Data Dictionary: ACS 2007 -- 2011 (5-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: B08501. Means Of Transportation To Work By Age For Workplace Geography [56]
Universe: Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Table Details
B08501. Means Of Transportation To Work By Age For Workplace Geography
Universe: Universe: Workers 16 years and over
Variable Label
B08501001
B08501002
B08501003
B08501004
B08501005
B08501006
B08501007
B08501008
B08501009
B08501010
B08501011
B08501012
B08501013
B08501014
B08501015
B08501016
B08501017
B08501018
B08501019
B08501020
B08501021
B08501022
B08501023
B08501024
B08501025
B08501026
B08501027
B08501028
B08501029
B08501030
B08501031
B08501032
B08501033
B08501034
B08501035
B08501036
B08501037
B08501038
B08501039
B08501040
B08501041
B08501042
B08501043
B08501044
B08501045
B08501046
B08501047
B08501048
B08501049
B08501050
B08501051
B08501052
B08501053
B08501054
B08501055
B08501056
Relevant Documentation:
Means of Transportation to Work
The data on means of transportation to work were derived from answers to Question 31, which was asked of people who indicated in Question 29 that they worked at some time during the reference week. (See "Reference Week.") Means of transportation to work refers to the principal mode of travel or type of conveyance that the worker usually used to get from home to work during the reference week.

People who used different means of transportation on different days of the week were asked to specify the one they used most often, that is, the greatest number of days. People who used more than one means of transportation to get to work each day were asked to report the one used for the longest distance during the work trip. The category, "Car, truck, or van," includes workers using a car (including company cars but excluding taxicabs), a truck of one- ton capacity or less, or a van. The category, "Public transportation," includes workers who used a bus or trolley bus, streetcar or trolley car, subway or elevated, railroad, or ferryboat, even if each mode is not shown separately in the tabulation. "Carro publico" is included in the public transportation category in Puerto Rico. The category, "Other means," includes workers who used a mode of travel that is not identified separately within the data distribution. The category, "Other means," may vary from table to table, depending on the amount of detail shown in a particular distribution.

The means of transportation data for some areas may show workers using modes of public transportation that are not available in those areas (for example, subway or elevated riders in a metropolitan area where there is no subway or elevated service). This result is largely due to people who worked during the reference week at a location that was different from their usual place of work (such as people away from home on business in an area where subway service was available), and people who used more than one means of transportation each day but whose principal means was unavailable where they lived (for example, residents of nonmetropolitan areas who drove to the fringe of a metropolitan area, and took the commuter railroad most of the distance to work).

Private Vehicle Occupancy
The data on private vehicle occupancy were derived from answers to Question 32. This question was asked of people who indicated in Question 29 that they worked at some time during the reference week and who reported in Question 31 that their means of transportation to work was "Car, truck, or van." Data were tabulated for workers 16 years old and over, that is, members of the Armed Forces and civilians who were at work during the reference week. (See "Reference Week.")

Private vehicle occupancy refers to the number of people who usually rode to work in the vehicle during the reference week. The category, "Drove alone," includes people who usually drove alone to work as well as people who were driven to work by someone who then drove back home or to a non-work destination. The category, "Carpooled," includes workers who reported that two or more people usually rode to work in the vehicle during the reference week.

Workers Per Car, Truck, or Van
Workers per car, truck, or van is a ratio obtained by dividing the aggregate number of workers who reported using a car, truck, or van to get to work by the number of such vehicles that they used. Workers per car, truck, or van is rounded to the nearest hundredth. This measure also may be known as "Workers per private vehicle."
Aggregate Number of Vehicles (Car, Truck, or Van) Used in Commuting
Theaggregate number of vehicles used in commuting is derived by counting each person who drove alone as occupying one vehicle, each person who reported being in a two-person carpool as occupying one-half of a vehicle, each person who reported being in a three-person carpool as occupying one-third of a vehicle, and so on, then summing all the vehicles. This aggregate is used in the calculation for "workers per car, truck, or van."

Time Leaving Home to Go to Work
The data on time leaving home to go to work were derived from answers to Question 33. This question was asked of people who indicated in Question 29 that they worked at some time during the reference week, and who reported in Question 31 that they worked outside their home. The departure time refers to the time of day that the respondent usually left home to go to work during the reference week. (See "Reference Week.")

