Data Dictionary: ACS 2010 (1-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: B99021. Imputation Of Race [3]
Universe: Universe: Total population
Table Details
B99021. Imputation Of Race
Universe: Universe: Total population
Variable Label
B99021001
B99021002
B99021003
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2010 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Imputation Rates
Missing data for a particular question or item is called item nonresponse. It occurs when a respondent fails to provide an answer to a required item. The ACS also considers invalid answers as item nonresponse. The Census Bureau uses imputation methods that either use rules to determine acceptable answers or use answers from similar housing units or people who provided the item information. One type of imputation, allocation, involves using statistical procedures, such as within-household or nearest neighbor matrices populated by donors, to impute for missing values.

Overall Person Characteristic Imputation Rate
This rate is calculated by adding together the weighted number of allocated items across a set of person characteristics, and dividing by the total weighted number of responses across the same set of characteristics.
Overall Housing Characteristic Imputation Rate
This rate is calculated by adding together the weighted number of allocated items across a set of household and housing unit characteristics, and dividing by the total weighted number of responses across the same set of characteristics.
These rates give an overall picture of the rate of item nonresponse for a geographic area.
Appendix A. Field of Degree Classification
Five-Group Classification Fifteen-Group Classification Examples
Science and Engineering Computers, Mathematics and Statistics Computer Science, Mathematics, General Statistics
Biological, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences Cellular and Molecular Biology, Soil Sciences, Natural Resource Management
Physical and Related Sciences Physics, Organic chemistry, Astronomy
Psychology Psychology, Counseling, Child psychology
Social Sciences Criminology, Sociology, Political Science
Engineering Chemical Engineering, Thermal engineering, Electrical engineering
Multidisciplinary Studies Nutritional science, Cognitive science, Behavioral science
Science and Engineering Related Science and Engineering Related Pre-Med, Physical therapy, Mechanical engineering technology
Business Business Business administration, Accounting, Human resources development
Education Education Early childhood education, Higher education administration, Special education
Arts, Humanities, and Other Literature and Languages English, Foreign language and literature, Spanish
Liberal Arts and History Philosophy, Theology, American history
Visual and Performing Arts Interior design, Dance, Voice
Communications Mass communications, Journalism, Public relations
  Other Public Administration, Pre-law, Kinesiology

Four Main Group Classifications and Thirty-Nine Subgroup Classifications of Languages Spoken at Home with Illustrative Examples
Four Main Group Classifications Thirty-Nine Subgroup Classifications
Spanish Spanish or Spanish Creole Examples: Ladino, Pachuco
Other Indo-European languages French
  Examples: Cajun, Patois
  French Creole
  Examples: Haitian Creole
  Italian
  Portuguese or Portuguese Creole Examples: Papia Mentae
  German
  Example: Luxembourgian
  Yiddish
  Other West Germanic languages
  Examples: Dutch, Pennsylvania Dutch, Afrikaans
  Scandinavian languages
  Examples: Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
  Greek
  Russian
  Polish
  Serbo-Croatian
  Examples: Croatian, Serbian
  Other Slavic languages
  Examples: Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian
  Armenian
  Persian
  Gujarati
  Hindi
  Urdu
  Other Indic languages
  Examples: Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, Romany
  Other Indo-European languages
  Examples: Albanian, Gaelic, Lithuanian, Romanian
Asian and Pacific Island languages Chinese
  Examples: Cantonese, Formosan, Mandarin
  Japanese
  Korean
  Mon-Khmer, Cambodian
  Hmong
  Thai
  Laotian
  Vietnamese
  Other Asian languages
  Examples: Dravidian languages (Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil), Turkish
  Tagalog
  Other Pacific Island languages
  Examples: Chamorro, Hawaiian, Ilocano, Indonesian, Samoan
All other languages Navajo
  Other Native North American languages
  Examples: Apache, Cherokee, Dakota, Pima, Yupik
  Hungarian
  Arabic
  Hebrew
  African languages
  Examples: Amharic, Ibo, Yoruba, Bantu, Swahili, Somali
  Other and unspecified languages
  Examples: Syriac, Finnish, Other languages of the Americas, not reported


