Data Dictionary: ACS 2010 -- 2012 (3-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: C08124. Means Of Transportation To Work By Occupation [42]
Universe: Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Table Details
C08124. Means Of Transportation To Work By Occupation
Universe: Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Variable Label
C08124001
C08124002
C08124003
C08124004
C08124005
C08124006
C08124007
C08124008
C08124009
C08124010
C08124011
C08124012
C08124013
C08124014
C08124015
C08124016
C08124017
C08124018
C08124019
C08124020
C08124021
C08124022
C08124023
C08124024
C08124025
C08124026
C08124027
C08124028
C08124029
C08124030
C08124031
C08124032
C08124033
C08124034
C08124035
C08124036
C08124037
C08124038
C08124039
C08124040
C08124041
C08124042
Relevant Documentation:
Means of Transportation to Work
The data on means of transportation to work were derived from answers to Question 31 in 2012 American Community Survey, which was asked of people who indicated in 2012 ACS Question 29 that they worked at some time during the reference week. (See "Reference Week.") Means of transportation to work refers to the principal mode of travel or type of conveyance that the worker usually used to get from home to work during the reference week.

People who used different means of transportation on different days of the week were asked to specify the one they used most often, that is, the greatest number of days. People who used more than one means of transportation to get to work each day were asked to report the one used for the longest distance during the work trip. The category, "Car, truck, or van," includes workers using a car (including company cars but excluding taxicabs), a truck of one- ton capacity or less, or a van. The category, "Public transportation," includes workers who used a bus or trolley bus, streetcar or trolley car, subway or elevated, railroad, or ferryboat, even if each mode is not shown separately in the tabulation. "Carro publico" is included in the public transportation category in Puerto Rico. The category, "Other means," includes workers who used a mode of travel that is not identified separately within the data distribution. The category, "Other means," may vary from table to table, depending on the amount of detail shown in a particular distribution.

The means of transportation data for some areas may show workers using modes of public transportation that are not available in those areas (for example, subway or elevated riders in a metropolitan area where there is no subway or elevated service). This result is largely due to people who worked during the reference week at a location that was different from their usual place of work (such as people away from home on business in an area where subway service was available), and people who used more than one means of transportation each day but whose principal means was unavailable where they lived (for example, residents of nonmetropolitan areas who drove to the fringe of a metropolitan area, and took the commuter railroad most of the distance to work).

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2012 3yr Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Occupation
Occupation describes the kind of work a person does on the job. Occupation data were derived from answers to questions 45 and 46 in the 2012 American Community Survey. Question 45 asks: "What kind of work was this person doing?" Question 46 asks: "What were this person's most important activities or duties?"
These questions were asked of all people 15 years old and over who had worked in the past 5 years. For employed people, the data refer to the person's job during the previous week. For those who worked two or more jobs, the data refer to the job where the person worked the greatest number of hours. For unemployed people and people who are not currently employed but report having a job within the last five years, the data refer to their last job.

These questions describe the work activity and occupational experience of the American labor force. Data are used to formulate policy and programs for employment, career development and training; to provide information on the occupational skills of the labor force in a given area to analyze career trends; and to measure compliance with antidiscrimination policies. Companies use these data to decide where to locate new plants, stores, or offices.

Coding Procedures - Occupation statistics are compiled from data that are coded based on the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Manual: 2010 (http://www.bls.gov/soc/), published by the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. Census occupation codes, based on the 2010 SOC, provide 539 specific occupational categories, for employed people, including military, arranged into 23 major occupational groups.

Respondents provided the data for the tabulations by writing on the questionnaires descriptions of the kind of work and activities they are doing. These write-ins are converted to a code category through automated coding. Cases not autocoded on both industry and occupation are sent to the clerical staff in the National Processing Center in Jeffersonville, Indiana who assign codes by comparing these descriptions to entries in the Alphabetical Index of Industries and Occupations
(http://www.census.gov/people/io/methodology/indexes.html).

