Data Dictionary: ACS 2012 (1-Year Estimates)
you are here: choose a survey survey data set table details
Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: C20005D. Sex By Work Experience In The Past 12 Months By Earnings In The Past 12 Months (In 2012 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) For The Population 16 Years And Over (Asian Alone) [39]
Universe: Universe: Asian alone population 16 years and over
Table Details
C20005D. Sex By Work Experience In The Past 12 Months By Earnings In The Past 12 Months (In 2012 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) For The Population 16 Years And Over (Asian Alone)
Universe: Universe: Asian alone population 16 years and over
Variable Label
C20005D001
C20005D002
C20005D003
C20005D004
C20005D005
C20005D006
C20005D007
C20005D008
C20005D009
C20005D010
C20005D011
C20005D012
C20005D013
C20005D014
C20005D015
C20005D016
C20005D017
C20005D018
C20005D019
C20005D020
C20005D021
C20005D022
C20005D023
C20005D024
C20005D025
C20005D026
C20005D027
C20005D028
C20005D029
C20005D030
C20005D031
C20005D032
C20005D033
C20005D034
C20005D035
C20005D036
C20005D037
C20005D038
C20005D039
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2012 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Sex
The data on sex were derived from answers to Question 3 in the 2012 American Community Survey. Individuals were asked to mark either "male" or "female" to indicate their biological sex. For most cases in which sex was invalid, the appropriate entry was determined from other information provided for that person, such as the person's given (i.e., first) name and household relationship. Otherwise, sex was allocated from a hot deck.

Sex is asked for all persons in a household or group quarters. On the mailout/mailback paper questionnaire for households, sex is asked for all persons listed on the form. This form accommodates asking sex for up to 12 people listed as living or residing in the household for at least 2 months. If a respondent indicates that more people are listed as part of the total persons living in the household than the form can accommodate, or if any person included on the form is missing sex, then the household is eligible for Failed Edit Follow-up (FEFU). During FEFU operations, telephone center staffers call respondents to obtain missing data. This includes asking sex for any person in the household missing sex information. In Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI) and Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) instruments sex is asked for all persons. In 2006, the ACS began collecting data in group quarters (GQs). This included asking sex for persons living in a group quarters. For additional data collection methodology, please see http://www.census.gov/acs.

Data on sex are used to determine the applicability of other questions for a particular individual and to classify other characteristics in tabulations. The sex data collected on the forms are aggregated and provide the number of males and females in the population. These data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and analyze programs and policies. Data about sex are critical because so many federal programs must differentiate between males and females. The U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services are required by statute to use these data to fund, implement, and evaluate various social and welfare programs, such as the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). Laws to promote equal employment opportunity for women also require census data on sex. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs must use census data to develop its state projections of veterans' facilities and benefits. For more information on the use of sex data in Federal programs, please see http://www.census.gov/acs.

Sex Ratio
The sex ratio represents the balance between the male and female populations. Ratios above 100 indicate a larger male population, and ratios below 100 indicate a larger female population. This measure is derived by dividing the total number of males by the total number of females and then multiplying by 100. It is rounded to the nearest tenth.

Question/Concept History

Sex has been asked of all persons living in a household since the 1996 ACS Test phase. When group quarters were included in the survey universe in 2006, sex was asked of all person in group quarters as well.

Beginning in 2008, the layout of the sex question response categories was changed to a horizontal side-by-side layout from a vertically stacked layout on the mail paper ACS questionnaire.

Limitation of the data

Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) was included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations have sex distributions that are very different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the sex distribution. This is particularly true for a given geographic area. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.

The Census Bureau tested the changes introduced to the 2008 version of the sex question in the 2007 ACS Grid-Sequential Test (http://www.census.gov/acs). The results of this testing show that the changes may introduce an inconsistency in the data produced for this question as observed from the years 2007 to 2008.

