Data Dictionary: ACS 2009 -- 2011 (3-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: B24060. Occupation By Class Of Worker For The Civilian Employed Population 16 Years And Over [216]
Universe: Universe: Civilian employed population 16 years and over
Table Details
B24060. Occupation By Class Of Worker For The Civilian Employed Population 16 Years And Over
Universe: Universe: Civilian employed population 16 years and over
Variable Label
B24060001
B24060002
B24060003
B24060004
B24060005
B24060006
B24060007
B24060008
B24060009
B24060010
B24060011
B24060012
B24060013
B24060014
B24060015
B24060016
B24060017
B24060018
B24060019
B24060020
B24060021
B24060022
B24060023
B24060024
B24060025
B24060026
B24060027
B24060028
B24060029
B24060030
B24060031
B24060032
B24060033
B24060034
B24060035
B24060036
B24060037
B24060038
B24060039
B24060040
B24060041
B24060042
B24060043
B24060044
B24060045
B24060046
B24060047
B24060048
B24060049
B24060050
B24060051
B24060052
B24060053
B24060054
B24060055
B24060056
B24060057
B24060058
B24060059
B24060060
B24060061
B24060062
B24060063
B24060064
B24060065
B24060066
B24060067
B24060068
B24060069
B24060070
B24060071
B24060072
B24060073
B24060074
B24060075
B24060076
B24060077
B24060078
B24060079
B24060080
B24060081
B24060082
B24060083
B24060084
B24060085
B24060086
B24060087
B24060088
B24060089
B24060090
B24060091
B24060092
B24060093
B24060094
B24060095
B24060096
B24060097
B24060098
B24060099
B24060100
B24060101
B24060102
B24060103
B24060104
B24060105
B24060106
B24060107
B24060108
B24060109
B24060110
B24060111
B24060112
B24060113
B24060114
B24060115
B24060116
B24060117
B24060118
B24060119
B24060120
B24060121
B24060122
B24060123
B24060124
B24060125
B24060126
B24060127
B24060128
B24060129
B24060130
B24060131
B24060132
B24060133
B24060134
B24060135
B24060136
B24060137
B24060138
B24060139
B24060140
B24060141
B24060142
B24060143
B24060144
B24060145
B24060146
B24060147
B24060148
B24060149
B24060150
B24060151
B24060152
B24060153
B24060154
B24060155
B24060156
B24060157
B24060158
B24060159
B24060160
B24060161
B24060162
B24060163
B24060164
B24060165
B24060166
B24060167
B24060168
B24060169
B24060170
B24060171
B24060172
B24060173
B24060174
B24060175
B24060176
B24060177
B24060178
B24060179
B24060180
B24060181
B24060182
B24060183
B24060184
B24060185
B24060186
B24060187
B24060188
B24060189
B24060190
B24060191
B24060192
B24060193
B24060194
B24060195
B24060196
B24060197
B24060198
B24060199
B24060200
B24060201
B24060202
B24060203
B24060204
B24060205
B24060206
B24060207
B24060208
B24060209
B24060210
B24060211
B24060212
B24060213
B24060214
B24060215
B24060216
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2009-2011 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Occupation
Occupation describes the kind of work a person does on the job. Occupation data were derived from answers to questions 45 and 46. Question 45 asks: "What kind of work was this person doing?" Question 46 asks: "What were this person's most important activities or duties?"

These questions were asked of all people 15 years old and over who had worked in the past 5 years. For employed people, the data refer to the person's job during the previous week. For those who worked two or more jobs, the data refer to the job where the person worked the greatest number of hours. For unemployed people and people who are not currently employed but report having a job within the last five years, the data refer to their last job.

These questions describe the work activity and occupational experience of the American labor force. Data are used to formulate policy and programs for employment, career development and training; to provide information on the occupational skills of the labor force in a given area to analyze career trends; and to measure compliance with antidiscrimination policies. Companies use these data to decide where to locate new plants, stores, or offices.
Coding Procedures
Occupation statistics are compiled from data that are coded based on the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Manual: 2011, published by the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. Census occupation codes, based on the 2011 SOC, provide 539 specific occupational categories, for employed people, including military, arranged into 23 major occupational groups.

Respondents provided the data for the tabulations by writing on the questionnaires descriptions of the kind of work and activities they are doing. Clerical staff in the National Processing Center in Jeffersonville, Indiana converted the written questionnaire descriptions to codes by comparing these descriptions to entries in the Alphabetical Index of Industries and Occupations.