Poverty Factors and Thresholds
The 2010 Poverty Factors:
Interview Month Poverty Factors
January 2.22296
February 2.22775
March 2.23167
April 2.23592
May 2.24004
June 2.24377
July 2.24574
August 2.24803
September 2.25017
October 2.25231
November 2.25449
December 2.25663

Poverty Thresholds in 1982, by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years Old (Dollars)
Size of family unit Related children under 18 years
  None One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight or more
One person (unrelated individual)                  
    Under 65 years 5,019                
    65 years and over 4,626                
Two persons                  
    Householder under 65 years 6,459 6,649              
    Householder 65 years and over 5,831 6,624              
Three persons 7,546 7,765 7,772            
Four persons 9,950 10,112 9,783 9,817          
Five persons 11,999 12,173 11,801 11,512 11,336        
Six persons 13,801 13,855 13,570 13,296 12,890 12,649      
Seven persons 15,879 15,979 15,637 15,399 14,955 14,437 13,869    
Eight persons or more 17,760 17,917 17,594 17,312 16,911 16,403 15,872 15,738  
Nine persons or more 21,364 21,468 21,183 20,943 20,549 20,008 19,517 19,397 18,649

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Race Combination and Median Standard Distribution
Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)
  1. White; Black or African American
  2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native
  3. White; Asian
  4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  5. White; Some other race
  6. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  7. Black or African American; Asian
  8. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  9. Black or African American; Some other race
  10. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  11. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  12. American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  13. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  14. Asian; Some other race
  15. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  16. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  17. White; Black or African American; Asian
  18. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  19. White; Black or African American; Some other race
  20. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  21. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  22. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  23. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  24. White; Asian; Some other race
  25. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  26. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  27. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  28. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  29. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  30. Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
  31. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  32. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  33. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  34. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  35. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  36. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  37. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  38. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  39. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  40. White; Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
  41. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  42. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  43. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  44. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  45. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  46. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  47. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  48. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  49. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  50. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  51. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  52. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  53. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  54. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  55. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  56. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  57. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race


Median Standard Distributions
In order to provide consistency in the values within and among data products, standard distributions from which medians and quartiles are calculated are used for the American Community Survey. Standard Distribution for Median Age:

[116 data cells]
Under 1 year
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
5 years
.
.
.
112 years
113 years
114 years
115 years and over
Standard Distribution for Median Age at First Marriage:
[9 cells]
5 to 9 years
10 to 14 years
15 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 29 years
30 to 34 years
35 to 39 years
40 to 44 years
45 to 49 years
Standard Distribution for Median Agricultural Crop Sales:
[5 data cells]
Less than $1,000
$1,000 to $2,499
$2,500 to $4,999
$5,000 to $9,999
$10,000 or more

