity wards of hospitals who have no usual residence elsewhere; staff members in institutional quarters; and persons enumerated in missions, flophouses, Salvation Army shelters, railroad stations, etc.

Historical comparability
In 1970, 6 or more unrelated persons living together were classified as group quarters; for 1980 that requirement was raised to 10 or more unrelated persons.

See also: "Household."

Historic Areas of Oklahoma (Excluding Urbanized Areas)
The historic areas of Oklahoma consist of the former reservations which had legally established boundaries during the period 1900-1907. These reservations were dissolved during the 2- to 3-year period preceding the statehood of Oklahoma in 1907. The former reservation boundaries are used for planning purposes by tribes and the Federal government. In the census, the entire area encompassing the former reservations was identified (except, for parts inside urbanized areas as approximated in preparation for the 1980 census). Individual former reservations were not identified separately.Information for the historic areas is not summarized in regular census-tabulations; however, some information will be included in special reports or unpublished tabulations. Also, since the historic areas have been assigned a unique 3-digit code which appears in the reservation code field of each component area, summaries can be prepared by- the addition of component ED's and BG's from MARF, STF 1A, or STF 3A. Also, the historic areas (excluding urbanized areas) are distinguished from the reservation in Oklahoma by an "A" in the ED prefix field. The boundaries for AED's are drawn to follow visible features which approximate the Oklahoma historic land boundaries.

Historical comparability
Historic areas of Oklahoma (excluding urbanized areas) were not identified in previous censuses.

Homeowner Vacancy Rate
The number of vacant year-round units "for sale only as a percent of the total homeowner inventory, i.e., all owner-occupied units and all year-round vacant units for sale only.

See also: "Vacancy Status."

Household
The person or persons occupying a housing unit. Counts of households, householders, and occupied-housing units are always identical in complete-count tabulations. In sample tables, the numbers may not always be the same because of differences in weighting sample data.

See also: "Household Relationship;" "Household Type;" "Housing Unit."

Household, Persons In
The number of persons living in the housing unit. All occupants are counted--not just those related to the householder, but also any lodgers, roomers, boarders, partners, wards, foster children, and resident employees who share the living quarters.

Figures for "persons in households" match those for "persons in units" in tabulations based on complete-count data. In sample tabulations, they may differ because of the weighting process. The phrase "persons in household" is used for population tabulations, "persons in unit" for housing items. "One-person households" and "persons living alone" are synonymous.

See also: "Family."

Household Relationship
Relationship to the person in column 1 of the census questionnaire, ascertained from replies to a complete count question.

In household
Persons in the household include:

  • Householder - The person who was reported in column 1. This reference person was to be the person or one of the persons in whose name the home was owned or rented. If there was no such person, any adult household member at least 15 years old who was not a roomer, boarder, or paid employee was to be reported in column 1. In complete-count tabulations, the number of householders is the same as the number of households or occupied housing units. In sample tabulations, the numbers may not always be the same because of differences in weighting sample data.
  1. Family householder - A householder living with one or more persons related to him or her by birth, marriage, or adoption.
  2. Nonfamily householder - A householder living alone or only with persons not related to him or her.


Spouse
For most tabulations, spouse is defined as the husband or wife of the householder, living with householder. This category may include persons in common-law marriages as well as persons in formal marriages; it does not include a partner or roommate of the opposite sex. In complete-count tabulations, the number of spouses is the same as the number of married-couple families or married-couple family households. The number of spouses, however, is generally less than half of the number of married persons with spouse present" in sample tabulations, since only spouses of householders are specifically identified as "spouse." Sample tabulations of the number of married persons with spouse present include subfamilies (see definition under Family) as well as married-couple families.

A son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the householder, regardless of the child's age or marital status. The category excludes sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, and foster children.

Own child
A never-married child under 18 years who is a son, daughter, stepchild, or adopted child of the householder. In certain tabulations, own children are further classified as living with two parents or with one parent only. Own children of the householder living with two parents are by definition found only in married-couple families.

Related child
An "own child" or any other family member (regardless of marital status) who is under 18 years, except the householder or spouse. Foster children are not included since they are not related to the householder.

Other relatives
A household member related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption, but not included specifically in another relationship category. The scope of this category may differ from table to table, depending what other relationship categories are included. In detailed tabulations (STF 2 , STF 5, or PC80-l-D) the following categories may also be shown:

Parent
In complete-count tabulations, the father or mother of the householder, including a stepparent or adoptive parent. On sample basic records and microdota files, fathers- and mothers-in-law constitute a separate category coded from write-in responses under "other relative" on the questionnaire. One STF 5 and PC80-1-D tabulation includes both parents and parents-in-law in the same category.

Brother or sister
In complete-count tabulations, the brother or sister of the householder, including stepbrothers, stepsisters, and brothers and sisters by adoption. On sample basic records and microdata files, brothers- and sisters-in-law constitute a separate category coded from write-in responses. One STF 5 and PC80-1-D tabulation includes brothers- and sisters-in-law along with brothers and sisters in the same category.

Son- or daughter-in-law
Spouse of a son or daughter of the householder, coded from write-in responses.

Grandchild
Grandchild of the householder, coded from write-in responses.

The following categories are separately coded in sample basic records and public-use microdata files only: nephew/niece, grandparent, uncle/aunt, cousin, and "other."

Nonrelative
Any household member, including foster children, not related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. The following categories are presented in certain more detailed tabulations.

Partner or roommate
Nonrelative who lives together and shares expenses with the householder.

Roomer or boarder
Roomer, boarder, lodger, or relative of such; or foster child or ward of the householder.

Paid employee
Nonrelative who is paid to provide household services, such as a maid, housekeeper or gardener.

Other nonrelative
Nonrelative who cannot be described by the above categories, including a person who is related to a partner or roommate or to a paid employee.

Inmate of institution and other person in group quarters
(Treated-as categories of household relationship for purposes of tabulation. For definitions, see: Group Quarters, Persons In.) Persons in group quarters are excluded from counts of persons in households.Responses to the household relationship item were also used in defining families, and subfamilies (see: "Family;" "Family Type;" "Household Type"). Tabulations frequently report relationship for persons in family households separately from persons in nonfamily households.

Historical comparability
The question was revised from 1970 to replace the head-of-household category with a format using a reference person, i.e., the "person in column 1." 1980 householders differ from 1970 household heads primarily where the wife in a married-couple family is listed as the "person in column 1." In 1970, the husband was automatically assumed to be the "head" of such a family. In 1980 tabulations, the substitution of one spouse for the other as the reference person may affect certain of the classifications, such as "parent" or "brother or sister," within the "other relative" grouping. The person in whose name the house or apartment is owned or rented may in a few cases differ from the person considered by other household members as the "head, but this is expected to affect the classification of relatively few households.The 1970 questionnaire category "other relative of head" was replaced on the questionnaire by three categories, "brother/sister," "father/mother," and "other relative." Since the category "patient or inmate" is marked only by census enumerators, it was moved to the bottom of the form in a space reserved for "census use only." New nonrelative categories include "partner, roommate and "paid employee." The former question asking relationship to head of family or household was asked from 1880 to 1970.

See also: "Family;" "Family Type;" "Group Quarters," "Persons In;" "Household Type."

Household Type
Households are classified by type according to sex of the householder and the presence of relatives based on questions asked on sex and household relationship. This item was determined on a complete-count basis.

Family household
A household including a family (See: "Family"). A family household may also include nonrelatives living with the family. The following subcategories are frequently provided: married-couple family; family with male householder, no wife present; and family with female householder, no husband present (see: "Family Type").

Nonfamily household
A household consisting of a person living alone or of a householder living with other unrelated individuals (see: Unrelated Individual).

Historical comparability
In 1970, nonfamily households were termed primary individual households, a primary individual being a person living alone or the head of a household in which no relatives were present.

See also: "Family;" "Family Type;" "Unrelated Individual."

Housing Unit
A house, apartment, mobile home or trailer, group of rooms, or single room occupied as a separate living quarter or, if vacant, intended for occupancy as a separate living quarter. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall.

The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements (except as described in definition of Group Quarters, Persons In). For vacant units, the criteria of separateness and direct access are applied to the intended occupants whenever possible. If that information cannot be obtained, the criteria are applied to the previous occupants. Both occupied and vacant housing units are included in the housing unit inventory, except that recreational vehicles, boats, caves, tents, railroad cars, and the like are included only if they are occupied.

Historical comparability
The first Census of Housing in 1940 established the "dwelling unit" concept. Although the term became "housing unit" and the definition has been modified slightly in each succeeding census, the 1980 definition is essentially comparable to previous censuses. In 1970, the definition of a housing unit stipulated the occupants to live and eat separately and to have either direct access or complete kitchen facilities. For 1980 direct access is required; the alternative of complete kitchen facilities has been dropped. In 1970 vacant mobile homes were not counted. In 1980 vacant mobile homes are included in the housing inventory if they are intended for occupancy where they stand. Also in 1970 units with 6 or more unrelated persons living together were classified as group quarters; for 1980 that requirement was raised to 10 or more unrelated persons.

See also: "Occupancy Status;" "Tenure;" "Units at Address;" "Units in Structure;" "Year-Round Housing Units."

Inmate of Institution
See: "Group Quarters," "Persons In."

Marital Status
All persons were asked whether they were "now married," "widowed," "divorced," "separated," or "never married." Marital status data are tabulated only for persons 15 years old and older. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.Couples who live together (unmarried persons, persons in common-law marriages, etc.) were allowed to report tile marital status they considered the most appropriate.

Single
All persons who have never been married, including persons whose only marriage was annulled.

Ever married
Persons married at the time of enumeration, including those separated, plus widowed or divorced persons.

Married, except separated
Persons whose current marriage has ended through widowhood, divorce, or separation (regardless of previous marital history). The category may also include couples who live together or persons in common-law marriages if they consider this category the most appropriate. In certain tabulations based on sample data, currently married persons are further classified as "spouse present" or "spouse absent." See below.

Separated
Persons legally separated or otherwise absent from their spouse because of marital discord. Included are persons who have been deserted or who have parted because they no longer want to live together but who have not obtained a divorce. Separated includes persons with a limited divorce.

Widowed
Widows and widowers who have not remarried.

Divorced
Includes persons who are legally divorced and who have not remarried.In selected sample tabulations, data for married and separated persons are reorganized and combined with information on the presence of the spouse in the same household.

Married
All persons whose current marriage has not ended by widowhood or divorce. Includes persons categorized as separated above.

Married, spouse present
Married persons whose wife or husband was enumerated as a member of the same household, including those whose spouse may have been temporarily absent for such reasons as travel or hospitalization.

Married, spouse absent
Married persons whose wife or husband was not enumerated as a member of the same household, and all married persons living in group quarters.

Separated
Defined above.

Other married, spouse absent
Married persons whose spouse was not enumerated as a member of the same household, excluding separated. Included are those whose spouse was employed and living away from home, absent in the Armed Forces, or an inmate of an institution.

Differences between the number of currently married males and the number of currently married females arise from the fact that some husbands and wives have their usual residence in different areas, and, in sample tabulations, from different weights applied to the data. Any differences between "now married, spouse present" males and females are due solely to sample weighting; by definition the numbers should be the same.

Historical comparability
For 1980, marital status is tabulated for persons 15 years old and older, a change from the period 1950-1970 when marital status was tabulated for persons 14 years old and over. A general marital status question has been asked in every census since 1880.

Minor Civil Division (MCD)
A primary political and administrative subdivision of a county. MCD's are most frequently known as townships, but in some States they include towns, magisterial districts, and similar areas. A few counties have some territory not organized into MCD's; such "unorganized territory" is treated as one or more MCD's for census purposes.

MCD's are used for census purposes in 29 States (see figure 5, column 2). In 20 of the remaining States, CCD's are used in lieu of MCDs; in Alaska, census subareas are used. In the District of Columbia, quadrants are used.

The Census Bureau has assigned each MCD, alphabetically sequenced within county, an incremental, unique 3-digit numeric code. In addition, MCD's in 11 States (those noted in column 4 of figure 5) have a 4-digit "MCD sequence number" which allows MCD's to be sorted into alphabetical sequence within a State.

MCD boundaries are represented on all detailed census maps. In addition, MCD outlines appear on small-scale maps published in PC80-1-A and -B and HC80-1-A reports and in conjunction with the PHC80-2 series. There are about 26,000 MCD's recognized for the 1980 census.

Statistics for all MCD's appear in STF's 1A, 2B, 3A, and 4B, and in PC80-1-A and -B and HC80-1-A reports. In 20 States (specified in column 3 of figure 5), many MCD's serve as functioning general purpose governments, and these active MCD's are included in PHC80-3 Summary Characteristics for Governmental Units and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas. All MCD's in block-numbered areas of these States are included in PHC80-1 Block Statistics microfiche series and STF 18. Finally, in 11 States (all 9 States in the Northeast region, plus Michigan and Wisconsin), MCD data are published in a manner parallel to that of places of the same population size in tables of PC80-1-B and -C and HC80-1-A and -B. (See figure 5, column 4.)

Historical comparability
CCD's were used in North Dakota in 1970, but for 1980 that State returned to the use of its townships. A number of MCD's in other States have changed boundaries. Changes have resulted from municipal annexations, mergers or dissolutions of MCDs, and other causes. There are seven States where MCD boundaries have changed substantially: Arkansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, Virginia, and West Virginia. MCDs which have changed boundaries during 1970 to 1980 are noted in footnotes to table 4 of PC80-1-A reports for States with MCD's.

Municipio
See: "Puerto Rico."

Neighborhood
For purposes of the Census Bureau's Neighborhood Statistics Program, a neighborhood is a locally defined subarea of a locality. Neighborhoods must have official recognition, nonoverlapping boundaries, and a mechanism through which neighborhood residents may present their views on municipal matters.

Historical comparability
Such neighborhoods have not been recognized in past censuses.

Nonrelative
See: "Household Relationship."

Occupancy Status
The classification of all housing units as either occupied or vacant.

Occupied
The classification of a housing unit with a person or persons living in it as a usual residence when enumerated or only temporarily absent, for example, on vacation. A household consists of all the persons who occupy a housing unit. Therefore, counts of households and occupied housing units should match; although complete counts may differ slightly from sample data.

Vacant
The classification of a housing unit with no one living in it the time of enumeration, unless its occupants are only temporarily absent. If, at the time of enumeration, the unit is temporarily occupied entirely be persons who have a usual residence elsewhere, it is also classified as vacant.

Historical comparability
Similar data have been collected since 1940.

See also: "Vacancy Status."

Other Races
See: "Race."

Outlying Areas
See: "Puerto Rico and Outlying Areas."

Pacific Islander Population
See: "Race."

Parish (in Louisiana)
See: "County."

Persons per Room
A derived measure obtained by dividing the number of persons in each occupied housing unit by the number of rooms in the unit. The figures shown refer, therefore, to the number of housing units having the specified ratio of persons per room. For example, the number of units with 1.01 or more persons per room is the number of units occupied by more persons than there are separate rooms.

See also: "Rooms."

A concentration of population which may or may not have legally prescribed limits, powers, or functions. Most of the places identified in the 1980 census are incorporated as cities, towns, villages, or boroughs. In addition, census designated places (called "unincorporated places" in earlier censuses) are delineated for 1980 census tabulations. There are about 23,000 places recorded in the 1980 census. Places do not cross State boundaries.

