Data Dictionary: Census 1960 (US, County & State)
you are here: choose a survey survey data set table details
Data Source: Social Explorer & U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T53. Number of Children Per 1000 Women Age 15 to 44 [1]
Universe: Number of Children Per 1000 Women Age 15 to 44
Table Details
T53. Number of Children Per 1000 Women Age 15 to 44
Universe: Number of Children Per 1000 Women Age 15 to 44
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports, Nativity and Parentage. Final Report PC(2)-1A. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1965.
 
Parentage
Native of native parentage
This category comprises native persons both of whose parents are also natives of the United States. Data for this group are shown for the total and white population.
Native of foreign or mixed parentage
This group consists of native persons, one or both of whose parents are foreign born. The rules for determining the nativity of parents are substantially the same as those for determining the nativity of the persons enumerated. A limited amount of data is presented separately for the three groups comprising this category; namely, native of foreign parentage (that is, native with both father and mother foreign born), native of mixed parentage-father (but not mother) foreign born, and native of mixed parentage-mother (but not father) foreign born.
Excerpt from: U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports, Women by Number of Children Ever Born. Final Report PC(2)-3A. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1964.
 
Children Ever Born
The data on children born were derived from answers to the following question on the Household Questionnaire:


Although the question on children ever born was asked only of women reported as having been married, the number of children reported undoubtedly includes: some illegitimate births. It is likely that many of the unwed mothers living with an illegitimate child reported themselves as having been married and therefore were among the women who were expected to report the number of children ever born, and that many of the mothers who married after the birth of an illegitimate child counted that child (as they were expected to do). On the other hand, the data are, no doubt, less complete for illegitimate than for legitimate births. Consequently, the rates of children ever born per 1,000 total women may be too low. The enumerator was instructed to include children born to the woman before her present marriage, children no longer living, and children away from home, as well as children borne by the woman who were still living in the home.

The FOSDIC form used for transferring sample data to the electronic computer tape contained a terminal category of "12 or more" children ever born. For purposes of computing the total number of children ever born, the terminal category was given a mean value of 13. Also for purposes of computation, women reported as never married were assumed to have borne no children.

As the terms are used in the present report, "childless" women are those who have borne no children and "mothers" are those who have borne one or more.
Excerpt from: U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports, Women by Number of Children Ever Born. Final Report PC(2)-3A. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1964.
 
Nativity and Parentage
Native
This category comprises persons born in the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a possession of the United States; persons born in a foreign country or at sea who have at least one native American parent; and persons whose place of birth was not reported and whose census report contained no contradictory information, such as an entry of a language spoken prior to coming to the United States.
Foreign born
This category includes all persons net classified as native.
Native of native parentage
This category consists of native persons both of whose parents are also natives of the United States.
Native of foreign or mixed parentage
This category includes native persons one or both of whose parents are foreign born.
Foreign stock
This category includes foreign-born persons and native persons of foreign or mixed parentage.
Excerpt from: U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports, Women by Children Under 5 Years Old. Final Report PC(2)-3C. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1968.
 
Own Children Under 5 and 5 To 9 Years Old
Definition
In the 1960 Census, the classification of women by number of own children under 5 years old and 5 to 9 years old was based on information on the relationship and age of each person in the household.

The category "child" includes not only natural sons and daughters but also stepchildren and adopted children of the women featured in this report. An examination of data from other reports suggests that stepchildren and adopted children comprise a very small proportion, perhaps less than two or three percent, of own children under 5 years old, so that nearly all of the own children are the women's natural children.1 The data are also affected by a relatively few errors of response; for example, the relationship of a grandchild, nephew, or niece is sometimes misreported as "child". Evidence of this type of error is the fact that the present report shows relatively more own children under 5 years old for women at ages lf0 and over than would be expected from birth registration data, especially for nonwhites.