Comparability

Sex is generally comparable across different data sources and data years. However, data users should still be aware of methodological differences that may exist between different data sources if they are comparing American Community Survey sex data to other data sources, such as Population Estimates or Decennial Census data. For example, the American Community Survey data are that of a respondent-based survey and subject to various quality measures, such as sampling and nonsampling error, response rates and item allocation. This differs in design and methodology from other data sources, such as Population Estimates, which is not a survey and involves computational methodology to derive intercensal estimates of the population. While ACS estimates are controlled to Population Estimates for sex at the nation, state and county levels of geography as part of the ACS weighting procedure, variation may exist in the sex structure of a population at lower levels of geography when comparing different time periods or comparing across time due to the absence of controls below the county geography level. For more information on American Community Survey data accuracy and weighting procedures, please see the ACS website (http://www.census.gov/acs).

It should also be noted that although the American Community Survey (ACS) produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, it is the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program that produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns and estimates of housing units for states and counties. See http://factfinder2.census.gov for data.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2012 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Work Experience
The data on work experience were derived from answers to Questions 38, 39, and 40 in the 2012 American Community Survey. This term relates to work status in the past 12 months, weeks worked in the past 12 months, and usual hours worked per week worked in the past 12 months.

To comply with provisions of the Civil Rights Act, the U.S. Department of Justice uses these data to determine the availability of individuals for work. Government agencies, in considering the programmatic and policy aspects of providing federal assistance to areas, have emphasized the requirements for reliable data to determine the employment resources available. Data about the number of weeks and hours worked last year are essential because these data allow the characterization of workers by full-time/part-time and full-year/part-year status. Data about working last year are also necessary for collecting accurate income data by defining the universe of persons who should have earnings as part of their total income.

Work Status in the Past 12 Months
The data on work status in the past 12 months were derived from answers to Question 38 in the 2012 American Community Survey. People 16 years old and over who worked 1 or more weeks according to the criteria described below are classified as "Worked in the past 12 months." All other people 16 years old and over are classified as "Did not work in the past 12 months."

Weeks Worked in the Past 12 Months
The data on weeks worked in the past 12 months were derived from responses to Question 39 in the 2012 American Community Survey, which was asked of people 16 years old and over who indicated that they worked during the past 12 months.

The data pertain to the number of weeks during the past 12 months in which a person did any work for pay or profit (including paid vacation and paid sick leave) or worked without pay on a family farm or in a family business. Weeks of active service in the Armed Forces are also included.

Usual Hours Worked Per Week Worked in the Past 12 Months
The data on usual hours worked per week worked in the past 12 months were derived from answers to Question 40 in 2012 American Community Survey. This question was asked of people 16 years old and over who indicated that they worked during the past 12 months.

The data pertain to the number of hours a person usually worked during the weeks worked in the past 12 months. The respondent was to report the number of hours worked per week in the majority of the weeks he or she worked in the past 12 months. If the hours worked per week varied considerably during the past 12 months, the respondent was to report an approximate average of the hours worked per week.

People 16 years old and over who reported that they usually worked 35 or more hours each week during the weeks they worked are classified as "Usually worked full time;" people who reported that they usually worked 1 to 34 hours are classified as "Usually worked part time."

Aggregate Usual Hours Worked Per Week in the Past 12 Months
Aggregate usual hours worked is the sum of the values for usual hours worked each week of all the people in a particular universe. (For more information, see "Aggregate" under "Derived Measures.")

Mean Usual Hours Worked Per Week in the Past 12 Months
Mean usual hours worked is the number obtained by dividing the aggregate number of hours worked each week of a particular universe by the number of people in that universe. For example, mean usual hours worked for workers 16 to 64 years old is obtained by dividing the aggregate usual hours worked each week for workers 16 to 64 years old by the total number of workers 16 to 64 years old. Mean usual hours worked values are rounded to the nearest one-tenth of an hour. (For more information, see "Mean" under "Derived Measures.")

Full-Time, Year-Round Workers
All people 16 years old and over who usually worked 35 hours or more per week for 50 to 52 weeks in the past 12 months.

Number of Workers in Family in the Past 12 Months
The term "worker" as used for these data is defined based on the criteria for work status in the past 12 months.