Incorporated place
A political unit incorporated as a city, borough (excluding Alaska and New York), village, or town (excluding the New England States, New York, and Wisconsin). In most States, incorporated places are subdivisions of the MCD or CCD in which they are located; for example, a village located within and legally part of a township. In some States, incorporated places are independent of surrounding township or towns and therefore are also treated as MCD's. In a few states, the pattern is mixed. Almost 4,000 incorporated places cross MCD/CCD and/or county boundaries.

There are about 20,000 incorporated places recognized in the 1980 census.

Census designated place (CDP)
A densely settled population center without legally corporate limits or corporate limits or corporate powers or functions. Each CDP has a definite residential nucleus with a dense, city-type street pattern, and ideally should have an overall population density of at least 1,000 persons per square mile. In addition, a CDP is a community that can be identified locally by place name. Boundaries of CDP's are drawn by the Census Bureau, in cooperation with State and local agencies, to include, insofar .3S possible, all the closely settled area. In the 1980 census, statistics are tabulated for each CDP with 5,000 inhabitants or more if located in an urbanized area (UA) with a central city of 50,000 or more and for each CDP of 1,000 inhabitants or more if in a UA with no central city of 50,000 or more. Some CDP's--notably in the Northeast-- coincide with MCD's. In STF's, these are treated as both places and MCD's, but in printed reports they are show only in MCD tables to avoid duplication. Outside of UA's, statistics are tabulated in 48 States and Puerto Rico for CDP's of 1,000 or more, in Hawaii for CDP's of 300 or more, and in Alaska for CDP's of 25 or more.

There are approximately 3,400 CDP's recognized in the 1980 census.

Incorporated place and CDP boundaries are shown on all detailed census maps. For tracted areas, boundaries of all places are shown on census tract outline maps. County subdivision maps, at a still smaller scale, also show boundaries for places.

A 4-digit numeric code is assigned by the Census Bureau to each place in alphabetic sequence within State. "Place description" codes will also generally accompany place records. These codes indicate whether a place is incorporated, as well as represent certain other information about the place.

Data are summarized for all places in STF's 1A and 3A, and PC80-1-A reports. For places with 1,000 or more inhabitants, data are summarized in STF 2B, and PCBO-1-B and HC80-1-A reports. For places with 2,500 or more, data are summarized in STF 4B, PC80-1-C, and HC80-1-B reports. In PHC80-3 reports, data are given for all incorporated places. In PHC80-2 Census Tracts reports and STF's 2A and 4A, summaries are presented only for places with 10,000 or more inhabitants located in tracted areas. Very detailed data are presented for all places which are central cities of SMSA's in PC80-1-D reports, and places with 50,000 or more inhabitants in HC80-2 reports. STF 5 also provides detailed data for places of 50,000 or more.

The files and reports which sequence geographic units in hierarchical fashion must account for the fact that places nay cross the boundaries of counties, MCD's, and CCD's. Such reports and tapes, therefore, provide summaries for the various parts of places created when places are split by the boundaries of higher level areas recognized in the hierarchy. Specifically, place parts within county and MCD or CCD are presented in STF 1A and 3A, and PC80-1-A reports. Place parts within county and MCD are presented for 20 specified States and Puerto Rico in STF 1B and PHC80-1 Block Statistics microfiche reports, but the PHC80-1 reports include only places which have data collected for blocks. In the remaining 30 States, STF 1B and PHC80-1 reports subdivide places when split by county boundaries, but do not observe MCD or CCD boundaries.

Historical comparability
Sixty-eight percent of all incorporated places of 2,500 or more made changes in their boundaries between 1970 and January 1, 1980, which is the reference date for boundaries in the 1980 census. In the 1970 census, ED boundaries were draw so as to allow a user to aggregate 1970 data for each city of 2,000 or more inhabitants according to 1960 boundaries. There will not be a corresponding capability in the 1980 census, because many of the municipalities are now subdivided into block groups and, where enumeration districts are still used, the boundaries were often redrawn in response to local recommendations.

In the 1970 and earlier censuses, CDP's were referred to as "unincorporated places." The name was changed to make it more explicit that such places are defined for census purposes, and to avoid confusion in States where many "unincorporated places" are parts of incorporated towns or townships. Many CDP's have been redefined since 1970. Incorporated places which were newly incorporated or which changed boundaries between 1970 and 1980 are listed in footnotes to table 4 of PC80-1-A reports.

Plumbing Facilities
Presence of toilet facilities, bathing facilities, and piped water, ascertained for occupied and vacant housing units.

Complete plumbing for exclusive use
Piped hot and cold water, a flush toilet, and a bathtub or shower for exclusive use by household members. All facilities must be in the living quarters, but need not be in the same room. Hot water need not be available continuously. A privy or chemical toilet is not counted as a flush toilet. A bathtub or shower is counted only if it is connected to piped running water.Lacking complete plumbing for exclusive use:

  1. Complete plumbing facilities, but also used by another householdAll facilities preset, but with some or all of the plumbing facilities also regularly used by someone who is not a member of the household. This category also applies if the future occupants of living quarters now vacant would be expected to share the facilities.
  2. Some but not all plumbing facilitiesUnits with one or two but not all three of these: hot and cold piped water, flush toilet, and bathtub or shower.
  3. No plumbing facilities


Historical comparability
Data on plumbing facilities have been collected since 1940. In 1970, there were separate questions on presence of hot and cold running water, a flush toilet, and a bathtub or shower. The questions were combined in 1980. In 1980 complete facilities must not only be in the building, as in 1970, but also inside the housing unit.

Precinct
See: "Election Precinct."

Puerto Rico and Outlying Areas
In addition to the United States, the decennial census covers the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the outlying areas, including American Samoa, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (including the Northern Mariana Islands which were legally part of the Trust Territory in 1980), the U.S. Virgin Islands, and certain other small islands over which the United States exercises sovereignty or jurisdiction. Questionnaire design and the questions asked were developed for Puerto Rico and each outlying area to accommodate local conditions. In the case of some small or military-occupied islands, enumerations were not conducted; only population counts obtained from U.S. Government records are published.

The geographic subareas for which statistics are reported vary. Some of those noted below are defined in this glossary; others will be defined in 1980 census reports for the areas.

  • American Samoa: villages, district subdivisions, districts, and islands.
  • Guam: census designated places and election districts.
  • Northern Mariana Islands and the remainder of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands: census designated places, municipal districts, municipalities and islands, and administrative districts.
  • Puerto Rico: blocks; ED's and BG's; census tracts and block numbering areas; zonas urbanas and aldeas; subbarrios; barrios, ciudades, and pueblos; municipios; and SMSA's and SCSA's.
  • Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (including the Northern Mariana Islands): census designated places, municipal districts, municipalities and islands, and administrative districts.
  • Virgin Islands: places, census subdistricts, and islands.Other islands: no subdivisions.
  • Data for Puerto Rico and its subdivisions will appear in reports and tapes in generally the same pattern as for States and their subdivisions. Data for outlying areas will appear in 1980 Census of Population, Volume 1, and 1980 Census of Housing, Volume 1, reports, and on STF's 1 and 3.


Historical comparability
The Canal Zone was not included in the 1980 census because it was no longer under U.S. jurisdiction.

All persons wore asked to identify themselves according to the following race categories on the 1980 questionnaire: White, Black or Negro, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Asian Indian, Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Samoan, and Other. The "Other" category includes Malayan, Polynesian, Thai, and other groups not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

Counts of the population by race in complete-count tabulations are provisional. Final counts for race will be determined after the sample data have been processed. The sample counts will first appear on tape on STF 3 and in print in Characteristics of the Population, General Social and Economic Characteristics (PC80-1-C) reports.

The concept of race as used by the Census bureau reflects self-identification by respondents; it does not denote any clear-cut scientific definition of biological stock. Since the 1980 census obtained information on race through self-identification, the data represent self-classification by people according to the race with which they identify themselves. For persons with parents of different races who could not provide a single response to the race question, the race of the person's mother was used; however, if a single response could not be provided for the person's mother, the first race reported by the person was used.

During clerical operations on all questionnaires, write-in responses were reviewed in an attempt to classify entries to existing categories. For instance, if the other circle was marked and accompanied by a write-in entry of Caucasian, the other circle was erased and the circle for "White" was filled, (additional examples are noted below.) However, Hispanic write-in categories such as "Mexican" or "Puerto Rican" were not recoded during complete-count processing, nor were Asian/Pacific Islander entries such as "Cambodian," "Indo-Chinese," or "Polynesian." During the subsequent processing of sample questionnaires, all persons in the "other" category with write-in entries were assigned codes which were recorded on the basic records.

After sample coding, or "Polynesian" categories such as "Cambodian," "Indo-Chinese," are collectively tabulated as "Other Asian and Pacific Islander" in sample tabulations with detailed race categories and added into the broader "Asian and Pacific Islander* category in other sample tabulations by race. This shifts a significant part of those cases tabulated as "other races" in complete-count data to "Asian and Pacific Islander" in sample data and affects the comparability between complete-count and sample data for these broad groups.

Persons who indicated their race as White, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories listed on the questionnaire but entered a response such as Canadian, German, Italian, Lebanese, or Polish. (Persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specified race categories but wrote in entries such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, Mexican, or Dominican were included in the "Other races" category; in the 1970 census most of these persons were included in the "White" category.)

Persons who indicated their race as Black or Negro, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Black Puerto Rican, Haitian, Jamaican, Nigerian, or West Indian.

American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut
American Indian
Persons who indicated their race as "Indian (American)" or who did not indicate a specific race category but reported the name of an Indian tribe.

Eskimo
Persons who indicated their race as "Eskimo."

Persons who indicated their race as "Aleut."

Asian and Pacific Islander
In complete-count tabulations, includes all of the groups listed below except "Other Asian and Pacific Islander." In sample tabulations, it includes all of the groups listed below.

Japanese
Persons who indicated their race as Japanese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Nipponese or Japanese American.

Chinese
Persons who indicated their race as Chinese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Cantonese, Formosan, Taiwanese, or Tibetan.

Filipino
Persons who indicated their race as Filipino, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as Filipino American or Philippine.

Korean
Persons who indicated their race as Korean, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Korean American.

Asian Indian
Persons who indicated their race as Asian Indian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported entries such as Bengali, Bharati, Dravidian, East Indian, Goanese, Hindu Indic, Kashmiri, or South Asian.

Vietnamese
Persons who indicated their race as Vietnamese, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but reported a response such as Vietnam.

Hawaiian
Persons who indicated their race as Hawaiian. In the State of Hawaii, al1 persons who reported "Part-Hawaiian" were included in this category. Guamanian. Persons who indicated their race as Guamanian, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the race categories, but reported an entry such as Chamorro or Guam.

Samoan
Persons who indicated their race as Samoan, as well as persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories, but entered a response such as American Samoan or Western Samoan.

Other Asian and Pacific Islander
In sample tabulations only, persons who reported Cambodian, Hmong, Indo-Chinese, Laotian, Pakistani, Polynesian, Fiji Islander, Tahitian, Thai, or similar responses. Census basic records include codes for over 50 separate race group s within this category. In complete-count tabulations, this group is part of the "Other races" category below.

Other Races
Includes Asian and Pacific Islander groups not identified-separately (e.g., Cambodian, Indo-Chinese, Pakistani, Indonesian, Fiji Islander) and other races not included in the specific categories listed on the questionnaire. (Asian and Pacific Islander groups in the "other" category in 100-percent tabulations are included in the category "Asian and Pacific Islander" in sample tabulations. Persons who wrote in "Mexican," "Cuban," "South American," "Chicano," or "La Raza" remained in the "other" races category for both complete-count and sample tabulations.)

In a few tables in which data for American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Asian and Pacific Islander are not presented separately, the "Other" category encompasses all race categories not shown separately.

In some tabulations, the "Other" or "Race, n.e.c." category is omitted to save space; data for this category are derivable by subtracting the sum of the specified race categories from the total.

In certain printed tables, where space is limited, data for persons of Spanish origin are presented alongside data for up to four major race groups. In such situations, users should not be misled by the proximity of these two types of data. Spanish origin is not a race category, and persons of Spanish origin may be of any race. Tabulations in a number of sources present data separately for race categories (e.g., White, Black, and "Other") for persons not of Spanish origin. In addition, the number of Spanish-origin persons is given by race.

Limitations
In previous censuses, undercoverage of the population has been associated with race. The 1970 census missed Blacks at a much higher rate than Whites. The Bureau has not prepared undercoverage rates for races other than White or Black, because vital records and other sources of relevant statistics do not consistently distinguish among other races.

Historical comparability
Questions on "race" or "color" have been asked in each census since 1790. In 1970, when persons with parents of different races were in doubt 8s to their classification, the race of the father was used. In 1980, the race of the mother was used for persons who could not provide a single response. The 1970 category "Negro or Black" has been retitled "Black or Negro. Individual categories for Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Guamanian, and Samoan have been added. In 1970, the categories Eskimo and Aleut appeared only on questionnaires used in Alaska; they were replaced by Hawaiian and Korean in all other States. In 1980, all four categories appeared on the questionnaire.

As a result of the additions, the 1980 questionnaire had 14 specific race categories instead of 8 as in 1970. In 1970, persons who did not report a specific race but wrote in Hispanic categories such as "Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban" in the race question were assigned to White; for 1980 these persons remain in the "Other races category.

See also: "Race of Householder;" "Spanish Origin."

Race of Householder
In all cases where occupied housing units, households, or families are classified by race, the race of the householder, i.e., the person in column 1, is used (See: Household Relationship for the definition of Householder). This item was determined on a complete-count basis.

Since some households include persons of more than one race, there may be minor differences in counts by race between (1) tabulations of "families by family size" or "households by persons in unit" where all persons regardless of their race are tallied according to tile race Of householder and (2) tabulations of "persons in families" or "persons in households" where all persons are counted according to their own race.

Historical comparability
Prior to 1980, the concept of race of household head" was used instead of race of householder. This change should not substantively affect the comparability of these data.

Region (Census Geographic)
A large group of States, which is a first-order subdivision of the United States for census purposes. The four regions--Northeast, North Central, South, and West-are delineated in figure 6. Regions are identified by a l-digit code. Statistics for them appear in U.S. Summary reports in almost every publication series, and in STF's 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C. The census regions have no relationship to the 10 Standard Federal Administrative Regions.

Related Children
See: "Household Relationship."

Rent, Contract
The monthly rent agreed to, or contracted for regardless of any furnishings, utilities, or services that say be included. Rent is shown for occupied units rented for cash and vacant units for rent. For vacant units, rent is the amount for the asked unit at the time of enumeration, and is sometimes labeled "rent asked." Contract rent is tabulated for "specified renter occupied" units, which excludes one-family houses on 10 acres or more. Respondents were to report rent only for the housing unit enumerated and to exclude any rent paid for additional units or for business premises. The rent amount for the unit is to be reported even if paid for by someone outside the household, or for some reason, not paid. Respondents who do not pay rent monthly are asked to convert the sum to a monthly average. In the computation of aggregate and mean rent, $35 is taken as the average of the interval "less than $50," and $550 is taken as the average of the interval "$500 or more." This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

No cash rent
Rental units occupied without payment of cash rent. Next may be owned by friends or relatives who live elsewhere and who allow occupancy without charge. Rent-free houses or apartments may be provided to compensate caretakers, ministers, tenant farmers, sharecroppers, or others.

Historical comparability
Similar data have been collected since 1930 (although the first full housing census did not occur until 1940). Rent intervals reported have gone to higher dollar figures in recent decades. The 1970 question on rent had a top category of $300 or more; it also listed fewer rent intervals than the 1980 question. Constant dollar comparisons, 1979 to 1980, are not prepared.