Some occupation groups are related closely to certain industries. Operators of transportation equipment, farm operators and workers, and healthcare providers account for major portions of their respective industries of transportation, agriculture, and health care. However, the industry categories include people in other occupations. For example, people employed in agriculture include truck drivers and bookkeepers; people employed in the transportation industry include mechanics, freight handlers, and payroll clerks; and people employed in the health care industry include janitors, security guards, and secretaries.

Editing Procedures
Following the coding operation, a computer edit and allocation process excludes all responses that should not be included in the universe, and evaluates the consistency of the remaining responses. The codes for occupation are checked for consistency with the industry and class of worker data provided for that respondent. Occasionally respondents supply occupation descriptions that are not sufficiently specific for precise classification, or they do not report on these questions at all. Certain types of incomplete entries are corrected using the Alphabetical Index of Industries and Occupations. If one or more of the three codes (occupation, industry, or class of worker) is blank after the edit, a code is assigned from a donor respondent who is a "similar" person based on questions such as age, sex, educational attainment, income, employment status, and weeks worked. If all of the labor force and income data are blank, all of these economic questions are assigned from a "similar" person who had provided all the necessary data.

Question/Concept History
Occupation data have been collected during decennial censuses since 1850. Starting with the 2010 Census, occupation data will no longer be collected during the decennial census. Long form data collection has transitioned to the American Community Survey. The American Community Survey began collecting data on occupation in 1996. The questions on occupation were designed to be consistent with the 1990 Census questions on occupation. American Community Survey questions on occupation have remained consistent between 1996 and 2011.

Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) was included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations have occupational distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the occupational distribution in some geographic areas with a substantial GQ population.
Data on occupation, industry, and class of worker are collected for the respondent's current primary job or the most recent job for those who are not employed but have worked in the last 5 years. Other labor force questions, such as questions on earnings or work hours, may have different reference periods and may not limit the response to the primary job. Although the prevalence of multiple jobs is low, data on some labor force items may not exactly correspond to the reported occupation, industry, or class of worker of a respondent.

Comparability
Comparability of occupation data was affected by a number of factors, primarily the system used to classify the questionnaire responses. Changes in the occupational classification system limit comparability of the data from one year to another. These changes are needed to recognize the "birth" of new occupations, the "death" of others, the growth and decline in existing occupations, and the desire of analysts and other users for more detail in the presentation of the data. Probably the greatest cause of noncomparability is the movement of a segment from one category to another. Changes in the nature of jobs, respondent terminology, and refinement of category composition made these movements necessary.

ACS data from 1996 to 1999 used the same occupation classification systems used for the 1990 census; therefore, the data are comparable. Since 1990, the occupation classification has been revised to reflect changes within the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). The SOC was updated in 2000 and these changes were reflected in the Census 2000 occupation codes. The 2000-2002 ACS data used the same occupation classification systems used for Census 2000, therefore, the data are comparable. Because of the possibility of new occupations being added to the list of codes, the Census Bureau needed to have more flexibility in adding codes. Consequently, in 2002, census occupation codes were expanded from three-digit codes to four-digit codes. For occupation, this entailed adding a "0" to the end of each occupation code. The SOC was revised once more in 2011. Based on the 2011 SOC changes, Census codes were revised resulting in a net gain of 30 Census occupation codes (from 509 occupations to 539 occupations). Most of these changes were concentrated in information technology, healthcare, printing, and human resources occupations. For more information on occupational comparability across classification systems, please see technical paper #65: The Relationship Between the 1990 Census and Census 2000 Industry and Occupation Classification Systems. For information on the 2011 SOC and Census codes, please see the summary of 2011 changes and the Census 2002 to 2011 occupation crosswalk.

See the 2011 Code List for Occupation Code List.
See also, Industry and Class of Worker.
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2009-2011 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Class of Worker
Class of worker categorizes people according to the type of ownership of the employing organization. Class of worker data were derived from answers to question 41. Question 41 provides respondents with 8 class of worker categories from which they are to select one. These categories are:

  1. An employee of a private, for-profit company or business, or of an individual, for wages, salary, or commissions.
  2. An employee of a private, not-for-profit, tax-exempt, or charitable organization.
  3. A local government employee (city, county, etc.).
  4. A state government employee.
  5. A Federal government employee.
  6. Self-employed in own not incorporated business, professional practice, or farm.
  7. Self-employed in own incorporated business, professional practice, or farm.
  8. Working without pay in a family business or farm.
These questions were asked of all people 15 years old and over who had worked in the past 5 years. For employed people, the data refer to the person's job during the previous week. For those who worked two or more jobs, the data refer to the job where the person worked the greatest number of hours. For unemployed people and people who are not currently employed but report having a job within the last five years, the data refer to their last job.