Standard Distribution for Median Bedrooms:
[9 data cells]
No bedroom
1 bedroom
2 bedrooms
3 bedrooms
4 bedrooms
5 bedrooms
6 bedrooms
7 bedrooms
8 or more bedrooms
Standard Distribution for Median Condominium Fees:
[15 data cells]
Less than $50
$50 to $99
$100 to $199
$200 to $299
$300 to $399
$400 to $499
$500 to $599
$600 to $699
$700 to $799
$800 to $899
$900 to $999
$1,000 to $1,249
$1,250 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,749
$1,750 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Contract Rent/Quartile Contract Rent/Rent Asked/Gross Rent:
[23 data cells]
Less than $100
$100 to $149
$150 to $199
$200 to $249
$250 to $299
$300 to $349
$350 to $399
$400 to $449
$450 to $499
$500 to $549
$550 to $599
$600 to $649
$650 to $699
$700 to $749
$750 to $799
$800 to $899
$900 to $999
$1,000 to $1,249
$1,250 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,499
$2,500 to $2,999
$3,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Duration of Current Marriage:
[101 data cells]
Under 1 year
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
5 years
.
.
.
97 years
98 years
99 years
100 years and over
Standard Distribution for Median Earnings and Median Income (Individuals):
[101 data cells]
Less than $2,500
$2,500 to $4,999
$5,000 to $7,499
$7,500 to $9,999
$10,000 to $12,499
$12,500 to $14,999
$15,000 to $17,499
$17,500 to $19,999
$20,000 to $22,499
$22,500 to $24,999
$500 to $549
$550 to $599
$600 to $649
$650 to $699
$700 to $749
$750 to $799
$800 to $899
$900 to $999
$1,000 to $1,249
$1,250 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,499
$2,500 to $2,999
$3,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Duration of Current Marriage:
[101 data cells]
Under 1 year
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
5 years
.
.
.
97 years
98 years
99 years
100 years and over
Standard Distribution for Median Earnings and Median Income (Individuals):
[101 data cells]
Less than $2,500
$2,500 to $4,999
$5,000 to $7,499
$7,500 to $9,999
$10,000 to $12,499
$12,500 to $14,999
$15,000 to $17,499
$17,500 to $19,999
$20,000 to $22,499
$22,500 to $24,999
$140,000 to $142,499
$142,500 to $144,999
$145,000 to $147,499
$147,500 to $149,999
$150,000 to $152,499
$152,500 to $154,999
$155,000 to $157,499
$157,500 to $159,999
$160,000 to $162,499
$162,500 to $164,999
$165,000 to $167,499
$167,500 to $169,999
$170,000 to $172,499
$172,500 to $174,999
$175,000 to $177,499
$177,500 to $179,999
$180,000 to $182,499
$182,500 to $184,999
$185,000 to $187,499
$187,500 to $189,999
$190,000 to $192,499
$192,500 to $194,999
$195,000 to $197,499
$197,500 to $199,999
$200,000 to $202,499
$202,500 to $204,999
$205,000 to $207,499
$207,500 to $209,999
$210,000 to $212,499
$212,500 to $214,999
$215,000 to $217,499
$217,500 to $219,999
$220,000 to $222,499
$222,500 to $224,999
$225,000 to $227,499
$227,500 to $229,999
$230,000 to $232,499
$232,500 to $234,999
$235,000 to $237,499
$237,500 to $239,999
$240,000 to $242,499
$242,500 to $244,999
$245,000 to $247,499
$247,500 to $249,999
$250,000 or more
$140,000 to $142,499
$142,500 to $144,999
$145,000 to $147,499
$147,500 to $149,999
$150,000 to $152,499
$152,500 to $154,999
$155,000 to $157,499
$157,500 to $159,999
$160,000 to $162,499
$162,500 to $164,999
$165,000 to $167,499
$167,500 to $169,999
$170,000 to $172,499
$172,500 to $174,999
$175,000 to $177,499
$177,500 to $179,999
$180,000 to $182,499
$182,500 to $184,999
$185,000 to $187,499
$187,500 to $189,999
$190,000 to $192,499
$192,500 to $194,999
$195,000 to $197,499
$197,500 to $199,999