Rental Vacancy Rate
The number of vacant units for rent as a percent of the total-rental inventory--that is, all renter-occupied units and all year-round vacant units for rent.

See also: "Vacancy Status."

The number of whole rooms intended for living purposes, not only in occupied housing units, but also in vacant units. These rooms include living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, finished recreation rooms, enclosed porches suitable for year-round use, and lodger's rooms. Excluded are strip or pullman kitchens, bathrooms, open porches, balconies, foyers, halls, half-rooms, utility rooms, unfinished attics or basements, or other space used for storage. A partially divided room, such as a dinette next to a kitchen or living room, is a separate room only if there is a partition from floor to ceiling, but not if the partition consists solely of shelves or cabinets. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

In the computation of aggregate and mean rooms, "10" is taken as the average of the interval "9 or more rooms."

Historical comparability
Similar data have been collected since 1940.

See also: "Persons per Room."

Ascertained on a complete-count basis.

Historical comparability
A question on the sex of individuals has been asked of the total population in every census.

Spanish Origin
Counts of the population by Spanish origin in complete-count tabulations are provisional. Final counts for Spanish origin will be determined after the sample data have been processed. The sample counts will first appear on the tape in STF 3 and in print in Characteristics of Population, General Social and Economic Characteristics, PC80-1-C reports.

Determined by a complete-count question which asks respondents to self-identify whether they are of Spanish origin or descent. If, when interviewed, the person reported a multiple origin and could not provide a single origin, the origin of the person's mother was used. If a single response was not provided for the person's mother, the first reported origin of the person was used.

Persons marking any one of the four "Spanish" categories, i.e., Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or other Spanish, are collectively referred to as "persons of Spanish origin."

In certain tabulations, persons of Spanish origin are further classified by type:

Mexican
Persons who indicated "Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano," or wrote in an entry such as "La Raza."

Puerto Rican
Persons who indicated "Puerto Rican" or wrote in an entry such as "Boricua."

Persons who indicated "Cuban."

Other Spanish
Persons who filled the circle for "other Spanish/Hispanic"; or persons who wrote in an origin or descent associated with Spain, the Dominican Republic, or any Central or South America country except Brazil or a nonspecific Spanish group such as "Spanish surnamed" or "Spanish speaking."

Historical comparability
The Spanish-origin question was asked on a l00-percent basis for the first time in 1980. A similar question was asked on the 1970 5-percent sample questionnaire. For 1980, the category "No, not Spanish/Hispanic" appeared first (the corresponding category appeared last in 1970). Also, the terms "Mexican-American" and "Chicano" are added to the term "Mexican." The category "Central or South American," included in 1970, was dropped.

Although a question on Spanish origin was included in 1970, it was not the major identifier used to classify the Hispanic population in the 1970 census as it is in 1980. Depending on the section of the country, 1970 census data for "Persons of Spanish Heritage" were variously defined as "Persons of Puerto Rican Birth or Parentage" (in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania), as "Persons of Spanish language or Spanish Surname" (in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas), and as "Persons of Spanish Language" (in the remaining 42 States and the District of Columbia). "Spanish Language" referred to those persons who in 1970 reported Spanish as their mother tongue, as well as persons in families in which the household head or spouse reported Spanish as his or her mother tongue.

Spouse
See: Household Relationship.

Standard Consolidated Statistical Area (SCSA)
A large concentration of metropolitan population composed of two or more contiguous standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) which together meet certain criteria of population size, urban character, social and economic integration, and/or contiguity of urbanized areas. Each SCSA must have a population of one million or more. Thirteen SCSA'S were in existence at the time of the 1980 census. They were defined by the Office of Management and Budget according to criteria published by that office in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1975. Four additional SCSA's have been defined based on 1980 census results.SCSA'S are identified by a 2-digit numeric code. Summaries for SCSA's appear in many reports, and in STF's 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C. Summaries are generally provided for SCSA totals and for within-State parts of SCSA's.

Historical comparability
The original 13 SCSA's were designated in 1975. For the 1960 and 1970 censuses, the Census Bureau recognized two "Standard Consolidated Areas" (SCA's), which encompassed metropolitan complexes around New York and Chicago.In 1982 or 1983, the SCSA concept will be replaced by the new Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) concept, with somewhat more flexible criteria, as spelled out in the Federal Register, January 3, 1980. These changes will not affect publication of l980 census data for SCSA's.

Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA)
A large population nucleus and nearby communities which have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. Each SMSA consists of one or more entire counties (or county equivalents) that meet specified standards pertaining to population, commuting ties, and metropolitan character. In New England, towns and cities, rather than counties, are the basic units and should be substituted for "counties" where counties are cited below. SMSA's are designated by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards.

Data products from the 1980 census will report on 323 SMSA's: (1)287 defined before January 1, 1980 (including 4 in Puerto Rico); and

(2) an additional 36 (including one in Puerto Rico) established as a result of 1980 census population counts. The 36 new SMSAs were designated when 1980 counts showed that they met one or both of the following criteria:1.Included a city with a population of at least 50,000 within its corporate limits, or2.Included a Census Bureau-defined urbanized area (which must have a population of at least 50,000) and a total SMSA population of at least 100,000 (or, in New England, 75,000).

An SMSA includes a city and, generally, its entire UA and the remainder of the county or counties in which the UA is located. An SMSA also includes such additional outlying counties which meet specified criteria relating to metropolitan character and level of commuting of workers into the central city or counties. Specific criteria governing the definition of SMSA's recognized before 1980 are published in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1975, issued by the Office of Management and Budget.With two exceptions, each SMSA has one or more central cities, up to a maximum of three, and the names of these cities form the title of the SMSA. The Nassau-Suffolk, NY, SMSA has no central city, and the title of the Northeast Pennsylvania SMSA does not contain the names of its three central cities: Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Hazleton.

SMSA's are identified by a FIPS 4-digit numeric code, which follows the alphabetic sequence of SMSA names. SMSA's are outlined on small scale maps in several 1980 report series. SMSA data appear in most 1980 census publications and summary tape files. Many SMSA's cross State boundaries, and reports in several series provide summaries for the State parts of multi-State SMSA s, as well as SUSA totals. Summary tape files present data only for State parts of SMSA's, except for the "national" files: STF's 1C, 2C, 3C, and 4C.

Historical comparability
A comparison of 1970 and 1980 census products reveals two types of changes in metropolitan territory. First, 69 new SMSAs were created from previously nonmetropolitan territory: 36 were defined in 1981 based on 1980 population counts and 33 were defined between 1973 and 1979 based on current population estimates. (An additional SMSA--Rapid City, SD--was provisionally recognized based on population estimates, but it did not qualify according to 1980 census data.)

The second component of change to metropolitan territory between 1970 and 1980 was the redefinition of many of the SMSA's which were recognized in 1970 census tabulations. Of the 247 1970 SMSA's, 101 were redefined in 1973 based on 1970 census commuting data, most by the addition of 1 or more counties (or towns and cities in New England). In addition, one SMSA was redefined by the addition of one area and the deletion of another (Wichita Falls, Texas), one was subdivided (Nassau-Suffolk SMSA was created from a part of the New York SMSA), four pairs of SMSA's were combined into single SMSA'S (for example, Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas), and four SMSA's lost area that was added to other SMSA's. In addition, the names of several SMSA's were changed in 1973, one in such a way that the SMSA code also changed (San Bernardino-Riverside-Ontario to Riverside-SanBernardino-Ontario, California). Since SMSA's are always defined in terms of whole counties (towns or cities in New England) for which extensive data are available, users can usually compile figures for comparisons over time.

In 1982 or 1983, SMSA boundaries will be reevaluated using 1980 census data on commuting, labor force, population density, type of residence, and population growth, according to new criteria spelled out in the Federal Register, January 3, 1980 (vol. 45, no. 2, pt. VI). At that time, new outlying counties may be added or existing ones deleted, some area titles will be changed and new central cities designated, some areas may be consolidated, and a few new SMSA's may be created. Further, the term "standard metropolitan statistical area" will be shortened to "metropolitan statistical area" (MSA). These changes will not affect publication of for SMSA's.

A major political unit of the United States. The District of Columbia is treated as a State-equivalent in all 1980 census data series. Puerto Rico is also, except that it does not appear in P.L. 94-171 Population Counts file.

States are identified by a 2-digit FIPS code which follows the alphabetic sequence of State names (including the District of Columbia), and by a 2-digit census geographic State code, the first digit of which identifies the census division of which the State is a part. Puerto Rico and the outlying areas have FIPS codes numerically following the State codes.

Historical comparability
There have been no significant changes to State boundaries in the last decade. See also: Puerto Rico and Outlying Areas.

State Economic Area (SEA)
A single county or group of counties within a State which is relatively homogeneous with respect to economic and social characteristics. The grouping of the 3,103 counties and county equivalents in 1950 into SEA's was the product of a special study prepared by the Bureau of the Census in cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and several State and private agencies. Boundaries were drawn in such a manner that each economic area had certain significant characteristics which distinguished it from adjoining areas. There are 510 SEA's.SEA's are identified in census tabulations on computer tape by a 2- digit numeric code or a l-digit alphabetic code, assigned sequentially within the State; however, no 1980 data are summarized for SEA's.

Historical comparability
SEA boundaries have remained largely unchanged since they were defined in 1950. In 1950, 501 areas were defined; in 1960, 509; and in 1970, 510.See also: Economic Subregion.

Tenure
The classification of all occupied housing units as either owner-occupied or renter-occupied. This item was asked on a complete-count basis.

Owner-occupied
A housing unit is "owner occupied" if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit even if the unit is mortgaged or not fully paid for.

Renter-occupied
All occupied housing units which are not owner occupied, regardless of whether cash rent is paid by a member of the household. ("No cash rent" units, a subcategory of renter occupied, are separately identified in rent tabulations.)

Historical comparability
Tenure has been collected since 1890. In 1970, the question on tenure also included a category for condominium and cooperative ownership. In 1980, condominiums are identified in a separate question.

See also: "Condominium Status;" "Rent," "Contract;" "Value."

Town/Township
See: "Minor Civil Division."

See: "Census Tract."

United States
This designation includes the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 1980 STF's and most report series (usually in a separate U.S. Summary report) provide data summarized for the United States.

Units at Address
Number of housing units with a particular house or building address number. This question is asked principally to improve census coverage. If the respondent indicated from 2 to 9 units at the address, census workers checked the number against the number of units for that address on the Bureau's address register. If the respondent's answer was higher than what WIBS shown in the address register, the building was visited to ascertain the correct number of units, thereby assuring enumeration of every unit.

Mobile home or trailer
Included if intended for occupancy where located. Mobile homes or trailers were counted whether mounted or on wheels.

Limitations
Data users sometimes use "units at address" as a proxy for "units in structure," which is published later because it is based on a sample question. The concepts are not interchangeable, though, since some multi-unit buildings have more than one address and there is some variation in respondent interpretation of "units at address."

Historical comparability
Similar data were collected in 1970.

Units Persons In
The number of persons living in the housing unit. All occupants are counted-not just those related to the householder, but also any lodgers, roomers, boarders, partners, wards, foster children, and resident employees who share the living quarters.

Unrelated Individual
An unrelated individual may be (1) a householder living alone or only with persons not related to him or her, (2) a roomer, boarder, partner, roommate, or resident employee unrelated to the householder, or (3) a group quarters member who is not an inmate of an institution. Classification as an unrelated individual derives from the complete-count question on household relationship. Examples of unrelated individuals include a widow who occupies her house alone or with one or more other persons not related to her, a roomer not related to the householder, a maid living as a member of her employer's household, and a resident staff member in a hospital dormitory. Persons living with one or more relatives in 8 household where the householder is not related to any of them are classified in the census as unrelated individuals; for example, a husband and wife who rent a room from a householder to whom they are not related.

Historical comparability
A similar concept was used in 1970.

Urban and Rural (Population)
Urban and rural are type-of-area concepts rather than specific areas outlined on maps. As defined by the Census Bureau, the urban population comprises all persons living in urbanized areas (UA's) and in places of 2,500 or more inhabitants outside UA's.

The rural population consists of everyone else. Therefore, a rural classification need not imply farm residence or a sparsely settled area, since a small city or town is rural as long as it is outside a UA and has fewer than 2.500 inhabitants.The terms urban and rural are independent of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan designations; both urban and rural areas occur inside and outside SMSA's.

Historical comparability
Except for the minor relaxation of UA criteria discussed below, urban and rural definitions have been consistent since 1950. Within small counties, measurements of urban and rural populations over time may he significantly affected by the increase or decrease of a place's population across the 2,500 population threshold, e.g., the increase of 1 person to a place of 2,499 results in an increase of 2,500 to the county's urban population.

Urban Fringe
See: "Urbanized Area."

Urbanized Area (UA)
A population concentration of at least 50,000 inhabitants, generally consisting of a central city and the surrounding, closely settled, contiguous territory (suburbs).

The UA criteria define a boundary based primarily on a population density of at least 1,000 persons per square mile, hut also include some less densely settled areas, and such areas as industrial parks and railroad yards, if they are within areas of dense urban development. The density level of 1,000 persons per square mile corresponds approximately to the continuously built-up areas around a city (ies). The "urban fringe" is that part of the UA outside of a central city (ies).

Typically, an entire UA is included within an SMSA. The SMSA is usually much larger in terms of territory covered and includes territory where the population density is less than 1,000. Occasionally, more than one UA is located within an SMSA. In some cases a small part of a UA may extend beyond an SMSA boundary or possibly into an adjacent SMSA. A few 1980 UA's have been defined in areas: which do not meet the criteria for SMSA designation. UA's may cross State boundaries. In a few cases, a UA does not include all of an "extended city," that is, a place which is determined to have a significant amount of rural territory.

UA's are identified by 4-digit codes, which follow the alphabetic sequence of all UA names. When a UA has the same name as an SMSA, the UA code is usually the same as the SMSA code. UA boundaries are shown on final MMS/VMS maps, and at a much smaller scale on UA outline maps in PC80-1-A and HC80-1-A reports.

Historical comparability
Because UA's are defined on the basis of population distribution at the time of a decennial census, their boundaries tend to change following ee.ch census to include expanding urban development.

The criteria have been fairly constant since 1950, although in each decade some new refinements have been added. For the 1970 census, in which 252 UA's were recognized, it was necessary for the central city to have a population of 50,000 or more, or for there to be "twin cities" with a combined population of 50,000 and with the smaller city having at least 15,000. In 1974 the criteria were liberalized to allow UA recognition to certain cities between 25,000 and 50,000, and this resulted in 27 new urbanized areas. For 1980, no minimum population size is required for a central city.

Vacancy, Duration Of
The period from the departure of the last occupants until Census Day--not the whole time the unit might stay vacant. For newly constructed units, never occupied, the period extends from the date of completion until Census Day.

Historical comparability
Similar data have been collected since 1960.

See also: "Vacancy Status."

Vacancy Status
Determined for housing units at the time of enumeration. Vacancy status pertains to year-round vacant units. Vacancy status and other characteristics of vacant units are determined by enumerators questioning landlords, owners, neighbors, rental agents, and others.

The housing inventory includes vacant mobile homes or trailers intended to be occupied on the site where they stand. Vacant mobile homes on dealer sales lots or in storage yards are not counted as housing units.