The class of worker categories are defined as follows:
Private wage and salary workers
Includes people who worked for wages, salary, commission, tips, pay-in-kind, or piece rates for a private, for-profit employer or a private not-for-profit, tax-exempt or charitable organization. Self-employed people whose business was incorporated are included with private wage and salary workers because they are paid employees of their own companies.

ACS tabulations present data separately for these subcategories: "Employee of private company workers," "Private not-for-profit wage and salary workers," and "Self-employed in own incorporated business workers."
Government workers
Includes people who were employees of any local, state, or Federal governmental unit, regardless of the activity of the particular agency. For ACS tabulations, the data are presented separately for the three levels of government.

Employees of Indian tribal governments, foreign governments, the United Nations, or other formal international organizations controlled by governments were classified as "Federal government workers."

The government categories include all government workers, though government workers may work in different industries. For example, people who work in a public elementary school or city owned bus line are coded as local government class of workers.
Self-employed in own not incorporated business workers
Includes people who worked for profit or fees in their own unincorporated business, profession, or trade, or who operated a farm.
Unpaid family workers
Includes people who worked without pay in a business or on a farm operated by a relative.

Editing Procedures
A computer edit and allocation process excludes all responses that should not be included in the universe and evaluates the consistency of the remaining responses. Class of worker responses are checked for consistency with the industry and occupation data provided for that respondent. Occasionally respondents do not report a response for class of worker, industry, or occupation. Certain types of incomplete entries are corrected using the Alphabetical Index of Industries and Occupations. If one or more of the three codes (occupation, industry, or class of worker) is blank after the edit, a code is assigned from a donor respondent who is a "similar" person based on questions such as age, sex, educational attainment, income, employment status, and weeks worked. If all of the labor force and income data are blank, all of these economic questions are assigned from a "similar" person who had provided all the necessary data.

These data are used to formulate policy and programs for employment and career development and training. Companies use these data to decide where to locate new plants, stores, or offices.
Question/Concept History
Class of worker data have been collected during decennial censuses since 1910. Starting with the 2010 Census, class of worker data will no longer be collected during the decennial census. Long form data collection has transitioned to the American Community Survey. The American Community Survey began collecting data on class of worker in 1996. The questions on class of worker were designed to be consistent with the 1990 Census questions on class of worker. The 1996-1998 ACS class of worker question had an additional response category for "Active duty U.S. Armed Forces member." People who marked this category were tabulated as Federal government workers. A check box was added to the employer name questionnaire item in 1999. This check box is to be marked by anyone "now on active duty in the Armed Forces..." This information is used by the industry and occupation coders to assist in assigning proper industry codes for active duty military.

Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) was included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations have class of worker distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the class of worker distribution in some geographic areas with a substantial GQ population.
Data on occupation, industry, and class of worker are collected for the respondent's current primary job or the most recent job for those who are not employed but have worked in the last 5 years. Other labor force questions, such as questions on earnings or work hours, may have different reference periods and may not limit the response to the primary job. Although the prevalence of multiple jobs is low, data on some labor force items may not exactly correspond to the reported occupation, industry, or class of worker of a respondent.

Comparability
Class of worker categories have remained consistent since the implementation of the American Community Survey in 1996. The 1996-1998 ACS class of worker question had an additional response category for "Active duty U.S. Armed Forces member" in order to assist industry and occupation coders in assigning proper industry codes for active duty military. People who selected this category were tabulated as Federal government workers. Active duty U.S. Armed Forces have been coded as Federal government workers from 1996 to 2011.
See also, Industry and Occupation.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2009-2011 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Employed
This category includes all civilians 16 years old and over who either (1) were "at work," that is, those who did any work at all during the reference week as paid employees, worked in their own business or profession, worked on their own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers on a family farm or in a family business; or (2) were "with a job but not at work," that is, those who did not work during the reference week but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, industrial dispute, vacation, or other personal reasons. Excluded from the employed are people whose only activity consisted of work around the house or unpaid volunteer work for religious, charitable, and similar organizations; also excluded are all institutionalized people and people on active duty in the United States Armed Forces.