Data Dictionary: ACS 2012 (1-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: C25050. Plumbing Facilities By Occupants Per Room [7]
Universe: Universe: Occupied housing units
Table Details
C25050. Plumbing Facilities By Occupants Per Room
Universe: Universe: Occupied housing units
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2012 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Plumbing Facilities
The data on plumbing facilities were obtained from Housing Question 8 a, b, and c in the 2012 American Community Survey. The question was asked at both occupied and vacant housing units. Complete plumbing facilities include: (a) hot and cold running water, (b) a flush toilet, and (c) a bathtub or shower. All three facilities must be located inside the house, apartment, or mobile home, but not necessarily in the same room. Housing units are classified as lacking complete plumbing facilities when any of the three facilities is not present.

Plumbing facilities provide an indication of living standards and assess the quality of household facilities within the housing inventory. These data provide assistance in the assessment of water resources and to serve as an aid to identify possible areas of ground water contamination. The data also are used to forecast the need for additional water and sewage facilities, aid in the development of policies based on fair market rent, and to identify areas in need of rehabilitation loans or grants.

Question/Concept History

The 1996-2007 American Community Survey questions were stand-alone questions that asked the respondent to answer either "Yes, has all three facilities" or "No" to the question of whether the housing unit had complete plumbing facilities, requiring that the facilities all be in the same unit. Starting in 2008, the structure of the question changed and combined plumbing facilities with kitchen facilities and telephone service availability into one question to ask, "Does this house, apartment, or mobile home have -" and provided the respondent with a "Yes" or "No" checkbox for each component needed for complete facilities. An additional change introduced in 2008 included changing the description of the component "hot and cold piped water" to "hot and cold running water."

Comparability

Caution should be used when comparing American Community Survey data on plumbing facilities from the years 2008 and after with both pre-2008 ACS and Census 2000 data. Changes made to the plumbing facilities question between 2007 and 2008 ACS involving the wording as well as the response option resulted in an inconsistency in the ACS data. This inconsistency in the data was most noticeable as an increase in housing units "lacking complete plumbing facilities."

Data tables for Puerto Rico were not shown. Research indicated that the questions on plumbing facilities that were introduced in 2008 in the stateside American Community Survey and the Puerto Rico Community Survey may not have been appropriate for Puerto Rico.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2012 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Occupants Per Room
Occupants per room is obtained by dividing the reported number of current residents in each occupied housing unit by the number of rooms in the unit. The figures show the number of occupied units having the specified ratio of current residents per room. Occupants per room is rounded to the nearest hundredth.
This data is the basis for estimating the amount of living and sleeping spaces within a housing unit. The data also serve to aid in planning for future services and infrastructure, such as home energy assistance programs and the development of waste treatment facilities.

Comparability

Caution should be used when comparing American Community Survey data on occupants per room from the years 2008 and after with both pre-2008 data. Changes made to the rooms question between the 2007 and 2008 ACS involving the wording as well as the response option resulted in an inconsistency in the ACS data. This inconsistency in the data was most noticeable in a 2006 content test with the revised question showing an increase in "1 room" responses, decrease in "2 rooms" to "6 rooms" responses, and increases in "7 rooms" and "9 or more" room responses, with an overall increase in the median number of rooms reported using the revised question.

Data on occupants per room in the American Community Survey should be compared with great caution to Census 2000 data due to: 1) differences in residence rules and the absence of population controls used to adjust for undercoverage in the reported number of current residents in the ACS used in this measure and 2) differences in the reported number of rooms due to changes in the rooms question between the 2007 and 2008 ACS.