New units not yet occupied are classified as vacant housing units if construction has reached a point where all exterior windows and doors are installed and final usable floors are in place. Vacant units are excluded if open to the elements; that is, if the roof, walls, windows, or doors no longer protect the interior from the elements, or if there is positive evidence (such as a sign on the house or in the block) that the unit is to be demolished or is condemned. Also excluded are quarters being used entirely for nonresidential purposes, such as a store or an office, or quarters used for the storage of business supplies or inventory, machinery, or agricultural products.

Vacant year-round units
Vacant units intended for use, even if only occasionally, throughout the year.

For sale only
Vacant year-round units offered for sale only. The category includes mainly one-family houses, but also two types of vacant units in multi-unit buildings: (1) vacant units (which are for sale only) in a cooperative or condominium and (2) vacant units intended to he occupied by the new building owners in multi-unit buildings that are for sale. 4n individual unit that is vacant because it is being held for sale of the entire building is classified as "other vacant." Vacant units offered for rent or sale at the same time are classified as "for rent."

For rent
Vacant year-round units offered for rent, and vacant units offered for rent or sale at the same time, including vacant units for rent in a building for sale.

Rented or sold, awaiting occupancy
Vacant year-round units sold or rented but still unoccupied when enumerated-- including units where rent is agreed on but not yet paid.

Held for occasional use
Vacant units for weekend or other occasional use throughout the year. Shared ownership or "time sharing" condominiums are also classified here.

Other vacant
Vacant units for year-round occupancy not classified above, for example, units held for a janitor or caretaker, settlement of an estate, pending repairs or modernization, or personal reasons of the owner.

Vacant seasonal and migratory units
Vacant units used or intended for use only in certain seasons. Any unit used throughout the year, even if only occasionally, is excluded. Seasonal units include those used for summer or winter sports or recreation--beach cottages and hunting cabins, for example. Seasonal units may also include quarters for such workers as herders and loggers. Migratory units include those for farm workers during crop season.

Limitations
Most tables exclude vacant seasonal and migratory units since information on characteristics of such units is difficult to obtain.

Historical comparability
Similar data have been collected since 1940. In 1970, seasonal and migratory vacant units were reported in two separate categories.

See also: "Boarded-Up Status;" "Homeowner Vacancy Rate;" "Occupancy Status;" "Rental Vacancy Rate;" "Vacancy," "Duration Of."

For owner-occupied housing units, the respondent's estimate of the current dollar worth of the property. For vacant units, value is the price asked for the property. Statistics on value are shown only for owner-occupied condominium units and for "specified owner-occupied" units, i.e., one-family houses on less than 10 acres and with no business on the property. Value tabulations exclude renter-occupied units, mobile homes or trailers, houses on 10 or more acres, houses with a commercial establishment or medical office on the property, and noncondominium units in multi-family buildings (e.g., cooperatives).

A property is defined as the house and land on which it stands. Respondents estimated the value of house and land even if they only owned the house or owned the property jointly.

When value data are presented solely for vacant units for sale only, the term "sale price asked" is substituted. In the computation of aggregate and mean value, $7,500 is taken as the average of the interval "less than $10,000." and $250,000 is taken as the average of the interval "$200,000 or more."

Limitations
A 1970 census evaluation study found that respondents tended to report a higher value of home in a reinterview survey, with more detailed questions, than in the census. On the other hand, a comparison of 1970 census reports of value with subsequent actual sale prices of a sample of homes sold one to two years later found that the census understated the median market value of those homes by only three percent (compared to the sale prices adjusted for inflation between the census and sale date). This result cannot be generalized to all census value data, however, since the sample was restricted to metropolitan areas, and since census respondents who were about to sell their homes may have been more aware of market values.

Historical comparability
Similar data have been collected since 1930 (and in 1920 for mortgaged nonfarms only), but value for condominiums is new for 1980. For historical comparability, tables will show condominiums and noncondominiums separately. Values for 1980 reflect increased housing prices: the highest category in 1970 was "$50,000 or more," for 1980, $200,000 or more. Also, the number of categories increased from 11 in 1970 to 24 in 1980.

Political subdivision of a city used for voting and representation purposes. For 1980, in approximately 200 nonblock numbered places ward boundaries were observed in the definition of enumeration districts (ED's). For these areas, users may prepare ward data by summarizing ED data. In areas with block statistics, users may prepare ward data by summarizing block data.

Historical comparability
Population counts for wards in places with a population of 10,000 or more appeared in Supplementary Reports, PC- S1, in 1960 and 1970.

White Population
See: "Race."

Year-Round Housing Units
All occupied units plus vacant units intended for year-round use. Almost all data on housing characteristics are limited to year-round housing units. Vacant units held for seasonal use or migratory labor are excluded because it is difficult to obtain reliable information for them. Counts of the total housing inventory include both year-round and seasonal units.

See also: "Vacancy Status."

American Indian Tribal Trust Lands
Some American Indian reservations have tribal trust lands in the vicinity of the reservation. The Bureau of Indian Affairs identified these areas for the 1980 census. Tribal trust lands are located outside the reservation boundary (off-reservation) and are associated with a specific reservation.

Information for these areas is not summarized in regular census tabulations; however, each area has been assigned a unique 3-digit code which appears in the reservation code field, and summaries can be prepared by the addition of component ED's and BG's from MARF, STF 1A, or STF 3A. Some ED's which include tribal trust lands are designated with an "A" in the ED prefix field in the data files. In Oklahoma, "A" prefix ED's designate the historic areas of Oklahoma (excluding urbanized areas). "A" prefixed ED's in all other States should be disregarded. For further information, please write to Population Division, Racial Statistics Staff, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233.

Historical comparability
Tribal trust lands (off-reservation) were not identified in previous censuses.

American Indian Subreservation Areas
Areas known as "districts," agencies, segments, areas, or "communities" are associated with some American Indian reservations and were identified for the Census Bureau for the 1980 census by tribal governments or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. In a few cases, such subreservation areas extend beyond reservation boundaries or are located entirely outside the reservation. American Indian subreservations recognized for the 1980 census are identified by a unique 3-digit code.

Data for subreservations are not summarized in regular census tabulations: however, subreservation data can be derived by the addition of component ED or BG summaries on MARF, STF 1A, or STF 3A. ED's within a reservation are designated by an "N" in that field.

Historical comparability
American Indian subreservation areas were not identified separately in previous censuses.

American Indian Reservations
American Indian reservations are areas with boundaries established by treaty, statute, and/or executive or court order. The reservations and their boundaries were identified for the Census Bureau by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and State governments. Federal and State reservations are located in 33 States and may cross State, county, minor civil division/census county division, and place boundaries. In tabulations for reservations, tribal trust lands outside the boundaries of reservations (off reservation) are not included as part of the reservations (see below).

Alaska Native villages are areas which were specified to the Bureau by the State of Alaska which recognized them pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, P.L. 92-203.

Each American Indian reservation was assigned a unique 3-digit code by the Bureau. Enumeration districts (ED's) and block groups (BGs) which are inside boundaries of reservations are designated with an "N" in the ED prefix field in tape files.

Data summaries for American Indian reservations are included in STF's 2B, 2C, 4B, and 4C, and reports PC80-1-B and -C and HC80-1-A and -3.Population and housing counts for reservations are scheduled to be included in a supplementary report (PC80-S1 series). Also, a population subject report (PC80-2 series) presenting additional data on American Indian reservations is also planned. Summaries on tape and in PC80-1-B and HC80-1-A show data not only for the reservation totals, but also for parts of reservations that cross State or county boundaries. Reservation data can also be derived from MARF, STF 1A, and STF 3A by the addition of component ED or BG summaries. Maps outlining reservation boundaries are included in the PC80-1-B and HC80-1-A reports. Reservation boundaries are also shown on detailed Metropolitan Map Series, place, and county maps.

Historical comparability
Data on 115 American Indian reservations were published in the 1970 census subject report, American Indians, PC(2)-1F. However, 1980 data may not be comparable to 1970 information because of boundary changes, improvements in geographic identification, new enumeration techniques, and other procedural changes made for the 1980 census.Data on Alaska Native villages are not available for previous censuses. However, some cities and "unincorporated places" which were identified in the 1970 census may correspond to 1980 Alaska Native villages.

Aleut Population/Alaska Native Villages
See: "Race."


Questionnaire Information
1980 Census of the United States
Please fill out this official Census Form and mail it back on Census Day, Tuesday, April 1, 1980

A message from the Director, Bureau of the Census ...

We must, from time to time, take stock of ourselves as a people if our Nation is to meet successfully the many national and local challenges we face. This is the purpose of the 1980 census. The essential need for a population census was recognized almost 200 years ago when our Constitution was written. As provided by article I, the first census was conducted in 1790 and one has been taken every 10 years since then. The law under which the census is taken protects the confidentiality of your answers. For the next 72 years - or until April 1, 2052 - only sworn census workers have access to the individual records, and no one else may see them. Your answers, when combined with the answers from other people, will provide the statistical figures needed by public and private groups, schools, business and industry, and Federal, State, and local governments across the country. These figures will help all sectors of American society understand how our population and housing are changing. In this way, we can deal more effectively with today's problems and work toward a better future for all of us. The census is a vitally important national activity. Please do your part by filling out this census form accurately and completely. If you mail it back promptly in the enclosed postage-paid envelope, it will save the expense and inconvenience of a census taker having to visit you. Thank you for your cooperation. Your answers are confidential.

By law (title 13 U.S. Code), census employees are subject to fine and/or imprisonment for any disclosure of your answers. Only after 72 years does your information become available to other government agencies or the public. The same law requires that you answer the questions to the best of your knowledge. Para personas de habla hispana(For Spanish-speaking persons)

SI USTED DESEA UN CUESTIONARIO DEL CENSO EN ESPA' OL llame a la oficina del censo. El nú mero de telé fono se encuentra en el encasillado de la direcció n. O, si prefiere, marque esta casilla ¢ y devuelva el cuestionario por correo en el sobre que se le incluye.

How to fill out your Census FormSee the filled-out example [omitted] in the yellow instruction guide [that is, the separate instructions accompanying the questionnaire]. This guide will help with any problems you may have. If you need more help, call the Census Office. The telephone number of the local office is shown at the bottom of the address box on the front cover. Use a black pencil to answer the questions. Black pencil is better to use than ballpoint or other pens. Fill circles "O" completely, like this. When you write in an answer, print or write clearly. Make sure that answers are provided for everyone here. See page 4 of the guide if a roomer or someone else in the household does not want to give you all the information for the form. Answer the questions on pages 1 through 5, and then starting with pages 6 and 7, fill a pair of pages for each person in the household. Check your answers. Then write your name, the date, and telephone number on page 20. Mail back this form on Tuesday, April 1, or as soon afterward as you can. Use the enclosed envelope; no stamp is needed. Please start by answering Question 1 below.1980 Population Questions

[The form provides a column for each individual within the household to respond separately to each question listed below.]

1. What is the name of each person who was living here on Tuesday, April 1, 1980, or who was staying or visiting here and had no other home?

List in Question 1

Family members living here, including babies still in the hospital

Relatives living hereLodgers or boarders living here

Other persons living here

College students who stay here while attending college, even if their parents live elsewhere

Persons who usually live here but are temporarily away (including children in boarding school below the college level)

Persons with a home elsewhere but who stay here most of the week while working

Do not list in Question 1

Any person away from here in the Armed Forces

Any college student who stays somewhere else while attending college.

Any person who usually stays somewhere else most of the week while working there.

Any person away from here in an institution such as a home for the aged or mental hospital.

Any person staying or visiting here who has a usual home elsewhere.

Last name________________________________

First name Middle initial________________________________

"List in question 1 ... the names of all the people who usually live here. Then turn to pages 2 and 3 where there are columns to list up to seven persons. In the first column print the name of one of the household members in whose name this home is owned or rented. If no household member owns or rents the living quarters, list in the first column any adult household member who is not a roomer, boarder, or paid employee. Print the names of the other household members, if any, in the columns which follow, using question 1 as a checklist."

2. How is this person related to the person in column 1 [i.e., to the householder]?

Fill one circle. If "Other relative" of person in column 1, give exact relationship, such as mother-in-law, niece, grandson, etc.If relative of person in column 1:

O Husband/wife

O Son/daughter

O Brother/sister

O Father/mother

O Other relative _______________

If not related to person in column 1:

O Roomer, boarder

O Partner, roommate

O Paid employee

O Other nonrelative _______________

"Fill a circle to show how each person is related to the person in column 1. A stepchild or legally adopted child of the person in column 1 should be marked Son/daughter. Foster children or wards living in the household should be marked Roomer, boarder."

3. Sex.

Fill one circle.

O Male

O Female

"Be sure to fill a circle for the sex of each person."

4. Is this person -Fill one circle.

O White

O Asian Indian

O Black or Negro

O Hawaiian

O Japanese

O Guamanian

O Chinese

O Samoan

O Filipino

O Eskimo

O Korean

O Aleut

O Vietnamese

O Other - Specify __________

O Indian (Amer.)

Print tribe _______________

"Fill the circle for the category with which the person most closely identifies. If you fill the Indian (American) or Other circle, be sure to print the name of the specific Indian tribe or specific group."

5. Age, and month and year of birth

a. Age at last birthday

Print age at last birthday. __________

b. Month of birth

Print month and fill one circle.

O Jan. - Mar.

O Apr. - June

O July - Sept.

O Oct. - Dec.

c. Year of birth

Print year in the spaces, and fill one circle below each number. ___ ___ ___ ___

1O 8O 0 O 0 O 9 O 1 O 1 O
2 O 2 O
3 O 3 O
4 O 4 O
5 O 5 O
6 O 6 O
7 O 7 O
8 O 8 O
9 O 9 O

"Enter age at last birthday in the space provided (enter "0" for babies less than one year old). Also enter month and year of birth, and fill the appropriate circles. For an illustration of how to complete question 5, see the example on pages 4 and 5 [not shown here]. If age or month or year of birth is not known, give your best estimate."

6. Marital Status

Fill one circle.

O Now married

O Separated

O Widowed

O Never married

O Divorced

"If the person's only marriage was annulled, mark Never married."

7. Is this person of Spanish/Hispanic origin or descent?

Fill one circle.

O No ( not Spanish/Hispanic)

O Yes, Mexican, Mexican-Amer., Chicano

O Yes, Puerto RicanO Yes, Cuban

O Yes, other Spanish/Hispanic

"A person is of Spanish/Hispanic origin or descent if the person identifies his or her ancestry with one of the listed groups, that is, Mexican, Puerto Rican, etc. Origin or descent (ancestry) may be viewed as the nationality group, the lineage, or country in which the person or the person's parents or ancestors were born."

8. Since February 1, 1980, has this person attended regular school or college at any time?

Fill one circle.

Count nursery school, kindergarten, elementary school, and schooling which leads to a high school diploma or college degree.O No, has not attended since February 1

O Yes, public school, public college

O Yes, private, church-related

O Yes, private, not church-related

"Do not count enrollment in a trade or business school, company training, or tutoring unless the course would be accepted for credit at a regular elementary school, high school, or college. A public school is any school or college which is controlled and supported primarily by a local, county, State, or Federal Government."

9. What is the highest grade (or year) of regular school this person has ever attended?

Fill one circle. If now attending school, mark grade person is in. If high school was finished by equivalency test (GED), mark "12."

Highest grade attended:

O Nursery school

O Kindergarten Elementary through high school (grade or year)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

O O O O O O O O O O O O

College (academic year)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 or more

O O O O O O O O

O Never attended school - Skip question 10"

Fill only one circle. Mark the highest grade ever attended even if the person did not finish it. If the person is still in school, mark the grade in which now enrolled. Schooling received in foreign or ungraded schools should be reported as the equivalent grade or year in the regular American school system. If uncertain whether a Head Start program is for nursery school or kindergarten, mark the circle for Nursery school.