Some occupation groups are related closely to certain industries. Operators of transportation equipment, farm operators and workers, and healthcare providers account for major portions of their respective industries of transportation, agriculture, and health care. However, the industry categories include people in other occupations. For example, people employed in agriculture include truck drivers and bookkeepers; people employed in the transportation industry include mechanics, freight handlers, and payroll clerks; and people employed in the health care industry include janitors, security guards, and secretaries.

Editing Procedures - Following the coding operation, a computer edit and allocation process excludes all responses that should not be included in the universe, and evaluates the consistency of the remaining responses. The codes for occupation are checked for consistency with the industry and class of worker data provided for that respondent.

Occasionally respondents supply occupation descriptions that are not sufficiently specific for precise classification, or they do not report on these questions at all. Certain types of incomplete entries are corrected using the Alphabetical Index of Industries and Occupations (http://www.census.gov/people/io/methodology/indexes.html).

If one or more of the three codes (occupation, industry, or class of worker) is blank after the edit, a code is assigned from a donor respondent who is a "similar" person based on questions such as age, sex, educational attainment, income, employment status, and weeks worked. If all of the labor force and income data are blank, all of these economic questions are assigned from a "similar" person who had provided all the necessary data.

Question/Concept History - Occupation data have been collected during decennial censuses since 1850. Starting with the 2010 Census, occupation data will no longer be collected during the decennial census. Long form data collection has transitioned to the American Community Survey. The American Community Survey began collecting data on occupation in 1996. The questions on occupation were designed to be consistent with the 1990 Census questions on occupation. American Community Survey questions on occupation have remained consistent between 1996 and 2012.

Limitation of the Data - Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) was included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations have occupational distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the occupational distribution in some geographic areas with a substantial GQ population.

Data on occupation, industry, and class of worker are collected for the respondent's current primary job or the most recent job for those who are not employed but have worked in the last 5 years. Other labor force questions, such as questions on earnings or work hours, may have different reference periods and may not limit the response to the primary job. Although the prevalence of multiple jobs is low, data on some labor force items may not exactly correspond to the reported occupation, industry, or class of worker of a respondent.

Comparability - Comparability of occupation data was affected by a number of factors, primarily the system used to classify the questionnaire responses. Changes in the occupational classification system limit comparability of the data from one year to another. These changes are needed to recognize the "birth" of new occupations, the "death" of others, the growth and decline in existing occupations, and the desire of analysts and other users for more detail in the presentation of the data. Probably the greatest cause of noncomparability is the movement of a segment from one category to another. Changes in the nature of jobs, respondent terminology, and refinement of category composition made these movements necessary.

ACS data from 1996 to 1999 used the same occupation classification systems used for the 1990 Census; therefore, the data are comparable. Since 1990, the occupation classification has been revised to reflect changes within the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). The SOC was updated in 2000 and these changes were reflected in the Census 2000 occupation codes. The 2000-2002 ACS data used the same occupation classification systems used for Census 2000; therefore, the data are comparable. Because of the possibility of new occupations being added to the list of codes, the Census Bureau needed to have more flexibility in adding codes. Consequently, in 2002, Census occupation codes were expanded from three-digit codes to four-digit codes. For occupation, this entailed adding a "0" to the end of each occupation code. The SOC was revised once more in 2010. Based on the 2010 SOC changes, Census codes were revised resulting in a net gain of 30 Census occupation codes (from 509 occupations to 539 occupations). Most of these changes were concentrated in information technology, healthcare, printing, and human resources occupations. For more information on occupational comparability across classification systems, please see technical paper #65: The Relationship Between the 1990 Census and Census 2000 Industry and Occupation Classification Systems
(http://www.census.gov/people/io/files/techpaper2000.pdf). For information on the 2010 SOC and Census codes, please see the summary of 2010 changes and the Census 2002 to 2010 occupation crosswalk on the Industry and Occupation Methodology page (http://www.census.gov/people/io/methodology/) on the ACS website (http://census.gov/acs).

See the 2012 Code List on the ACS website (http://www.census.gov/acs) for Occupation Code List.

See also, Industry and Class of Worker.