$200,000 to $202,499
$202,500 to $204,999
$205,000 to $207,499
$207,500 to $209,999
$210,000 to $212,499
$212,500 to $214,999
$215,000 to $217,499
$217,500 to $219,999
$220,000 to $222,499
$222,500 to $224,999
$225,000 to $227,499
$227,500 to $229,999
$230,000 to $232,499
$232,500 to $234,999
$235,000 to $237,499
$237,500 to $239,999
$240,000 to $242,499
$242,500 to $244,999
$245,000 to $247,499
$247,500 to $249,999
$250,000 or more
$5,000 to $7,499
$7,500 to $9,999
$10,000 to $12,499
$12,500 to $14,999
$15,000 to $17,499
$17,500 to $19,999
$20,000 to $22,499
$22,500 to $24,999
$25,000 to $27,499
$27,500 to $29,999
$30,000 to $32,499
$32,500 to $34,999
$35,000 to $37,499
$37,500 to $39,999
$40,000 to $42,499
$42,500 to $44,999
$45,000 to $47,499
$47,500 to $49,999
$50,000 to $52,499
$52,500 to $54,999
$55,000 to $57,499
$57,500 to $59,999
$60,000 to $62,499
$62,500 to $64,999
$65,000 to $67,499
$67,500 to $69,999
$70,000 to $72,499
$72,500 to $74,999
$75,000 to $77,499
$77,500 to $79,999
$80,000 to $82,499
$82,500 to $84,999
$85,000 to $87,499
$87,500 to $89,999
$90,000 to $92,499
$92,500 to $94,999
$95,000 to $97,499
$97,500 to $99,999
$100,000 to $102,499
$102,500 to $104,999
$105,000 to $107,499
$107,500 to $109,999
$110,000 to $112,499
$112,500 to $114,999
$115,000 to $117,499
$117,500 to $119,999
$120,000 to $122,499
$122,500 to $124,999
$125,000 to $127,499
$127,500 to $129,999
$130,000 to $132,499
$132,500 to $134,999
$135,000 to $137,499
$137,500 to $139,999
$140,000 to $142,499
$142,500 to $144,999
$145,000 to $147,499
$147,500 to $149,999
$150,000 to $152,499
$152,500 to $154,999
$155,000 to $157,499
$157,500 to $159,999
$160,000 to $162,499
$162,500 to $164,999
$165,000 to $167,499
$167,500 to $169,999
$170,000 to $172,499
$172,500 to $174,999
$175,000 to $177,499
$177,500 to $179,999
$180,000 to $182,499
$182,500 to $184,999
$185,000 to $187,499
$187,500 to $189,999
$190,000 to $192,499
$192,500 to $194,999
$195,000 to $197,499
$197,500 to $199,999
$200,000 to $202,499
$202,500 to $204,999
$205,000 to $207,499
$207,500 to $209,999
$210,000 to $212,499
$212,500 to $214,999
$215,000 to $217,499
$217,500 to $219,999
$220,000 to $222,499
$222,500 to $224,999
$225,000 to $227,499
$227,500 to $229,999
$230,000 to $232,499
$232,500 to $234,999
$235,000 to $237,499
$237,500 to $239,999
$240,000 to $242,499
$242,500 to $244,999
$245,000 to $247,499
$247,500 to $249,999
$250,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Monthly Housing Costs:
[30 cells]
Less than $100
$100 to $149
$150 to $199
$200 to $249
$250 to $299
$300 to $349
$350 to $399
$400 to $449
$450 to $499
$500 to $549
$550 to $599
$600 to $649
$650 to $699
$700 to $749
$750 to $799
$800 to $899
$900 to $999
$1,000 to $1,249
$1,250 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,749
$1,750 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,499
$2,500 to $2,999
$3,000 to $3,499
$3,500 to $3,999
$4,000 to $4,499
$4,500 to $4,999
$5,000 to $5,499
$5,500 to $5,999
$6,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Real Estate Taxes Paid:
[14 data cells]
Less than $200
$200 to $299
$300 to $399
$400 to $599
$600 to $799
$800 to $999
$1,000 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,999
$3,000 to $3,999
$4,000 to $4,999
$5,000 to $7,499
$7,500 to $9,999
$10,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Rooms:
[14 data cells]
1 room
2 rooms
3 rooms
4 rooms
5 rooms
6 rooms
7 rooms
8 rooms
9 rooms
10 rooms
11 rooms
12 rooms
13 rooms
14 or more rooms