"If the person skipped or repeated grades, mark the highest grade ever attended regardless of how long it took to get there. Persons who did not attend any college but who completed high school by finishing the 12th grade or by passing an equivalency test, such as the General Educational Development (GED) examination. should fill the circle for the 12th grade."

10. Did this person finish the highest grade (or year) attended?

Fill once circle.

O Now attending this grade (or year)

O Finished this grade (or year)

O Did not finish this grade (or year)

"Mark Finished this grade (or year) only if the person finished the entire grade or year marked in question 9 or if the highest grade was completed by passing a high school equivalency test."

11. In what State or foreign country was this person born?

Print the State where this person's mother was living when this person was born. Do not give the location of the hospital unless the mother's home and the hospital were in the same State.

Name of State or foreign country; or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.

"For persons born in the United States:

Print the name of the State in which this person's mother was living when this person was born. For persons born in a hospital, do not give the State in which the hospital was located unless the hospital and the mother's home were in the same State or the location of the mother's home is not known. For example, if a person was born in a hospital in Washington D.C., but the mother's home was in Virginia at the time of the person's birth, enter "Virginia."

"For persons born outside the United States:

Print the full name of the foreign country or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc., where the person was born. Use international boundaries as now recognized by the United States. Specify whether Northern Ireland or Ireland (Eire); East or West Germany; England, Scotland or Wales (not Great Britain or United Kingdom). Specify the particular island in the Caribbean, not, for example West Indies."

12. If this person was born in a foreign country --

"This question is only for persons born in a foreign country. Fill the Yes, a naturalized citizen circle only if the person has completed the naturalization process and is now a citizen. If the person has entered the U.S. more than once, fill the circle for the year he or she came to stay permanently."

a. Is this person a naturalized citizen of the United States?

O Yes, a naturalized citizen

O No, not a citizen

O Born abroad of American parents

b. When did this person come to the United States to stay?

O 1975 to 1980

O 1965 to 1969

O 1950 to 1959

O 1970 to 1974

O 1960 to 1964

O Before 1950

13a. Does this person speak a language other than English at home?

O Yes

O No, only speaks English - Skip to 14"

Mark No, only speaks English if the person always speaks English at home; then skip to question 14. Mark Yes if the person speaks a language other than English at home. Do not mark Yes for a language spoken only at school or if speaking ability is limited to a few expressions or slang."

b. What is this language?

__________________________________________(For example - Chinese, Italian, Spanish, etc.)

"Print the non-English language spoken at home. If this person speaks two or more non-English languages at home and cannot determine which is spoken most often, report the first language the person learned to speak."

c. How well does this person speak English?

O Very well

O Not well

O Well

O Not at all

"Fill the circle that best describes the person's ability to speak English.

(1) The circle Very well should be filled for persons who have no difficulty speaking English.

(2) The circle Well should be filled for persons who have only minor problems which do notseriously limit their ability to speak English.

(3) The circle Not well should be filled for persons who are seriously limited in their ability to speak English.

(4) The circle Not at all should be filled for persons who do not speak English at all."

14. What is this person's ancestry? If uncertain about how to report ancestry, see instruction guide.

(For example: Afro-Amer., English, French, German, Honduran, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Jamaican,Korean, Lebanese, Mexican, Nigerian, Polish, Ukrainian, Venezuelan, etc.)

"Print the ancestry group with which the person identifies. Ancestry (or origin or descent ) may be viewed as the nationality group, the lineage, or the country in which the person or the person's parents or ancestors were born before their arrival in the United States. Persons who are of more than one origin and who cannot identify with a single group should print their multiple ancestry (for example, German - Irish). Be specific; for example, if ancestry is "Indian," specify whether American Indian, Asian Indian, or West Indian. Distinguish Cape Verdean from Portuguese, and French Canadian from Canadian. A religious group should not be reported as a person's ancestry."

15a. Did this person live in this house five years ago (April 1, 1975)?

If in college or Armed Force in April 1975, report place of residence there.

O Born April 1975 or later - Turn to next page for next person

O Yes, this house - Skip to 16

O No, different house"Mark Yes, this house if this person lived in this same house or apartment on April 1, 1975, but moved away and came back between then and now. Mark No, different house if this person lived in the same building but in a different apartment (or in the same mobile home or trailer but on a different trailer site)."

b. Where did this person live five years ago (April 1, 1975)?

(1) State, foreign country, Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.: _____________________

(2) County: ____

(3) City, town, village, etc.: _______________________________________

(4) Inside the incorporated (legal) limits of that city, town, village, etc.?

O Yes

O No, in unincorporated area

"If this person lived in a different house or apartment on April 1, 1975, give the location of this person's usual home at that time.

Part (1) If the person was living in the United States on April 1, 1975, print the name of the State. If the person did not live in the United States on April 1, 1975, print the full name of the foreign country or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.

Part (2) If in Louisiana, print the parish name. If in Alaska, print the borough name. If in New York City - print the borough name if the county name is not known. If an independent city, leave blank.

Part (3) If in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island or Vermont, print the name of the town rather than the name of the village or city, unless the name of the town is unknown.

Part (4) Mark Yes if you know that the location is now inside the limits of a city, town, village or other incorporated place, even if it was not inside the limits on April 1, 1975."

16. When was this person born?

O Born before April 1965 - Please go on with questions 17 - 33

O Born April 1965 or later - Turn to next page for next person

17. In April 1975 (five years ago) was this person -

a. On active duty in the Armed Forces?

O Yes

O No

"Mark Yes only if this person was on active duty in the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard. Mark No if the person was in the National Guard or the reserves."

b. Attending college?

O Yes

O No

"Mark Yes if the person was attending a college or university either full or part time and was enrolled for credit toward a degree. Mark No if the person was taking only non-credit courses or was attending a vocational or trade school, such as secretarial school."

c. Working at a job or business?

O Yes, full time

O No

O Yes, part time"Mark Yes, full time if the person worked full time (35 hours or more per week). Mark Yes, part time if the person worked part time (less than 35 hours per week). Mark No if the person only did unpaid volunteer work, housework or yard work at own home, or if the only work done was as a resident of an institution."

18a. Is this person a veteran of active-duty military service in the Armed Forces of the United States?

If service was in National Guard or Reserves only, see instruction guide.O Yes O No - Skip to 19"Mark Yes if this person was ever on active duty in the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, even if the time served was short. For persons in the National Guard or military reserve units, mark Yes only if the person was ever called to active duty; mark No if the only service was active duty for training."

b. Was active-duty military service during -

Fill a circle for each period in which this person served.

O May 1975 or later

O Vietnam era (August 1964 - April 1975)

O February 1955 - July 1964

O Korean conflict (June 1950 - January 1955)

O World War II (September 1940 - July 1947)

O World War I (April 1917 - November 1918)

O Any other time"If this person served during more than one period, fill all circles which apply, even if service was for a short time."

19. Does this person have a physical, mental, or other health condition which has lasted for 6 or more months and which. . .

Yes No

a. Limits the kind or amount of work this person can do at a job?

O O

b. Prevents this person from working at a job?

O O

c. Limits or prevents this person from using public transportation?

O O

"The term "health condition" refers to any physical or mental problem which has lasted for 6 or more months. A serious problem with seeing, hearing, or speech should be considered a health condition. Pregnancy or a temporary health problem such as a broken bone that is expected to heal normally should not be considered a health condition."

20. If this person is a female -

How many babies has she ever had, not counting stillbirths?

Do not count her stepchildren or children she has adopted.

None 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 or more

O O O O O O O O O O O O O

"Count all children born alive, including any who have died (even shortly after birth) or who no longer live with her."

21. If this person has ever been married -

a. Has this person been married more than once?

O Once

O More than once

b. Month and year of marriage?

Month and year of first marriage?__________________________ ____________________________(Month) (Year)

(Month) (Year)"If the exact date of marriage is not known, give your best estimate."

c. If married more than once -

Did the first marriage end because of the death of the husband (or wife)?

O Yes

O No

22a. Did this person work at any time last week?

O Yes - Fill this circle if this person worked full time or part time. (Count part-time work such as delivering papers, or helping without pay in a family business or farm. Also count active duty in the Army Forces.)

O No - Fill this circle if this person did not work, or did only own housework, school work, or volunteer work. Skip to 25

"Mark Yes if the person worked, either full or part time, on any day of last week (Sunday through Saturday). Count as work:Work for someone else for wages, salary, piece rate, commission, tips, or payments "in kind" (for example, food, lodging received as payment for work performed).Work in own business, professional practice, or farm.Any work in a family business or farm, paid or not.Any part-time work including babysitting, paper routes, etc.Active duty in Armed Forces.Do not count as work:Housework or yard work at homeUnpaid volunteer work.Work done as a resident of an institution.b. How many hours did this person work last week (at all jobs)? Subtract any time off; add overtime or extra hours worked.

_______________ Hours "Give the actual number of hours worked at all jobs last week, even if that was more or fewer hours than usually worked." 23. At what location did this person work last week?If this person worked at more than one location, print where he or she worked most last week. If one location cannot be specified, see instruction guide."If the person worked at several locations, but reported to the same location each day to begin work, print where he or she reported. If the person did not report to the same location each day to begin work, print the words "various locations" for 23a, and give as much information as possible in the remainder of 23 to identify the area in which he or she worked most last week. If the person's employer operates in more than one location (such as a grocery store chain or public school system), give the exact address of the location or branch where the person worked. If the person worked in a foreign country or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc., print the name of the country in 23e and leave the other parts of 23 blank."

a. Address (Number and street)

________________________________________If street address is not known, enter the building name, shopping center, or other physical location description.b. Name of city, town, village, borough, etc._______________

c. Is this place of work inside the incorporated (legal) limits of that city, town, village, borough, etc.?

O Yes

O No, in unincorporated aread.

County _____________________

e. State __________

f. ZIP Code _______________________

24a. Last week, how long did it usually take this person to get from home to work (one way)?

__________ Minutes "Travel time is from door to door. Include time taken waiting for public transportation, picking up passengers in carpools, etc."

b. How did this person usually get to work last week?If this person used more than one method, give the one usually used for most of the distance.

O Car

O Taxicab

O Truck

O Motorcycle

O Van

O Bicycle

O Bus or streetcar

O Walked only

O Railroad

O Worked at home

O Subway or elevated

O Other - Specify ____________________________

If car, truck, or van in 24b, go to 24c. Otherwise, skip to 28.

"Mark Worked at home for a person who works on a farm where he or she lives, or in an office or shop in the person's home."

c. When going to work last week, did this person usually -

O Drive alone - Skip to 28

O Drive others only

O Share driving

O Ride as passenger only"If the person was driven to work by someone who then drove back home or to a non-work destination., mark Drive alone." d. How many people, including this person, usually rode to work in the car, truck, or van last week?

O 2

O 4

O 6

O 3

O 5

O 7 or more

After answering 24d, skip to 28.

"Do not include riders who rode to school or some other non-work destination."

25. Was this person temporarily absent or on layoff from a job or business last week?

O Yes, on layoff

O Yes, on vacation, temporary illness, labor dispute, etc.

O No

"If the person works only during certain seasons or on a day-to-day basis when work is available, mark No."

26a. Has this person been looking for work during the last 4 weeks?

O Yes

O No - Skip to 27

"Mark Yes if the person tried to get a job or to start a business or professional practice at any time in the last four weeks; for example, registered at an employment office, went to a job interview, placed or answered ads, or did anything toward starting a business or professional practice."

b. Could this person have taken a job last week?

O No, already has a job

O No, temporarily ill

O No, other reasons (in school, etc.)

O Yes, could have taken a job

"Mark No, already has a job if the person was on layoff or was expecting to report to a job within 30 days. Mark No, temporarily ill if the person expects to be able to work within 30 days. Mark No, other reasons if the person could not have taken a job because he or she was going to school, taking care of children, etc."

27. When did this person last work, even for a few days?

O 1980

O 1978

O 1970 to 1974 - Skip to 31d

O 1979

O 1975 to 1977

O 1969 or earlier - Skip to 31d

O Never worked - Skip to 31d

"Look at the instructions for 22a to see what to count as work. Mark Never worked if the person: (1) never worked at any kind of job or business, either full or part time, (2) never did any work, with or without pay, in a family business or farm and (3) never served in the Armed Forces." 28-30. Current or most recent job activityDescribe clearly this person's chief job activity or business last week. If this person had more than one job, describe the one at which this person worked the most hours. If this person had no job or business last week, give information for last job or business since 1975.28. Industry a. For whom did this person work? If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, print "AF" and skip to question

31._________ (Name of company, business, organization, or other employer)

"If the person worked for a company, business, or government agency, print the name of the company, not the name of the person's supervisor. If the person worked for an individual or a business that has no company name, print the name of the individual worked for. If the person worked in his or her own business, print ' self-employed."

b. What kind of business or industry was this?

Describe the activity at location where employed._________

(For example: Hospital, newspaper publishing, mail order house, auto engine manufacturing, breakfast cereal manufacturing)

"Print two or more words to tell what the business, industry, or individual employer named in 28a does. If there is more than one activity, describe only the major activity at the place where the person works. Enter what is made, what is sold, or that service is given. Some examples of what is needed to make an answer acceptable are shown on the census form and here.

Unacceptable

Acceptable

Furniture company

Metal furniture manufacturing

Grocery store

Wholesale grocery store

Oil company

Retail gas station

Ranch

Cattle ranch

c. Is this mainly - (Fill one circle)

O Manufacturing

O Retail trade

O Wholesale trade

O Other - (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)

"Mark Manufacturing if the factory, plant, mill, etc., mostly makes things, even if it also sells them. Mark Wholesale trade if the business mostly sells things to stores or other companies. Mark Retail trade if the business mostly sells things (not services) to individuals. Mark Other if the main activity of the employer is not making or selling things. Some examples of Other are farming, construction, and services such as those provided by hotels, dry cleaners, repair shops, schools, and banks."

29. Occupationa.

What kind of work was this person doing?_______________________

(For example: Registered nurse, personnel manager, supervisor of order department, gasoline engine assembler, grinder operator)

"Print two or more words to describe the kind of work the person does. If the person is a trainee, apprentice, or helper, include that in the description. Some examples of what is needed to make an answer acceptable are shown on the census form and here.

Unacceptable

Acceptable

Clerk

Production clerk

Helper

Carpenter's helper

Mechanic

Auto engine mechanic

Nurse

Registered nurse

b. What were this person's most important activities or duties?_______________________

(For example: Patient care, directing hiring policies, supervising order clerks. assembling engines, operating grinding mill)

"Print the most important things that the person does on the job. Some examples are shown on the census form."

30. Was this person - (Fill one circle)

Employee of private company, business, or individual, for wages, salary, or commissions. . . .

OFederal government employee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

OState government employee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

OLocal government employee (city, county, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

OSelf-employed in own business, professional practice, or farm -Own business not incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

OOwn business incorporated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

OWorking without pay in family business or farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

O"If the person was an employee of a private nonprofit organization, such as a church, fill the first circle. Mark Local government employee for a teacher working in an elementary or secondary public school."

31a. Last year (1979), did this person work, even for a few days, at a paid job or in a business or farm?

O Yes

O No - Skip to 31d

"Look at the instructions for question 22a to see what to count as work."

b. How many weeks did this person work in 1979?

Count paid vacation, paid sick leave, and military service.

__________________ Weeks

"Count every week in which the person did any work at all, even for an hour."

c. During the weeks worked in 1979, how many hours did this person usually work each week?