Women ever married who were not heads or wives in families or subfamilies were classified as having no own children under 5 or 5 to 9 years old; the rules used for family and subfamily coding would have made them either a head or a wife if any own children had been present in a household. However, the family and subfamily coding was limited to persons in households A few of the 151,952 ever married women 15 to years old living in group quarters undoubtedly had children present, but the number could not be determined from the available information. In group quarters, the sample consisted of every fourth person, so that when s woman was in the sample her children usually were not in the sample. The loss to the count of own children was quite trivial, however, because women in group quarters comprised only 0.5 percent of all women ever married 15 to years old in the United States.

Women who were single (never married) were classified as having no own children under 5 or 5 to 9 years old for purposes of the present report. It is thought that most women who had an illegitimate child living with them were reported in the census as separated, widowed, or divorced and hence were included in the data for women classified as ever married. According to a 1960 Census report on families, 2 only 105,541 single women were enumerated as heads of families or subfamilies with at least one Own Child under 18 years old present. It is unlikely that the 105,541 single women with own children under 18 years old had as many as 100,000 children under 5 years old, but even a figure of 100,000 would be relatively small (0.5 percent) when compared with the 19.6 million own children under 5 years old whose mother was reported as married, widowed, divorced, or separated.
Comparability
Previous censuses
The data on own children under 5 years old shown for 1960 have a high degree of comparability with similar data presented in the 1950 Census report P-E, No. 5C, Fertility, and also with the data in the 1940 Census series of special reports on Differential Fertility, 1940 and 1910. Inclusion of the new States of Alaska and Hawaii in 1960 has little effect on the magnitudes of national ratios of own children under 5 per 1,000 women, as can be seen by comparing tables 192 and 193 in Volume I, Part 1, of the 1960 Census of Population. The 1950, 1940, and 1910 data include own children of the relatively few women ever married who lived in group quarters, whereas in the 1960 Census such women are treated as having no own children present. The 1950, 1940, and 1910 Censuses exclude the relatively few stepchildren and adopted children who could be distinguished from natural sons and daughters of a woman, but such children are included in 1960.

In the 1960 Census, there was less tendency than in previous censuses for a relatively few children almost 5 years old to be misreported as age 5 and hence lost to the count of children under 5.3 In the 1960 Census a question was asked on date of birth, and the answers were used to compute the age, whereas in previous censuses the corresponding question related to age at the last birthday.

Footnotes:
3In 1960, the count of population under 5 years old was about 98 percent complete for whites and 93 percent for nonwhites; in 1950 the corresponding figures were 96 percent for whites and 91 percent for nonwhites.

Relation to data on population under 5 years old to 9 years old
Table A presents data on the total number of persons counted in the 1960 Census as under 5 years old and as 5 to 9 years old and compares these with the numbers counted as own children of women ever married. To a large degree, the difference between population under 5 (or 5 to 9) and own children of this age represents young persons living apart from their mother. The difference also includes the relatively few children who were not counted as own children because they were living with a never-married mother, because the mother was outside the specified age range of 15 to 49 or 15 to 54, or because there was not sufficient information to identify them as own children of a woman in the same household. A very minor bias also arises from the fact that the color classification for the population under 5 is based on the race noted for the person under 5 years old, whereas that of the Own Child is based on the race noted for the mother; in the. few cases where the mother is white, and the father is nonwhite, the person under 5 years old is classified as nonwhite in the population count but as an Own Child of a white mother in the tabulations of women by number of own children.

Table A shows that about 99 percent of the white population under 5 years old are classified as own children of women ever married, whereas only 86 percent of the nonwhite population are so classified. According to birth registration data for 1960, about 2 percent of white births and 22 percent of nonwhite births in that year were illegitimate. As noted above, the report PC(2)-4A, Families, identifies relatively few single women as having own children present. One may conjecture that in many such cases the children live with a grandmother or other person while the unwed mother works and lives elsewhere; and that in many cases where the children live with their mother, she is reported as having been married.