Standard Distribution for Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs/Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs by Mortgage Status (With a Mortgage):
[23 data cells]
Less than $100
$100 to $199
$200 to $299
$300 to $399
$400 to $499
$500 to $599
$600 to $699
$700 to $799
$800 to $899
$900 to $999
$1,000 to $1,249
$1,250 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,749
$1,750 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,499
$2,500 to $2,999
$3,000 to $3,499
$3,500 to $3,999
$4,000 to $4,499
$4,500 to $4,999
$5,000 to $5,499
$5,500 to $5,999
$6,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs by Mortgage Status (Without a Mortgage):
[17 data cells]
Less than $100
$100 to $149
$150 to $199
$200 to $249
$250 to $299
$300 to $349
$350 to $399
$400 to $499
$500 to $599
$600 to $699
$700 to $799
$800 to $899
$900 to $999
$1,000 to $1,249
$1,250 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,999
$2,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income by Mortgage Status:
[13 data cells]
Less than 10.0 percent
10.0 to 14.9 percent
15.0 to 19.9 percent
20.0 to 24.9 percent
25.0 to 29.9 percent
30.0 to 34.9 percent
35.0 to 39.9 percent
40.0 to 49.9 percent
50.0 to 59.9 percent
60.0 to 69.9 percent
70.0 to 79.9 percent
80.0 to 89.9 percent
90.0 percent or more
Standard Distribution for Median Total Mortgage Payment:
[21 data cells]
Less than $100
$100 to $199
$200 to $299
$300 to $399
$400 to $499
$500 to $599
$600 to $699
$700 to $799
$800 to $899
$900 to $999
$1,000 to $1,249
$1,250 to $1,499
$1,500 to $1,749
$1,750 to $1,999
$2,000 to $2,499
$2,500 to $2,999
$3,000 to $3,499
$3,500 to $3,999
$4,000 to $4,499
$4,500 to $4,999
$5,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Usual Hours Worked Per Week Worked in the Past 12 Months:
[9 data cells]
Usually worked 50 to 99 hours per week
Usually worked 45 to 49 hours per week
Usually worked 41 to 44 hours per week
Usually worked 40 hours per week
Usually worked 35 to 39 hours per week
Usually worked 30 to 34 hours per week
Usually worked 25 to 29 hours per week
Usually worked 15 to 24 hours per week
Usually worked 1 to 14 hours per week
Standard Distribution for Median Value/Quartile Value/Price Asked:
[24 data cells]
Less than $10,000
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 to $19,999
$20,000 to $24,999
$25,000 to $29,999
$30,000 to $34,999
$35,000 to $39,999
$40,000 to $49,999
$50,000 to $59,999
$60,000 to $69,999
$70,000 to $79,999
$80,000 to $89,999
$90,000 to $99,999
$100,000 to $124,999
$125,000 to $149,999
$150,000 to $174,999
$175,000 to $199,999
$200,000 to $249,999
$250,000 to $299,999
$300,000 to $399,999
$400,000 to $499,999
$500,000 to $749,999
$750,000 to $999,999
$1,000,000 or more
Standard Distribution for Median Vehicles Available:
[6 data cells]
No vehicle available
1 vehicle available
2 vehicles available
3 vehicles available
4 vehicles available
5 or more vehicles available
Standard Distribution for Median Year Householder Moved Into Unit:
[13 data cells]
Moved in 2010
Moved in 2009
Moved in 2008
Moved in 2007
Moved in 2006
Moved in 2005
Moved in 2004
Moved in 2003
Moved in 2002
Moved in 2001
Moved in 2000
Moved in 1990 to 1999
Moved in 1980 to 1989
Moved in 1970 to 1979
Moved in 1969 or earlier
Standard Distribution for Median Year Structure Built:
[16 data cells]
Built in 2010
Built in 2009
Built in 2008
Built in 2007
Built in 2006
Built in 2005
Built in 2004
Built in 2003
Built in 2002
Built in 2001
Built in 2000
Built 1990 to 1999
Built 1980 to 1989
Built 1970 to 1979
Built 1960 to 1969
Built 1950 to 1959
Built 1940 to 1949
Built 1939 or earlier