Travel Time to Work
The data on travel time to work were derived from answers to Question 34. This question was asked of people who indicated in Question 29 that they worked at some time during the reference week, and who reported in Question 31 that they worked outside their home. Travel time to work refers to the total number of minutes that it usually took the worker to get from home to work during the reference week. The elapsed time includes time spent waiting for public transportation, picking up passengers in carpools, and time spent in other activities related to getting to work. (See "Reference Week.")

Aggregate Travel Time to Work (in Minutes)
Aggregate travel time to work is calculated by adding all of the travel times (in minutes) for workers who did not work at home. Aggregate travel times of workers having specific characteristics also are computed. The aggregate travel time is subject to rounding, which means that all cells in a matrix are rounded to the nearest 5 minutes. (For more information, see "Aggregate" under "Derived Measures.")

Mean Travel Time to Work (in Minutes)
Mean travel time to work (in minutes) is the average travel time that workers usually took to get from home to work (one way) during the reference week. This measure is obtained by dividing the total number of minutes taken to get from home to work (the aggregate travel time) by the number of workers 16 years old and over who did not work at home. The travel time includes time spent waiting for public transportation, picking up passengers and carpools, and time spent in other activities related to getting to work. Mean travel times of workers having specific characteristics also are computed. For example, the mean travel time of workers traveling 45 or more minutes to work is computed by dividing the aggregate travel time of workers whose travel times were 45 or more minutes by the number of workers whose travel times were 45 or more minutes. The aggregate travel time to work used to calculate mean travel time to work is rounded. (For more information, see "Aggregate Travel Time to Work (in Minutes).") Mean travel time is rounded to the nearest tenth of a minute. (For more information on means, see "Derived Measures.")

Time Arriving at Work from Home
The data on time arriving at work from home were derived from answers to Question 33 (Time Leaving Home to Go to Work) and from answers to Question 34 (Travel Time to Work). These questions were asked of people who indicated in Question 29 that they worked at some time during the reference week, and who reported in Question 31 that they worked outside their home. The arrival time is calculated by adding the travel time to work to the reported time leaving home to go to work. These data are presented with other characteristics of workers at their workplace. (See "Time Leaving Home to Go to Work" and "Travel Time to Work.")

The responses to the place of work and journey to work questions provide basic knowledge about commuting patterns and the characteristics of commuter travel. The commuting data are essential for planning highway improvement and developing public transportation services, as well as for designing programs to ease traffic problems during peak periods, conserve energy, reduce pollution, and estimate and project the demand for alternative-fueled vehicles. These data are required to develop standards for reducing work-related vehicle trips and increasing passenger occupancy during peak period of travel. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) plans to use county-level data in computing gross commuting flows to develop place-of-residence earning estimates from place-of-work estimates by industry. In addition, BEA also plans to use these data for state personal income estimates for determining federal fund allocations.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2007-2011 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to Question 4. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years at the time of interview. Both age and date of birth are used in combination to calculate the most accurate age at the time of the interview. Respondents are asked to give an age in whole, completed years as of interview date as well as the month, day and year of birth. People are not to round an age up if the person is close to having a birthday and to estimate an age if the exact age is not known. An additional instruction on babies also asks respondents to print "0" for babies less than one year old. Inconsistently reported and missing values are assigned or imputed based on the values of other variables for that person, from other people in the household, or from people in other households ("hot deck" imputation).

Age is asked for all persons in a household or group quarters. On the mailout/mailback paper questionnaire for households, both age and date of birth are asked for persons listed as person numbers 1-5 on the form. Only age (in years) is initially asked for persons listed as 612 on the mailout/mailback paper questionnaire. If a respondent indicates that there are more than 5 people living in the household, then the household is eligible for Failed Edit Follow-up (FEFU). During FEFU operations, telephone center staffers call respondents to obtain missing data. This includes asking date of birth for any person in the household missing date of birth information. In Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI) and Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) instruments both age and date of birth is asked for all persons. In 2006, the ACS began collecting data in group quarters (GQs). This included asking both age and date of birth for persons living in a group quarters. For additional data collection methodology, please see www.census.gov/acs.