__________________ Hours

"If the hours worked each week varied considerably, give the best estimate of the hours usually worked most weeks."

d. Of the weeks not worked in 1979 (if any), how many weeks was this person looking for work or on layoff from a job?

__________________ Weeks

"Count every week in which the person did not work at all, but spent any time looking for work or on layoff from a job. Looking for work means trying to get a job or start a business or professional practice; layoff includes either temporary or indefinite layoff."

32. Income in 1979 -

Fill circles and print dollar amounts.

If net income was a loss, write "Loss" above the dollar amount.

If exact amount is not known, give best estimate.

For income received jointly by household members, see instruction guide.During 1979 did this person receive any income from the following sources?

If "Yes" to any of the sources below - How much did this person receive for the entire year?

"Fill the Yes or No circle for each part and enter the appropriate amount. If income from any source was received jointly by household members, report if possible, the appropriate share for each person; otherwise, report the whole amount for only one person and mark No for the other person, unless the other person has additional income of the same type."

a. Wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs . . .

Report amount before deductions for taxes, bonds, dues, or other items.

O Yes - $____________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

"Include sick leave pay. Do not include reimbursement for business expenses and pay "in kind," (for example, food, lodging received as payment for work performed)."

b. Own nonfarm business, partnership, or professional practice . . . Report net income after business expenses.O Yes - $____________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

"Include net earnings (gross receipts minus operating expenses) from a nonfarm business. If business lost money, write "Loss" above the amount." c. Own farm . . . Report net income after operating expenses. Include earnings as a tenant farmer or sharecropper.

O Yes - $____________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

"Include net earnings (gross receipts minus operating expenses) from a farm. If farm lost money, write "Loss" above the amount."

d. Interest, dividends, royalties, or net rental income . . .

Report even small amounts credited to an account.

O Yes - $____________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

"Include interest and dividends credited to the person's account (for example, from savings accounts and stock shares), net royalties, and net income from rental property."

e. Social Security or Railroad Retirement . . .

O Yes - $____________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

"Include Social Security or Railroad Retirement payments to retired persons, to dependents of deceased insured workers and to disabled workers."

f. Supplemental Security (SSI), Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), or other public assistance or public welfare payments . . .

O Yes - $____________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

"Include public assistance or welfare payments received from Federal, State, or local agencies. Do not include private welfare payments."

g. Unemployment compensation, veterans' payments, pensions, alimony or child support, or any other sources of income received regularly . . . Exclude lump-sum payments such as money from an inheritance or the sale of a home.

O Yes - $____________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

"Include all other regular payments, such as government employee retirement, union or private pensions and annuities; unemployment benefits; worker's compensation; Armed Forces allotments; private welfare payments; regular contributions from persons not living in the household; etc. Do not include lump-sum payments received from the sale of property (capital gains), insurance policies, inheritances, etc."

33. What was this person's total income in 1979?

Add entries in questions 32a through g; subtract any losses.

If total amount was a loss, write "Loss" above amount.

$____________________.00 OR

O None(Annual amount - Dollars)

"If no income was received in 1979, fill the None circle. If total income was a loss, write "Loss" above the amount."1980 Housing Questions

Item A follows item 10 of the person questions. It was used by the enumerator to indicate whether the listed person was an inmate of an institutional type of group quarters or a resident of non-institutional group quarters.

H1-H3 and H4-H12 were asked at all occupied housing units. H13-H33 were sample items. B, C and D as well as information required for vacant units were all filled in by the enumerator.

If you live in an apartment building and you do not know the answers to questions H14, H15, H16, and H25, ask the person who runs your building (for example, the manager, rental agent, superintendent, janitor, etc.).

B. TYPE OF UNIT OR QUARTERS

Occupied

O First form

O Continuation

Vacant

O Regular

O Usual home elsewhere

Group quarters

O First form

O Continuation

FOR VACANT UNITS C1.

Is this unit for--

O Year round use

O Seasonal/Mig. -- Skip C2, C3, and D.

C2. Vacancy Status

O For rent

O For sale only

O Rented or sold, not occupied

O Held for occasional use

O Other vacant

C3. Is this unit boarded up?

O Yes

O No

D. Months vacant

O Less than 1 month

O 1 up to 2 months

O 2 up to 6 months

O 6 up to 12 months

O 1 year up to 2 years

O 2 or more years

H1. Did you leave anyone out of Question 1 because you were not sure if the person should be listed - for example, a new baby still in the hospital, a lodger who also has another home, or a person who stays here once in a while and has no other home?

O Yes - On page 20 give name(s) and reason left out.

O No

H2. Did you list anyone in Question 1 who is away from home now - for example, on a vacation or in a hospital?

O Yes - On page 20 give name(s) and reason person is away.

O No

H3. Is anyone visiting here who is not already listed?

O Yes - On page 20 give name of each visitor for whom there is no one at the home address to report the person to a census taker.

O No

H4. How many living quarters, occupied and vacant, are at this address?

O One

O 2 apartments or living quarters

O 3 apartments or living quarters

O 4 apartments or living quarters

O 5 apartments or living quarters

O 6 apartments or living quarters

O 7 apartments or living quarters

O 8 apartments or living quarters

O 9 apartments or living quarters

O 10 or more apartments or living quarters

O This is a mobile home or trailer

"Mark only one circle. This address means the house or building number where your living quarters are located."

H5. Do you enter your living quarters

O Directly from the outside or through a common or public hall?

O Through someone else's living quarters?

"Mark the second circle only if you must go through someone else's living quarters to get to your own."

H6. Do you have complete plumbing facilities in your living quarters, that is, hot and cold piped water, a flush toilet, and a bathtub or shower?

O Yes, for this household only

O Yes, but also used by another household

O No, have some but not all plumbing facilities

O No plumbing facilities in living quarters

"Consider that you have hot water even if you have it only part of the time. Mark Yes, but also used by another household if someone else who lives in the same building, but is not a member of your household, also uses the facilities. Mark this circle also if the occupants of living quarters now vacant would also use the facilities in you living quarters."

H7. How many rooms do you have in your living quarters?

Do not count bathrooms, porches, balconies, foyers, halls, or half-rooms.

O 1 room

O 2 rooms

O 3 rooms

O 4 rooms

O 5 rooms

O 6 rooms

O 7 rooms

O 8 rooms

O 9 or more rooms

"Count only whole rooms used for living purposes, such as living rooms. dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, finished recreation rooms, family rooms, etc. Do not count bathrooms, kitchenettes, strip or pullman kitchens, utility rooms, or unfinished attics, unfinished basements, or other space used for storage."

H8. Are your living quarters -

O Owned or being bought by you or by someone else in this household?

O Rented for cash rent?

O Occupied without payment of cash rent?

"Mark Owned or being bought if the living quarters are owned outright or are mortgaged. Also mark Owned or being bought if the living quarters are owned but the land is rented. Mark Rented for cash rent if any money rent is paid. Rent may be paid by persons who are not members of your household. Occupied without payment of cash rent includes, for example, a parsonage, military housing, a house or apartment provided free of rent by the owner, or a house or apartment occupied by a janitor or caretaker in exchange for services."

H9. Is this apartment (house) part of a condominium?

O No

O Yes, a condominium

"A condominium is housing in which the apartments or houses in a development are individually owned, but the common areas, such as lobbies, halls, etc., are jointly owned. The person owning a condominium very likely has a mortgage on the particular unit."

H10. If this is a one-family house

a. Is the house on a property of 10 or more acres?

O Yes

O No

b. Is any part of the property used as a commercial establishment or medical office?

O Yes

O No

"A commercial establishment is easily recognized from the outside, for example, a grocery store or barber shop. A medical office is a doctor's or dentist's office regularly visited by patients."

H11. If you live in a one-family house or a condominium unit which you own or are buying -

What is the value of this property, that is, how much do you think this property (house and lot or condominium unit) would sell for if it were for sale?

Do not answer this question if this is -

A mobile home or trailer

A house on 10 or more acres

A house with a commercial establishment or medical office on the property

O Less than $10,000

O $10,000 to $14,999

O $15,000 to $17,499

O $17,500 to $19,999

O $20,000 to $22,499

O $22,500 to $24,999

O $25,000 to $27,499

O $27,500 to $29,999

O $30,000 to $34,999

O $35,000 to $39,999

O $40,000 to $44,999

O $45,000 to $49,999

O $50,000 to $54,999

O $55,000 to $59,999

O $60,000 to $64,999

O $65,000 to $69,999

O $70,000 to $74,999

O $75,000 to $79,999

O $80,000 to $89,999

O $90,000 to $99,999

O $100,000 to $124,999

O $125,000 to $149,999

O $150,000 to $199,999

O $200,000 or more

"Include the value of the house, the land it is on, and any other structures on the same property. If the house is owned but the land is rented, estimate the combined value of the house and the land. If this is a condominium unit, enter the estimated value for your living quarters and your share of the common elements."

H12. If you pay rent for your living quarters -

What is the monthly rent?

If rent is not paid by the month, see the instruction guide on how to figure a monthly rent.

O Less than $50

O $50 to $59

O $60 to $69

O $70 to $79

O $80 to $89

O $90 to $99

O $100 to $109

O $110 to $119

O $120 to $129

O $130 to $139

O $140 to $149

O $150 to $159

O $160 to $169

O $170 to $179

O $180 to $189

O $190 to $199

O $200 to $224

O $225 to $249

O $250 to $274

O $275 to $299

O $300 to $349

O $350 to $399

O $400 to $499

O $500 or more

"Report the rent agreed to or contracted for, even if the rent is unpaid or paid by someone else. If rent is not paid by the month, change the rent to a monthly amount; and then fill the appropriate circle in question H12."

If rent is paid:

Multiply rent by:

By the day 30

By the week 4

Every other week 2

"If rent is paid:

Divide rent by:

4 times a year

32 times a year 6

Once a year 12"

H13. Which best describes this building?

Include all apartments, flats, etc., even if vacant.

O A mobile home or trailer

O A one-family house detached from any other house

O A one-family house attached to one or more houses

O A building for 2 families

O A building for 3 or 4 families

O A building for 5 to 9 families

O A building for 10 to 19 families

O A building for 20 to 49 families

O A building for 50 or more families

O A boat, tent, van, etc."

Mark only one circle. Detached means there is open space on all sides, or the house is joined only to a shed or garage. Attached means that the house is joined to another house or building by at least one wall which goes from ground to roof. Mark A one-family house detached from any other house when a mobile home or trailer has had one or more rooms added or built onto it: a porch or shed is not considered a room. Count all occupied and vacant living quarters in the house or building, but not stores or office space."

H14a. How many stories (floors) are in this building?

Count an attic or basement as a story if it has any finished rooms for living purposes.

O 1 to 3 - Skip to H15

O 7 to 12

O 4 to 6

O 13 or more stories

"Do not count unfinished basements or unfinished attics. However, a basement or attic with finished room(s) for living purposed should be counted as a story."

b. Is there a passenger elevator in this building?

O Yes

O No

H15a. Is this building -

O On a city or suburban lot, or on a place of less than 1 acre? - Skip to H16

O On a place of 1 to 9 acres?

O On a place of 10 or more acres?

"A city or suburban lot is usually located in a city, a community, or any build-up area outside a city or community, and is not larger than the house and yard. All living quarters in apartment buildings, including garden-type apartments in the city or suburbs, are considered on a city or suburban lot. A place is a farm, ranch, or any other property, other than a city or suburban lot, on which this residence is located."

b. Last year, 1979, did sales of crops, livestock, and other farm products from this place amount to -

O Less than $50 (or None)

O $50 to $249

O $250 to $599

O $600 to $999

O $1,000 to $2,499

O $2,500 or more

H16. Do you get water from -

O A public system (city water department, etc.) or private company?

O An individual drilled well?

O An individual dug well?

O Some other source (a spring, creek, river, cistern, etc.)?

"If a well provides water for six or more houses or apartments, mark A public system. If a well provides water for five or fewer houses or apartments, mark one of the categories for individual well. Drilled wells, or small diameter wells, are usually less than 1 1/2 feet in diameter. Dug wells are generally hand dug and are wider."

H17. Is this building connected to a public sewer?

O Yes, connected to public sewer

O No, connected to septic tank or cesspool

O No, use other means

"A public sewer is operated by a government body or a private organization. A septic tank or cesspool is an underground tank or pit used for disposal of sewage."

H18. About when was this building originally built? Mark when the building was first constructed, not when it was remodeled, added to, or converted.

O 1979 or 1980

O 1960 to 1969

O 1940 to 1949

O 1975 to 1978

O 1950 to 1959

O 1939 or earlier

H19. When did the person listed in column 1 move into this house (or apartment)?

O 1949 or earlier

O 1950 to 1959

O 1960 to 1969

O 1970 to 1974

O 1975 to 1978

O 1979 or 1980

O Always lived here

"The term person in column 1 refers to the person listed in the first column on page 2 [the head of household]. This person should be the household member (or one of the members) in whose name the house is owned or rented. If there is no such person, any adult household member can be the person in column 1. Mark when this person last moved into this house or apartment."

H20. How are your living quarters heated?

Fill one circle for the kind of heat used most.

O Steam or hot water system

O Central warm-air furnace with ducts to the individual rooms (Do not count electric heat pumps here)

O Electric heat pump

O Other built-in electric units (permanently installed in wall, ceiling, or baseboard)

O Floor, wall, or pipeless furnace

O Room heaters with flue or vent, burning gas, oil, or kerosene

O Room heaters without flue or vent, burning gas, oil, or kerosene (not portable)

O Fireplaces, stoves, or portable room heaters of any kind

O No heating equipment

"This question refers to the type of heating equipment and not to the fuel used. An electric heat pump is sometimes known as a reverse cycle system. It may be centrally installed with ducts to the rooms or individual heat pumps in the rooms. A floor, well, or pipeless furnace delivers warm air to the room right above the furnace or to the room(s) on one or both sides of the wall in which the furnace is installed and does not have ducts leading to the other rooms. Any heater that you plug into an electric outlet should be counted as a portable room heater."

H21a. Which fuel is used most for house heating?

O Gas: from underground pipes

O Coal or cokeserving the neighborhood

O Wood

O Gas: bottled, tank, or LP

O Other fuel

O Electricity

O No fuel used

O Fuel oil, kerosene, etc.

"Gas from underground pipes is piped in from a central system such as one operated by a public utility company or a municipal government. Bottled, tank or LP gas is stored in tanks which are refilled or exchanged when empty. Other fuel includes any fuel not separately listed, for example, purchased steam, fuel briquettes, waste material, etc."

b. Which fuel is used most for water heating?

O Gas: from underground pipes serving the neighborhood O Coal or cokeO WoodO Gas: bottled, tank, or LP O Other fuelO Electricity

O No fuel used

O Fuel oil, kerosene, etc. [See H21a.]

c. Which fuel is used most for cooking?

O Gas: from underground pipes

O Coal or cokeserving the neighborhood

O Wood

O Gas: bottled, tank, or LP

O Other fuel

O Electricity

O No fuel used

O Fuel oil, kerosene, etc. [See H21a.]

H22. What are the costs of utilities and fuels for your living quarters?