Race
The data on race were derived from answers to the question on race that was asked of all people. The U.S. Census Bureau collects race data in accordance with guidelines provided by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and these data are based on self- identification. The racial categories included in the census questionnaire generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. In addition, it is recognized that the categories of the race item include racial and national origin or sociocultural groups. People may choose to report more than one race to indicate their racial mixture, such as "American Indian"and "White." People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race.

The racial classifications used by the Census Bureau adhere to the October 30, 1997, Federal Register notice entitled, "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity" issued by OMB. These standards govern the categories used to collect and present federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB requires five minimum categories (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander) for race. The race categories are described below with a sixth category, "Some Other Race," added with OMB approval. In addition to the five race groups, OMB also states that respondents should be offered the option of selecting one or more races.

If an individual did not provide a race response, the race or races of the householder or other household members were imputed using specific rules of precedence of household relationship. For example, if race was missing for a natural-born child in the household, then either the race or races of the householder, another natural-born child, or spouse of the householder were imputed.

If race was not reported for anyone in the household, then the race or races of a householder in a previously processed household were imputed.
Definitions from OMB guide the Census Bureau in classifying written responses to the race question:

A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian.
Black or African American
A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "Black, African Am., or Negro" or report entries such as African American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.
American Indian or Alaska Native
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. This category includes people who indicate their race as "American Indian or Alaska Native" or report entries such as Navajo, Blackfeet, Inupiat, Yup'ik, or Central American Indian groups, or South American Indian groups.

Respondents who identified themselves as "American Indian or Alaska Native" were asked to report their enrolled or principal tribe. Therefore, tribal data in tabulations reflect the written entries reported on the questionnaires. Some of the entries (for example, Metlakatla Indian Community and Umatilla) represent reservations or a confederation of tribes on a reservation. The information on tribe is based on self-identification and therefore does not reflect any designation of federally or state-recognized tribe. The information for the 2010 ACS was derived from the American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Classification List for Census 2000 and updated from 2002 to 2009 based on the annual Federal Register notice entitled "Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs," Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, issued by OMB, and through consultation with American Indian and Alaska Native communities and leaders.

A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes people who indicate their race as "Asian Indian," "Chinese," "Filipino," "Korean," "Japanese," "Vietnamese," and "Other Asian" or provide other detailed Asian responses.

Asian Indian
Includes people who indicate their race as "Asian Indian" or report entries such as India or East Indian.

Bangladeshi
Includes people who provide a response such as Bangladeshi or Bangladesh.

Cambodian
Includes people who provide a response such as Cambodian or Cambodia.

Chinese, except Taiwanese
Includes people who indicate their race as "Chinese" or report entries such as China or Chinese American.

Filipino
Includes people who indicate their race as "Filipino" or report entries such as Philippines or Filipino American.

Includes people who provide a response such as Hmong or Mong.

Indonesian
Includes people who provide a response such as Indonesian or Indonesia.

Japanese
Includes people who indicate their race as "Japanese" or report entries such as Japan or Japanese American.

Korean
Includes people who indicate their race as "Korean" or report entries such as Korea or Korean American.

Laotian
Includes people who provide a response such as Laotian or Laos.

Malaysian
Includes people who provide a response such as Malaysian or Malaysia.

Pakistani
Includes people who provide a response such as Pakistani or Pakistan.

Sri Lankan
Includes people who provide a response such as Sri Lankan or Sri Lanka.

Taiwanese
Includes people who provide a response such as Taiwanese or Taiwan.

Includes people who provide a response such as Thai or Thailand.

Vietnamese
Includes people who indicate their race as "Vietnamese" or report entries such as Vietnam or Vietnamese American.

Other Asian
Includes people who provide a response of another Asian group not shown separately, such as Iwo Jiman, Maldivian, Mongolian,
Okinawan, or Singaporean and who reported two or more specified Asian groups (and no other race).