Data on age are used to determine the applicability of other questions for a particular individual and to classify other characteristics in tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and analyze programs and policies. Age is central for any number of federal programs that target funds or services to children, working-age adults, women of childbearing age, or the older population. The U.S. Department of Education uses census age data in its formula for allotment to states. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs uses age to develop its mandated state projections on the need for hospitals, nursing homes, cemeteries, domiciliary services, and other benefits for veterans. For more information on the use of age data in Federal programs, please see www.census.gov/acs.

Median Age
The median age is the age that divides the population into two equal-size groups. Half of the population is older than the median age and half is younger. Median age is based on a standard distribution of the population by single years of age and is shown to the nearest tenth of a year. (See the sections on "Standard Distributions" and "Medians" under "Derived Measures.")
Age Dependency Ratio
The age dependency ratio is derived by dividing the combined under 18 years and 65 years and over populations by the 18-to-64 population and multiplying by 100.

Old-Age Dependency Ratio
The old-age dependency ratio is derived by dividing the population 65 years and over by the 18-to-64 population and multiplying by 100.

Child Dependency Ratio
The child dependency ratio is derived by dividing the population under 18 years by the 18-to-64 population, and multiplying by 100.
Question/Concept History
The 1996-2002 American Community Survey question asked for month, day, and year of birth before age. Since 2003, the American Community Survey question asked for age, followed by month, day, and year of birth. In 2008, an additional instruction was provided with the age and date of birth question on the American Community Survey questionnaire to report babies as age 0 when the child was less than 1 year old. The addition of this instruction occurred after 2005 National Census Test results indicated increased accuracy of age reporting for babies less than one year old.

Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the population living in group quarters (GQ) was included in the American Community Survey population universe. Some types of group quarters have populations with age distributions that are very different from that of the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the age distribution for a given geographic area. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population. For example, in areas with large colleges and universities, the percent of individuals 18-24 would increase due to the inclusion of GQs in the American Community Survey universe.

Comparability
Caution should be taken when comparing population in age groups across time. The entire population continually ages into older age groups over time, and babies fill in the youngest age group. Therefore, the population of a certain age is made up of a completely different group of people in one time period than in another (e.g. one age group in 2000 versus same age group in 2011). Since populations occasionally experience booms/increases and busts/decreases in births, deaths, or migration (for example, the postwar Baby Boom from 1946-1964), one should not necessarily expect that the population in an age group in one year should be similar in size or proportion to the population in the same age group in a different period in time. For example, Baby Boomers were age 36 to 54 in Census 2000 while they were age 46 to 64 in the 2011 ACS. The age structure and distribution would therefore shift in those age groups to reflect the change in people occupying those age- specific groups over time.

Data users should also be aware of methodology differences that may exist between different data sources if they are comparing American Community Survey age data to data sources, such as Population Estimates or Decennial Census data. For example, the American Community Survey data are that of a respondent-based survey and subject to various quality measures, such as sampling and nonsampling error, response rates and item allocation error. This differs in design and methodology from other data sources, such as Population Estimates, which is not a survey and involves computational methodology to derive intercensal estimates of the population. While ACS estimates are controlled to Population Estimates for age at the nation, state and county levels of geography as part of the ACS weighting procedure, variation may exist in the age structure of a population at lower levels of geography when comparing different time periods or comparing across time due to the absence of controls below the county geography level. For more information on American Community Survey data accuracy and weighting procedures, please see www.census.gov/acs.

It should also be noted that although the American Community Survey (ACS) produces population, demographic and housing unit estimates, it is the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program that produces and disseminates the official estimates of the population for the nation, states, counties, cities and towns, and estimates of housing units for states and counties.

Workplace-based Geography
The characteristics of workers may be shown using either residence-based or workplace-based geography. If you are interested in the number and characteristics of workers living in a specific area, you should use the standard (residence- based) journey-to-work tables. If you are interested in the number and characteristics of workers who work in a specific area, you should use the workplace-based journey-to-work tables. Because place-of-work information for workers cannot always be specified below the place level, the workplace-based tables are presented only for selected geographic areas.