"If your living quarters are rented, enter the costs for utilities and fuels only if you pay for them in addition to the rent entered in H12. If already included in rent, fill the appropriate circle. The amounts to be reported should be for the past 12 months, that is, for electricity and gas, the monthly average for the past 12 months; for water and other fuels, the total amount for the past 12 months. Estimate as closely as possible when exact costs are not known. Report amounts even if your bills are unpaid or paid by someone else. If the bills include utilities or fuel used also by another apartment or a business establishment, estimate the amounts for your own living quarters. If gas and electricity are billed together, enter the combined amount on the electricity line and bracket ( { ) the two utilities."

a. Electricity$ __________________.00 OR

O Included in rent or no chargeAverage monthly cost

O Electricity not usedb. Gas$ __________________.00 OR

O Included in rent or no chargeAverage monthly cost

O Gas not usedc. Water$ __________________.00 OR

O Included in rent or no chargeYearly costd. Oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.$ __________________.00 OR

O Included in rent or no chargeYearly cost

O These fuels not used

H23. Do you have complete kitchen facilities? Complete kitchen facilities are a sink with piped water, a range or cookstove, and a refrigerator.

O Yes

O No"The kitchen sink, stove, and refrigerator must be located in the building but do not have to be in the same room. Portable cooking equipment is not considered as a range or cook stove."

H24. How many bedrooms do you have?

Count rooms used mainly for sleeping even if used also for other purposes.

O No bedroom

O 1 bedroom

O 2 bedrooms

O 3 bedrooms

O 4 bedrooms

O 5 or bedrooms

H25. How many bathrooms do you have?

A complete bathroom is a room with flush toilet, bathtub or shower, and wash basin with piped water. A half bathroom has at least a flush toilet or bathtub or shower, but does not have all the facilities for a complete bathroom.

O No bathroom, or only a half bathroom

O 1 complete bathroom

O 1 complete bathroom, plus half bath(s)

O 2 or more complete bathrooms

H26. Do you have a telephone in your living quarters?

O Yes

O No"Answer Yes only if the telephone is located in your living quarters."

H27. Do you have air conditioning?

O Yes, a central air-conditioning system

O Yes, 1 individual room unit

O Yes, 2 or more individual room units

O No

"Count only equipment used to cool the air by means of a refrigeration unit."

H28. How many automobiles are kept at home for use by members of your household?

O None

O 1 automobiles

O 2 automobile

O 3 or more automobiles

"Count company cars, (including police cars and taxicabs) and company trucks that are regularly kept at home and used by household members. Do not count cars or trucks permanently out of working order."

H29. How many vans or trucks of one-ton capacity or less are kept at home for use by members of your household?

O None

O 1 van or truck

O 2 vans or trucks

O 3 or more vans or trucks

"Count company cars, (including police cars and taxicabs) and company trucks that are regularly kept at home and used by household members. Do not count cars or trucks permanently out of working order."

Please answer H30-H32 if you live in a one-family house which you own or are buying, unless this is -A mobile home or trailerA house on 10 or more acresA condominium unitA house with a commercial establishment or medical office on the propertyIf any of these, or if you rent your unit or this is a multi-family structure, skip H30 to H32 and turn to page 6.

"Do not answer these questions if you live in a cooperative, regardless of the number of units in the structure."

H30. What were the real estate taxes on this property last year?

$_____________________.00 OR

O None

"Report taxes for all taxing jurisdictions even if they are included in mortgage payment, not paid yet, paid by someone else, or are delinquent."

H31. What is the annual premium for fire and hazard insurance on this property?

$_____________________.00 OR

O None

"When premiums are paid on other than a yearly basis, convert to a yearly basis and enter the yearly amount, even if no payment was made during the past 12 months."

H32a. Do you have a mortgage, deed of trust, contract to purchase, or similar debt on this property?

O Yes, mortgage, deed of trust, or similar debt

O Yes, contract to purchase

O No - Skip to page 6

"The word "mortgage" is used as a general term to indicate all types of loans which are secured by real estate."

b. Do you have a second or junior mortgage on this property?

O Yes

O No

"A second or junior mortgage is also secured by real estate but has been made by the homeowner in addition to the first mortgage."

c. How much is your total regular monthly payment to the lender?

Also include payments on a contract to purchase and to lenders holding second or junior mortgages on this property.

$_____________________.00 OR

O No regular payment required - Skip to page 6

"Enter a monthly amount even if it is unpaid or paid by someone else. If the amount is paid on some other periodic basis, see instructions for H12 to change it to a monthly amount."

d. Does your regular monthly payment (amount entered in H32c) include payments for real estate taxes on this property?

O Yes, taxes included in payment

O No, insurance paid separately or no insurancee. Does your regular monthly payment (amount entered in H32c) include payments for fire and hazard insurance on this property?

O Yes, insurance included in payment

O No, insurance paid separately or no insurance


1980 Census of Puerto Rico
Person Questions

P1. What is the name of each person who was living here on Tuesday, April 1, 1980, or who was staying or visiting here and had no other home?________________________________________________

NOTE

If everyone here is staying only temporarily and has a usual home elsewhere, please mark this box [ ].

Then please:- answer the questions on pages 2 through 5 only, and-enter the address of the usual home on page 20.

List in Question 1

- Family members living here, including babies still in the hospital

- Relatives living here

- Lodgers or boarders living here.

- Domestic employees or hired hands living here.

- Other persons Iiving here

- College students who stay here while attending college even if their parents live elsewhere.

- Persons who usually live here but are temporarily away (including children in boarding school below the college level)

- Persons with a home elsewhere but who stay here most of the week while working

Do Not List in Question 1

- Any person away from here in the Armed Forces.- Any college student who stays somewhere else while attending college.

- Any person who usually stays somewhere else most of the week while working there.

- Any person away from here in an institution such as a home for the aged or mental hospital.

- Any person staying or visiting here who has a usual home elsewhere.

P2. How is...(this person) related to the person in column 1?

Fill one circle.

If "Other relative" of person in column 1, give exact relationship, such as mother-in-law, niece, grandson, etc.

O Husband/wife

O Son/daughter

O Brother/sister

O Father/mother

O Other relative: _______________

If not related to the person in column 1 (head of household):

O Roomer, boarder

O Roommate

O Paid employee

O Other nonrelative: _______________

P3. Sex

O Male

O Female

P4. What is...'s age, month, and year of birth?

a. Age at last birthday _________

b. Month of Birth

O Jan - Mar

O Apr - June

O July - Sept

O Oct - Dec

c. Year of Birth _____

P5. Which one of the following describes the marital status of...?

Fill one circle.

O Now married

O Consensually married

O Widowed

O Divorced

O Separated

O Never married

P6. Where was ... born?

If born in a hospital, give residence of the mother, not location of the hospital.

Fill once circle.

O Puerto Rico __________________ (Municipio)

O United States __________________ (State)

O Cuba

O Spain

O Dominican Republic

O Other country ________________

P7. Since February 1, 1980, has ... attended regular school or college at any time?

Fill one circle. Count pre-kindergarten, Head Start, kindergarten, elementary school, and schooling which leads to a high school diploma or college degree.

O No, has not attended since February 1

O Yes, public school, public college

O Yes, private, church-related

O Yes, private, not church-related

P8. What is the highest grade (or year) of regular school ... has ever attended?

Fill one circle. If now attending school, mark the grade person is in. If high school was finished by equivalency test (GED), mark "

12."Highest grade attended:

O Pre-kindergarten

O Kindergarten

Elementary through high school

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

O O O O O O O O O O O O

College (academic year)

1 2 3 4 5 6 or more

O O O O O O

O Never Attended School - Skip to Question 9

P9. Did ... finish the highest grade (or year) attended?

O Now attending this grade (or year)

O Finished this grade (or year)

O Did not finish this grade (or year)

P10a. Where was ...'s father born?

O Puerto Rico

O United States: ________________________ (U.S. State)

O Other country: ________________________

P10b. Where was ...'s mother born?

O Puerto Rico

O United States: ________________________ (U.S. State)

O Other country: ________________________

P11. If this person was born in a foreign country --a. Is ... a naturalized citizen of the United States?

O Yes, a naturalized citizen

O No, not a citizen

O Born abroad of American parents (including Puerto Rican)b. When did ... come to Puerto Rico to stay?

O 1975 to 1980

O 1970 to 1974

O 1965 to 1969

O 1960 to 1964

O 1950 to 1959

O Before 1950

P12a. Did ... live in this house five years ago (April 1, 1975)?O Born April 1975 or later -- Turn to next page for next person

O Yes, this house -- Skip to 13

O No, different house

P12b. Where did... live five years ago (April 1, 1975)?

(1) Name of municipio, U.S. State, Virgin Islands, or foreign country: __________________________

(2) Name of barrio or U.S. county: ____________________________

(3) Name of city, town or village: ____________________________

P13a. During the last 10 years did ... live in the United States at any time for 6 or more consecutive months?

O Yes

O No, Skip to 14

P13b. When did ... come or return to Puerto Rico that last time?

O 1980

O 1977

O 1974

O 1979

O 1976

O 1973

O 1978

O 1975

O 1970 to 1972

P13c. How long did ... live in the U.S., the last time?

O 6 months up to 1 year

O 1 to 2 years

O 3 to 4 years

O 5 years

O 6 to 9 years

O 10 or more years

P13d. For the last 6 months that ... lived in U.S., was ... --(1) Working at a job or business (full-time or part-time)?

O Yes

O No

(2) In the Armed Forces?

O Yes

O No

(3) Attending school or college?

O Yes

O No

P14. Does ... know how to read and write (in any language)?

O Yes

O No

P15a. Can ... speak Spanish?

O Yes

O No

P15b. Can ... speak English?

O Yes, easily

O Yes, with difficulty

O No, not at all

P16. Enumerator -- Mark when this person was born.

O Before April 1965 -- Ask questions 17-33.

(Omit question 17 if born April 1960 to March 1965.)

O April 1965 or later -- Turn to next page for the next person.

P17. In April 1, 1975 (five years ago) was ... -

a. On active duty in the Armed Forces?

O Yes

O No

b. Attending college?

O Yes

O No

c. Working at a job or business?

O Yes, full-time

O Yes, part-time

O No

P18a. Is ... a veteran of active-duty military service in the Armed Forces of the United States?

O Yes

O No -- Skip to 19

P18b. Was active-duty military service during --Fill a circle for each period in which this person served.

O May 1975 or later

O Vietnam era (August 1964 - April 1975)

O February 1955 - July 1964

O Korean conflict (June 1950 - January 1955)

O World War II (September 1940 - July 1947)

O World War I (April 1917 - November 1918)

O Any other time

P19. Does ... have a physical, mental, or other health condition which has lasted for 6 or more months and which -

a. Limits the kind or amount of work... can do at a job?

O Yes

O No

b. Prevents ... from working at a job?

O Yes

O No

c. Limits or prevents ... from using public transportation?

O Yes

O No

P20. If this person is a female -- How many babies has she ever had, not counting still births?

Do not count her stepchildren or children she has adopted.

O None

O 1

O 2

O 3

O 4

O 5

O 6

O 7

O 8

O 9

O 10

O 11

O 12 or more

P21a. Has ... completed the requirements for a vocational training program at a trade school, business school, hospital or some other kind of school for occupational training?

Does not include academic college courses.

O Yes

O No -- Skip to 22

P21b. At which kind of school was the training received?

O Business school, trade school, or junior college

O High school vocational program

O Training program at place of work

O Other school: _________________________

P22a. Did ... work at any time last week?

O Yes- fill this circle if the person worked full-time or part-time.

O No - fill this circle if this person did not work. -- Skip to 25

P22b. How many hours did ... work last week (at all jobs)?

Subtract any time off; add overtime or extra hours worked.

_______________ Hours

P23. At what location did ... work last week?

If ... worked at more than one location, print where he or she worked most last week.

a.Address: ________________________________ (Number and street)

b. Name of city, town, village, etc. ______________________________________
c. Barrio ___________________________

d. Municipio __________________________

e. ZIP Code _________________

P24a. Last week, how long did it usually take ... to get from home to work (one way)?

_______________ minutes

P24b. How did ... usually get to work last week?

If ... used more than one method, give the one usually used for most of the distance.

O Private Car

O Truck

O Van

O Bus

O Public Car

O Launch

O Taxicab

O Walked only

O Worked at home

O Other: Specify ___________________If private car, truck or van in 24b, go to 24c. Otherwise, skip to 28.

P24c. When going to work last week, did ... usually-

O Drive alone - Skip to 28

O Share driving

O Drive others only

O Ride as passenger only

P24d. How many people, including ... usually rode to work in this vehicle last week?

O 2

O 3

O 4

O 5

O 6

O 7 or more

After asking 24d, skip to 28.

P25. Was ... temporarily absent or on layoff from a job or business last week?

O Yes, on layoff

O Yes, on vacation, temporary illness, labor dispute, etc.

O No

P26a. Has ... been looking for work during the last 4 weeks?

O Yes

O No - skip to 27

P26b. Could ... have taken a job last week?

O No, already has a job

O No, temporarily ill

O No, other reasons (in school, etc.)O Yes, could have taken a job

P27. When did ... last work, even for a few days?

O 1980

O 1979

O 1978

O 1975 to 1977

O 1970 to 1974 - skip to 31d

O 1969 or earlier - skip to 31d

O Never worked - skip to 31d

28-30. Current or more recent job activity

Describe the chief job activity or business at which ... worked the most hours last week (or the last job or business since 1975)

P28a. For whom did ... work? If now on active duty in the Armed Forces, print "AF" and skip to question 31.

____________________________________________________(Name of company, business, organization, or other employer)P28b. What kind of business or industry was this?____________________________________________________

(For example: Hospital, shirt manufacturer)

P28c. Is this mainly - (Fill one circle)

O Manufacturing

O Wholesale trade

O Retail trade

O Other - (agriculture, construction, service, government, etc.)

P29a. What kind of work was ... doing?____________________________________________________

(For example: Registered nurse, maintenance mechanic)

P29b. What were ... most important activities or duties?


(For example: Patient care, repair machines in plant)

P30. Was ... - (Fill one circle)

O Employee of private company, business, or individual, for wages, salary, or commissions

O Federal government employee

O Commonwealth government employee

O Municipal government employee

Self-employed in own business, professional practice, or farm-

O Own business not incorporated

O Own business incorporated

O Working without pay in family business or farm

P31a. Last year, (1979) did ... work , even for a few days, at a paid job or in a business or farm?

O Yes

O No - skip to 31d

P31b. How many weeks did ... work in 1979?

Count paid vacation, paid sick leave, and military service._________________ weeks

P31c. During the weeks worked in 1979, how many hours did ... usually work each week?

_________________ hours

P31d. Of the weeks not worked in 1979, (if any) how many weeks was ... looking for work or on layoff from a job?

_________________ weeks

P32. Income in 1979--During the entire year 1979 did ... receive any income from the following sources? If "Yes" to nay of the sources - How much? If net income in 32b, c, or d was a loss, write "Loss" above the dollar amount.

a. Wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips from all jobs before deductions for taxes, etc.-

O Yes -- $_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

b.Own nonfarm business, partnership, or professional practice

Report net income income after business expenses.

O Yes -- $_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

c.Own farm-Report net income after operating expenses

Include earnings as tenant farmer or sharecropper.

O Yes -- $_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

d.Interest, dividends, royalties, or net rental income --Report even small amounts credited to an account.

O Yes -- $_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

e.Social Security or Railroad Retirement -

O Yes -- $_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

f.Public assistance or public welfare payments -

O Yes -- $_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

g.Unemployment compensation, veterans' payments, pensions, alimony or child support, or any other sources of income received regularly --Exclude lump-sum payments such as money from an inheritance or the sale or a home.

O Yes -- $_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

O No

P33. What was ... total income in 1979?

Add entries in questions 32a through g; subtract losses. If total amount was a loss, write "Loss" above amount.