Other Asian, not specified
Includes respondents who checked the "Other Asian" response category on the census questionnaire and did not write in a specific group or wrote in a generic term such as "Asian," or "Asiatic."

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian," "Guamanian or Chamorro," "Samoan," and "Other Pacific Islander" or provide other detailed Pacific Islander responses.

Native Hawaiian
Includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian" or report entries such as Part Hawaiian or Hawaiian.
Samoan
Includes people who indicate their race as "Samoan" or report entries such as American Samoan or Western Samoan.
Tongan
Includes people who provide a response such as Tongan or Tonga.
Other Polynesian
Includes people who provide a response of another Polynesian group, such as Tahitian, Tokelauan, or wrote in a generic term such as "Polynesian."
Guamanian or Chamorro
Includes people who indicate their race as "Guamanian or Chamorro" or report entries such as Chamorro or Guam.
Other Micronesian
Includes people who provide a response of another Micronesian group, such as Carolinian, Chuukese, I-Kiribati, Kosraean, Mariana Islander, Marshallese, Palauan, Pohnpeian, Saipanese, Yapese, or wrote in a generic term such as "Micronesian."
Fijian
Includes people who provide a response such as Fijian or Fiji.
Other Melanesian
Includes people who provide a response of another Melanesian group, such as Guinean, Hebrides Islander, Solomon Islander, or wrote in a generic term such as "Melanesian."
Other Pacific Islander
Includes people who provided two or more specified Pacific Islander groups, such as Tahitian, Chuukese, or Solomon Islander.
Other Pacific Islander, not specified (Check box only)
Includes respondents who checked the Other Pacific Islander response category on the ACS questionnaire and did not write in anything.
Other Pacific Islander, not specified
Includes respondents who checked the Other Pacific Islander response category on the ACS questionnaire and did not write in a specific group or wrote in a generic term such as "Pacific Islander."
Some Other Race
Includes all other responses not included in the "White," "Black or African American," "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander" race categories described above. Respondents reporting entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or Spanish) in response to the race question are included in this category.
Two or More Races
People may chose to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple responses, or by some combination of check boxes and other responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum race groups identified by OMB, and the Census Bureau's "Some Other Race" category. For data product purposes, "Two or More Races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
  1. White
  2. Black or African American
  3. American Indian or Alaska Native
  4. Asian
  5. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  6. Some Other Race

  7. There are 57 possible combinations (see Appendix A) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of "White" and "Asian" was tallied as Two or More Races, while a response of "Japanese" and "Chinese" was not because "Japanese" and "Chinese" are both Asian responses.
Race Concepts
Given the many possible ways of displaying data on race, data products will provide varying levels of detail. There are several concepts used to display and tabulate race information for the six major race categories (White; Black or African American; American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and Some Other Race) and the various details within these groups.
The concept "race alone" includes people who reported a single entry (i.e., Korean) and no other race, as well as people who reported two or more entries within the same major race group (i.e., Asian). For example, respondents who reported Korean and Vietnamese are part of the larger "Asian alone" race group.

The concept "race alone or in combination" includes people who reported a single race alone (i.e., Asian) and people who reported that race in combination with one or more of the other major race groups (i.e., White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race). The concept "race alone or in combination" concept, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as that race group, either alone, or in combination with another race(s). The sum of the six individual race "alone or in combination" categories may add to more than the total population because people who reported more than one race were tallied in each race category.

The concept "race alone or in any combination" applies only to detailed race iteration groups, such as American Indian and Alaska Native tribes, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Pacific Islander groups. For example, Korean alone or in any combination includes people who reported a single response (i.e., Korean), people who reported Korean and another Asian group (i.e., Korean and Vietnamese), and people who reported Korean in combination with one or more other non-Asian race groups (i.e., White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, or Some Other Race).