Table A. Estimated Proportion of the Population Under 5 Years Old and 5 To 9 Years Old Classified As Own Children of Women Ever Married 15 To 54 Years Old, By Color, For the United States: 1960
(Population under 5, and 5 to 9 from 100-percent count. own children from 5-percent sample)

Subject White Nonwhite
Population under 5 years old 17,358,552 2,962,349
own children 17,196,324 2,553,804
Percent classified as own children 99.1 86.2
Population under 5 to 9 years old 16,087,542 2,604,238
own children 15,763,035 2,254,485
Percent classified as own children 98.0 87


Relation to vital statistics
own children under 5 years old and 5 to 9 years old are the survivors of births in the respective periods from April 1, 1955, to March 31, 1960, and from April 1, 1950, to March 31, 1955. With the aid of various adjustments, described in the forthcoming monograph sponsored by the Community and Family Study Center of the University of Chicago, it is possible to use the data to derive average annual age-specific birth rates, total fertility rates, and other measures such as gross and net reproduction rates, for the birth periods. The adjustments make provision for children not living with their mother and for the effect of mortality on women and children between the time the children were born and the date of the census, and also include interpolation and combination of data. By use of these adjustments it is possible to derive birth rates by social and economic characteristics that are available from decennial censuses but not from birth registration data.

Illustrative materials appear in table B. The census data were not adjusted for any undercount of women and children under 5 because there is evidence that nearly equal proportions of women and children were missed in the 1.960 Census.4 Data by type of residence in the detail given in table B are not available from birth registration data.

Table B. Average Annual age-Specific Birth Rates by color of Woman, For the United States, And By Type of Residence for Native White Women: 1955-1960

color of woman, data source, and type of residence Births per 1,000 women by age of woman Total fertility rate Net reproduction rate
15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 40 to 44
White  
Census data 83 232 193 112 16 3,477 1,630
Registration data:              
Bases adjusted1 80 240 191 112 15 3,482 1,637
Not adjusted 82 246 194 113 15 3,542 1,665
Nonwhite  
Census data 152 271 201 128 23 4,266 1,952
Registration data:              
Bases adjusted1 151 277 200 132 22 4,285 1,974
Not adjusted 167 300 223 142 22 4,709 2,169
Native white (Census data)  
United States 84 234 195 113 17 3,508 1,642
Urbanized Areas 72 216 195 109 15 3,322 1,554
Central cities 71 200 180 101 14 3,088 1,445
Urban fringe 75 237 213 121 16 3,615 1,691
Other urban 89 237 190 107 15 3,455 1,617
Rural nonfarm 111 270 195 118 20 3,881 1,816
Rural farm 82 261 210 137 25 3,941 1,844

Source: Monograph in preparation sponsored by the Community and Family Study Center of the University of Chicago.

Footnotes:
41960 Census of Population, Vol.I, Characteristics of the Population, Part 1, U.S. Summary.
1 Obtained by multiplying published rates (Vital Statistics of the United States, 1964, Volume I, Nativity, tables 1-D and 1-E) by the relative completeness of the count of women by age and color as estimated from the 1960 Census. The published rates allowed for underregistration of births but not for any undercount of women in the bases.

Excerpt from: U.S. Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports, Women by Children Under 5 Years Old. Final Report PC(2)-3C. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1968.
 
Nativity and Parentage
Native
Comprises persons born in the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a possession of the United States; persons born in a foreign country or at sea who have at least one native American parent; and persons whose place of birth was not reported and whose census report contained no contradictory information, such as an entry of a language spoken prior to coming to the United States.
Foreign born
Includes all persons not classified a-s native.
Native of native parentage
Consists of native persons both of whose parents are also natives of the United States.
Native of foreign or mixed parentage
Includes native persons one or both of whose parents are foreign born.
Foreign stock
Includes foreign-born persons and native persons of foreign or mixed parentage.