Question/Concept History

Beginning in 2008, the weeks worked question was separated into 2 parts: part (a) asked whether the respondent worked 50 or more weeks in the past 12 months and part (b) asked respondents who answered 'no' to part (a) how many weeks they worked, even for a few hours.

Limitation of the Data

It is probable that the number of people who worked in the past 12 months and the number of weeks worked are understated since there is some tendency for respondents to forget intermittent or short periods of employment or to exclude weeks worked without pay. There may also be a tendency for people not to include weeks of paid vacation among their weeks worked; one result may be that the American Community Survey figures understate the number of people who worked "50 to 52 weeks."

The American Community Survey data refer to the 12 months preceding the date of interview. Since not all people in the American Community Survey were interviewed at the same time, the reference period for the American Community Survey data is neither fixed nor uniform.

Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have work experience distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the work experience distribution. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.

The Census Bureau tested the changes introduced to the 2008 version of the weeks worked question in the 2006 ACS Content Test. The results of this testing show that the changes may introduce an inconsistency in the data produced for this question as observed from the years 2007 to 2008, see "2006 ACS Content Test Evaluation Report Covering Weeks Worked" on the ACS website (http://census.gov/acs).

Comparability

For information on Work Experience data comparability, please see the comparability section for Employment Status.

Earnings
Earnings are defined as the sum of wage or salary income and net income from self-employment. "Earnings" represent the amount of income received regularly for people 16 years old and over before deductions for personal income taxes, Social Security, bond purchases, union dues, Medicare deductions, etc. An individual with earnings is one who has either wage/salary income or self-employment income, or both. Respondents who "break even" in self-employment income and therefore have zero self-employment earnings also are considered "individuals with earnings."

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2012 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Asian
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes people who indicate their race as "Asian Indian," "Chinese," "Filipino," "Korean," "Japanese," "Vietnamese," and "Other Asian" or provide other detailed Asian responses.

Asian Indian
Includes respondents who indicate their race as "Asian Indian" or report entries such as India or East Indian.

Bangladeshi
Includes respondents who report entries such as Bangladeshi or Bangladesh.

Bhutanese
Includes respondents who report entries such as Bhutanese or Bhutan.

Burmese
Includes respondents who report entries such as Burmese or Burma.

Cambodian
Includes respondents who report entries such as Cambodian or Cambodia.

Chinese, except Taiwanese
Includes respondents who indicate their race as "Chinese" or report entries such as China or Chinese American.

Filipino
Includes respondents who indicate their race as "Filipino" or report entries such as Philippines or Filipino American. Hmong. Includes respondents who report entries such as Hmong or Mong.

Indonesian
Includes respondents who report entries such as Indonesian or Indonesia.

Japanese
Includes respondents who indicate their race as "Japanese" or report entries such as Japan or Japanese American.

Korean
Includes respondents who indicate their race as "Korean" or report entries such as Korea or Korean American.

Laotian
Includes respondents who report entries such as Laotian or Laos.

Malaysian
Includes respondents who report entries such as Malaysian or Malaysia.

Mongolian
Includes respondents who report entries such as Mongolian, Mongolia or Mongol.

Nepalese
Includes respondents who report entries such as Nepalese or Nepal.

Okinawan
Includes respondents who report entries such as Okinawan or Okinawa.

Pakistani
Includes respondents who report entries such as Pakistani or Pakistan.

Sri Lankan
Includes respondents who report entries such as Sri Lankan or Sri Lanka.

Taiwanese
Includes respondents who report entries such as Taiwanese or Taiwan.

Includes respondents who report entries such as Thai or Thailand. Vietnamese. Includes respondents who indicate their race as "Vietnamese" or report entries such as Vietnam or Vietnamese American.

Other Asian, specified
Includes respondents who provide a response of another Asian group not shown separately, such as Iwo Jiman, Maldivian, or Singaporean.

Other Asian, not specified
Includes respondents who checked the "Other Asian" response category on the ACS questionnaire and did not write in a specific group or wrote in a generic term such as "Asian," or "Asiatic."

Two or more Asian
Includes respondents who provided multiple Asian responses such as Asian Indian and Japanese; or Vietnamese, Chinese and Hmong.