Coding of Write-in Entries
The 2010 ACS included an automated review, computer edit, and coding operation on a 100 percent basis for the write-in responses to the race question, similar to that used in Census 2010. There were two types of coding operations: (1) automated coding where a write-in response was automatically coded if it matched a write-in response already contained in a database known as the "master file" and (2) expert coding, which took place when a write-in response did not match an entry already on the master file and was sent to expert coders familiar with the subject matter. During the coding process, subject-matter specialists reviewed and coded written entries from the response areas on the race question: American Indian or Alaska Native, Other Asian, Other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race. Up to 30 text characters were collected from each race write-in area, and up to two responses were coded and tabulated from each separate race write-in area.
Question/Concept History
1996-1998 American Community Survey
  • The sequence of the questions on race and Hispanic origin was switched. In the 19961998 ACS, the question on race immediately followed the question on Hispanic origin. This approach differed from the 1990 census, where the question on race preceded the question on Hispanic origin with two intervening questions.
  • The 1990 census category, "Black or Negro" was changed to "Black, African Am."
  • The 1990 census category, "Other race," was renamed "Some other race." A separate "Multiracial" category was added. The instruction to "print the race(s) or group below" pertained to both the "Some other race" and "Multiracial" categories.
  • The "Indian (Amer.)," "Other Asian/Pacific Islander," "Some other race," and "Multiracial" response categories all shared a single write-in area.

1999-2002 American Community Survey
  • The response category "Black, African Am." was changed to "Black, African Am., or Negro" to correspond with the Census 2000 response category.
  • The separate 1990 census and 1996-1998 ACS response categories "Indian (Amer.)," "Eskimo," and "Aleut," were combined into one response category, "American Indian or Alaska Native." Respondents were asked to "print name of enrolled or principal tribe" on a separate write-in line to correspond with the Census 2000 response category.
  • The 1990 Asian or Pacific Islander category was separated into two categories, "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander." Also, the six detailed Asian groups were alphabetized; and the three detailed Pacific Islander groups were alphabetized after the Native Hawaiian response category.
  • The response category "Hawaiian" was changed to "Native Hawaiian." The response category "Guamanian" was changed to "Guamanian or Chamorro." The response category "Other Asian/Pacific Islander" was split into two separate response categories, "Other Asian," and "Other Pacific Islander." These changes correspond to those in the Census 2000 response categories.
  • The separate "multiracial" response category was dropped. Rather, respondents were instructed to "Mark [x] one or more races to indicate what this person considers himself/herself to be." Respondents were allowed to select more than one category for race in Census 2000.
  • In the American Community Survey, the "Other Asian," "Other Pacific Islander," and "Some other race" response categories shared the same write-in area. On the Census 2000 questionnaire, only the "Other Asian" and "Other Pacific Islander" response categories shared the same write-in area, and the "Some other race" category had a separate write-in area.

2003-2007 American Community Survey
  • The response category "Black, African Am., or Negro" was changed to "Black or African American."

Puerto Rico Community Survey, started in 2005
  • Separate questions on race and Hispanic origin were included on the questionnaire. These questions were identical to the questions used in the United States.

2008-2010 American Community Survey
  • The wording of the race question was changed to read, "What is Person 1's race? Mark (X) one or more boxes" and the reference to what this person considers him/herself to be was deleted.
  • The response category "Black or African American" was changed to "Black, African Am., or Negro."
  • Examples were added to the "Other Asian" response categories (Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on) and the "Other Pacific Islander" response categories (Fijian, Tongan, and so on).

Limitation of the data
Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have race distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore
have a noticeable impact on the race distribution. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.
Comparability
The data on race in the American Community Survey are not directly comparable across all years. Ongoing research conducted following the 1990 census affected the ACS question on race since its inception in 1996. Also, the October 1997 revised standards for federal data on race and ethnicity issued by the OMB led to changes in the question on race for Census 2000. Consequently, in order to achieve consistency, other census-administered surveys such as the ACS were modified to reflect changes required by OMB.

See the 2010 Code List for Race Code List.