$_________________.00

(Annual amount - Dollars)

ORO None

HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONS

H1. Did you leave anyone out of Question 1 because you were not sure if the person shoud be listed- for example, a new baby still in this hospital, a lodger who also has another home, o a person who stays here once in a while and has no other home?

O Yes- determine whether to add persons.

O No

H2. Did you list anyone in Question 1 who is away from home now- for example, on a vacation or in the hospital?

O Yes- determine whether person should remain listed.

O No

H3. Is anyone visiting here who is not already listed?

O Yes- determine whether to add person.

O No

H4. Do you enter your living quarters -O Directly from the outside or through a common or public hall?

O Through someone else's living quarters?

H5a. Is there hot and cold piped water in this building?

O Yes, hot and cold piped water in this building.

O No, only cold piped water in this building.

O No piped water in this building.

H5b. Is there a bathtub or shower in this building?

O Yes, for this household only

O Yes, but also used by another household

O No bathtub or shower

H5c. Is there a flush toilet in this building?

O Yes, for this household only

O Yes, but also used by another household

O No.

If "No," what type of toilet?

O Privy

O Other or none

H6. How many rooms do you have in your living quarters?

Count living rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, and bedrooms, but do not count bathrooms, balconies, foyers, or halts.

O 1 room

O 2 rooms

O 3 rooms

O 4 rooms

O 5 rooms

O 6 rooms

O 7 rooms

O 8 rooms

O 9 or more rooms

H7. Are your living quarters-

O Owned or being bought by someone in this household?

O Rented for cash rent?

O Occupied without payment of cash rent?

H8. Is this apartment (house) part of a condiminium?

O No

O Yes, a condominium.

H9. Which best describes this building?

Include all apartments, flats, etc. even if vacant.

O A mobile home or trailer

O A one-family house detached from any other house

O A one-family house attached to one or more houses

O A building for 2 families

O A building for 3 or 4 families

O A building for 5 to 9 families

O A building for 10 to 19 families

O A building for 20 to 49 families

O A building for 50 or more families

O A boat, tent, van, etc.

H10. If this is a one family home-

a.Is the house on a property of 3 or more cuardas?

O Yes

O No

b.Is any part of the property used as:(1) A commercial establishment?

O Yes

O No

(2) A medical office?

O Yes

O No

(3) Other type of office?

O Yes

O No

H11. Is this a one family house or a condiminium unit which you own or are buying--What is the value of this property, that is, how much do you think this property (house and lot or condominium unit) would sell for?

O Less than $2,000

O $2,000 to $2,999

O $3,000 to $3,999

O $4,000 to $4,999

O $5,000 to $7,499

O $7,500 to $9,999

O $10,000 to $12,499

O $12,500 to $14,999

O $15,000 to $17,499

O $17,500 to $19,999

O $20,000 to $22,499

O $22,500 to $24,999

O $25,000 to $27,499

O $27,500 to $29,999

O $30,000 to $32,499

O $32,500 to $34,999

O $35,000 to $37,499

O $37,500 to $39,999

O $40,000 to $44,999

O $45,000 to $49,999

O $50,000 to $59,999

O $60,000 to $74,999

O $75,000 to $99,999

O $100,000 or more

H12. If you pay rent for your living quarters--What is the monthly rent?

If rent if not paid by the month, see Questionnaire Reference Book on how to figure a monthly rent.

O Less than $30

O $30 to $39

O $40 to $49
O $50 to $59

O $60 to $69

O $70 to $79

O $80 to $89

O $90 to $99

O $100 to $109

O $110 to $119

O $120 to $129

O $130 to $139

O $140 to $149

O $150 to $159

O $160 to $169

O $170 to $179

O $180 to $189

O $190 to $199

O $200 to $224

O $225 to $249

O $250 to $299

O $300 to $349

O $350 to $399

O $400 or more

H13a. Is this building-

O On a city or suburban lot? (Skip to H14)

O On a place of less than 3 cuerdas?

O On a place of 3 or more cuerdas?

H13b. Last year, 1979, did sales of crops, livestock, and other farm products from this place amount to-

O $1 to $99

O $100 to $199

O $200 to $299

O $300 to $499

O $500 or more

O None

H14. Do you get water from-

O A public system?

O An individual well?

O A cistern, tanks, or drums?

O A spring or other source (river, irrigation canal, etc.)?

H15. Is this building connected to a public sewer?

O Yes, connected to a public sewer

O No, connected to a septic tank or cesspool

O No, use other means

H16. About when was this building originally built? Mark when the building was first constructed, not when it was remodeled, added to, or converted.

O 1979 to 1980

O 1975 to 1978

O 1970 to 1974

O 1960 to 1969

O 1950 to 1959

O 1940 to 1949

O 1939 or earlier

H17. When did the person in column 1 move into this house (or apartment)?

O 1979 to 1980

O 1975 to 1978

O 1970 to 1974

O 1960 to 1969

O 1950 to 1959

O 1949 or earlier

H18. Does this housing unit have electric lighting?

O Yes

O No

H19. What type of energy does your water heater (tank type) use most?

If shower heat only, mark "No tank type water heater."

O Electricity

O Solar Energy

O Other fuels

O No tank type water heater

H20. Which fuel is used most for cooking?

O Gas: from underground pipes serving the neighborhood

O Gas: bottled, tank, or LP

O Electricity

O Fuel oil, kerosene, etc.

O Charcoal

O Wood

O Other fuel

O No fuel used

H21. What are the costs of utilities and fuels for your living quarters?

a.Electricity
Average monthly cost $__________.00 or

O Included in rent or no charge

O Electricity not used

b.Gas

Average monthly cost $__________.00 or

O Included in rent or no charge

O Gas not used

c.Water

Average monthly cost $__________.00 or

O Included in rent or no charged. Oil, charcoal, kerosene, wood, etc.

Yearly cost $__________.00 or

O Included in rent or no charge

O These fuels not used

H22. Do you have complete kitchen facilities?

Complete kitchen facilities are a sink with piped water, a range or cookstove, and a refrigerator.

O Yes

O No

H23. How many bedrooms do you have?

Count rooms used mainly for sleeping even if used also for other purposes.

O No bedroom

O 1 bedroom

O 2 bedrooms

O 3 bedrooms

O 4 bedrooms

O 5 or more bedrooms

H24. How many bathrooms do you have?

A complete bathroom is a room with a flush toilet, bathtub or shower, and wash basin with piped water.

A half bathroom has at least a flush toilet

O None

O Only half bathrooms

O 1 complete bathroom

O 1 complete bathroom, plus half bath(s)

O 2 or more complete bathrooms

H25. Do you have a telephone in your living quarters?

O Yes

O No

H26. Do you have air conditioning?

O Yes, a central air conditioning system

O Yes, 1 individual room unit

O Yes, 2 or more individual room units

O No

H27. How many automobiles are kept at home for use by members of your household?

O None

O 1 automobile

O 2 automobiles

O 3 or more automobiles

H28. How many vans or trucks are kept at home for use by members of your household?

O None

O 1 van or truck

O 2 vans or trucks

O 3 or more vans or trucks

H29. Which best describes the type of construction of this building?

Fill only one circle.

Masonry walls (poured concrete, concrete blocks, stone, ornamental blocks, etc.)

O With concrete slab roof

O With wood frame roof

Wood frame walls

O With masonry foundation, poured concrete, etc.

O With wood stilt foundation

O Mixed masonry and wood walls

O Other type of construction

H30. Condition of this housing unit -- Fill from observation.

a.Original construction:

O Adequate

O Inadequate

b.If "Adequate" -- present condition is:

O Sound

O Deteriorating

O Dilapidated

H31-H32. Ask questions H31 and H32 if this unit is owned or being bought by a member of this household.

H31. Is the owner of this housing unit also owner of the land or is the land being rented?

O Owns or is buying the land

O Pays rent for the land

O Does not pay cash rent for the use of the land

H32. If the land is being rented -- What is the monthly rent for the land?$___________.00 (Nearest dollar)

Please ask H33-H35 if this is a one family house which is being owned or being bought, unless, this is--

* A mobile home or trailer

* A house on 3 or more cuerdas

* A condominium unit

* A house with a commercial establishment or medical office on the property(If any of these or if the unit is being rented or this is a multi-family structure, skip H33 to H35 and turn to page 6.

H33. What were the real estate taxes on this property last year?

$_______________.00 (Nearest dollar)

O None

H34. What is the annual premium for fire and hazard insurance on this property?

$_______________.00 (Nearest dollar)

O None

H35a. Do you have a mortgage or similar debt on this property?

O Yes, mortgage or similar debt

O No -- Skip to page 6

H35b. Do you have a second or junior mortgage on this property?

O Yes

O No

H35c. How much is your total regular monthly payment to the lender?

Also include payments to lenders holding second or junior mortgages on this property.

$_______________.00

O No regular payment required -- Skip to page 6

H35d. Does your regular monthly payment (amount entered in H35c) include payments for real estate taxes on this property?

O Yes, taxes included in payment

O No, taxes paid separately or taxes not required

H35e. Does your regular monthly payment (amount entered in H35c) include payments for fire and hazard insurance on this property?

O Yes, insurance included in payment

O No, insurance paid separately or no insurance

Original Questionnaire













Complete Count Questionnaire Changes - 1970 to 19801
The content of the 1900 census questionnaires is best viewed as a continuation of the previous decade's experience rather than a radical departure. Many census items have remained unchanged from 1970; others have been slightly modified to clarify the question wording or remove confusing instructions. In some cases, 1970 questions have been replaced with new questions which approach a subject from a different angle. For example, the question on race no longer mentions color or race in the question but instead provides a set of racial groups. With regard to the relationship question, the "head of household" terminology used in 1970 has been replaced by a format using a householder as a means to reconstruct families without implying the notion of dominance implicit in the designation of a household head. A brief item-by-item list of changes made in the census questions between 1970 and 1980 ii presented below. The wordings of the 1980 census questions are provided in parentheses for each item. In this presentation, some items are listed as "No change": this indication may, however, include some minor changes in wording or question format due to changes in basic questionnaire construction or style of presentation. It should also be noted that the phrase "this person" in the wording of census questions refers to the person for whom data are being provided, not necessarily the person filling the form.

100-percent Population
1. Name

("What is the name of each person who was living here on Tuesday, April 1, 1980, or who was staying or visiting here and had no other home?"): No change from 1970. The names of persons given in question 1 are listed at the top of the response columns for the100-percent items and at the beginning of sample pages on the long form.

2. Household relationship

("How is the person related to the person in column 1?") Revised from 1970 to replace the "Head of household" category with a format using a reference person, i.e. the "Person in column 1."

Footnote:
1 Excerpt from Silver and Jean E. "The 1980 Census Questionnaires." by David E. Foster Statistical Reporter. (July, 1979)The 1970 category "Other relative of head" has been replaced by three categories, "Brother/sister," "Father/mother," and "Other relative." Since the category "Patient or inmate" is marked only by census enumerators, it has ken moved to the bottom of the form in a space reserved for "Census USC only."New nonrelative categories include "Partner, roommate" and "Paid employee."

Sex

("Sex"): No change from 1970.

Race

("Is this person-"): The specific reference to "color or race" used in the 1970 census question has been replaced with the phrase, "Is this person-," and response is expected to indicate the racial group the person most closely identifies with. Individual categories for Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Guamanian, and Samoan have been added. The use of a specially printed schedule for Alaska in 1970 - wherein the categories Hawaiian and Korean were replaced by Aleut and Eskimo- has been eliminated by including the latter as categories on the standard questionnaire. As a result, the 1980 questionnaire will have 14 specific categories instead of the 8 in 1970.

Age

"Age, and month and year of birth"/ 5a. "Print age at last birthday."/ 5b. "Print month and fill one circle."/ 5c. "Print year in the spaces, and fill one circle below each number."): No change in age and month of birth. The year-of-birth question format was revised to replace the 1970 response categories with 1 self-coding FOSDIC circles for the last three digits of the year of birth. The first digit is prefilled with a "1."

Marital status

("Marital status"): No change from 1970. Response categories include: "Now married," "Widowed," "Divorced," "Separated and Never married."

Spanish/Hispanic origin or descent

("Is this person of Spanish/Hispanic origin or descent?"): A 5-percent sample question in 1970. Response categories for 1980 include: "No, (not Spanish/Hispanic)": "Yes, Mexican, Mexican-Amer., Chicano"; "Yes, Puerto Rican"' "Yes, Cuban": and "Yes, other Spanish/Hispanic."

Coverage
H1H3.

Coverage (H1. "Did you leave anyone out of Question 1 because you were not sure if the person should be listed-"/H3. "Is anyone visiting here who is not already listed?"): In 1970, these questions were numbered lo-12 and were included in the 100-percent 'population section. Question 9 in 1970 was an inquiry concerning whether the number of sons in the household exceeded eight on the short-form (or seven on the long-form) questionnaire: this question has been replaced by instructions on the questionnaire directing the respondent's action if the number-of persons in the household exceeds seven.

100-percent Housing
H4. Number of living quarters at address.

("How many living quarters, occupied and vacant, are at this address?")

No change from 1970.

H5. Access to Unit

(Do you enter your living quarters-")

No change from 1970; response categories specify types of access to the unit.

H6. Complete plumbing facilities.

("Do you have complete plumbing facilities in your living quarters, that is, hot and cold piped water, a flush toilet, and a bathtub or shower?'):

Consolidates in the 1970 question on hot and cold piped water, flush toilet, and bathtub or shower into one question.

H7. Number of rooms.

("How many rooms do you have in your living quarters?"):

No change from 1970.

H8. Tenure.(Are your living quarters-):

This question which differentiates units that are owned, rented or occupied without payment of cash rent has been separated from the single inquiry in 1970 concerning both tenure and condominium or cooperative status.

H9. Condominium Identification.

("Is this apartment (house) part of a condominium?"):

Separated from the single inquiry in 1970 concerning both tenure and condominium or cooperative status. The part of the 1970 inquiry concerning cooperatives has been deleted from the 1980 questionnaire.

H10. Acreage and presence of commercial establishment.

(H10. "If this is a one-family house-"/ H10a. Is the house on a property 'of 10 or more acres?"/ Hb. "Is any part of the property used as a commercial establishment or medical office?"):

The combined 1970 inquiry about acreage and commercial establishment has been divided into two "yes" or "no" parts. The inquiry about "one-family house" has been incorporated into the question wording itself. These provide a screener in the tabulation of value and rent.

H11.Value.

("If you live in a one-family house or a condominium unit-Which you own or are buying- What is the value of this property, that is, how much do you think this property (house and lot or condominium unit) would sell for if it were for sale?"):

Revised from 1970 to explicitly include condominiums in 1980. Based on data from the Annual Housing Survey, the number of categories has been increased from 11 in 1970 to 24 for 1980, and the range of values now goes from "Less than $10,000" to $200,000 or more."

H12. Rent.

("If you pay rent for your living quarters-What is the monthly rent?"):

Revised for 1980 to eliminate the write-in space for rent which was provided in 1970 in addition to specific response categories. Based on data from the Annual Housing Survey, the number of categories has been increased from 14 in 1970 to 24 for 1980, and the range of rent intervals now goes from "Less than $50" to "$500 or more."C1, C2, C3 , & D. Vacancy status. These items are filled only by census enumerators for vacant units. In addition to vacancy status and months vacant which appeared in 1970, the 1980 questionnaires will indicate whether a vacant unit is "boarded up."

Appendix A - Geographic Coverage Within Summary Level