Data Dictionary: ACS 2009 (1-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: C05007. Place Of Birth By Year Of Entry By Citizenship Status For The Foreign-Born Population [57]
Universe: Foreign-born population
Table Details
C05007. Place Of Birth By Year Of Entry By Citizenship Status For The Foreign-Born Population
Universe: Foreign-born population
Variable Label
C05007001
C05007002
C05007003
C05007004
C05007005
C05007006
C05007007
C05007008
C05007009
C05007010
C05007011
C05007012
C05007013
C05007014
C05007015
C05007016
C05007017
C05007018
C05007019
C05007020
C05007021
C05007022
C05007023
C05007024
C05007025
C05007026
C05007027
C05007028
C05007029
C05007030
C05007031
C05007032
C05007033
C05007034
C05007035
C05007036
C05007037
C05007038
C05007039
C05007040
C05007041
C05007042
C05007043
C05007044
C05007045
C05007046
C05007047
C05007048
C05007049
C05007050
C05007051
C05007052
C05007053
C05007054
C05007055
C05007056
C05007057
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2009 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Place of Birth
The data on place of birth were derived from answers to Question 7. Respondents were asked to select one of two categories: (1) in the United States, or (2) outside the United States. In the American Community Survey, respondents selecting category (1) were then asked to report the name of the state while respondents selecting category (2) were then asked to report the name of the foreign country, or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc. In the Puerto Rico Community Survey, respondents selecting category (1) were also asked to report the name of the state, while respondents selecting category (2) were then asked to print Puerto Rico or the name of the foreign country, or U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, etc. People not reporting a place of birth were assigned the state or country of birth of another family member, or were allocated the response of another individual with similar characteristics. People born outside the United States were asked to report their place of birth according to current international boundaries. Since numerous changes in boundaries of foreign countries have occurred in the last century, some people may have reported their place of birth in terms of boundaries that existed at the time of their birth or emigration, or in accordance with their own national preference.

The place of birth questions along with the citizenship status question provide essential data for setting and evaluating immigration policies and laws. Knowing the characterisitcs of immigrants helps legislators and others understand how different immigrant groups are assimilated. Federal agencies require these data to develop programs for refugees and other foreign-born individuals. Vital information on lifetime migration among states also comes from the place of birth question.

Nativity
Information on place of birth and citizenship status was used to classify the population into two major categories: native and foreign born.

Native
The native population includes anyone who was a U.S. citizen at birth. The native population includes those born in the United States, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas, or the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as those born abroad of at least one U.S. citizen parent. The native population is divided into the following groups: people born in the state in which they resided at the time of the survey; people born in a different state, by region; people born in Puerto Rico or one of the U.S. Island Areas; and people born abroad with at least one U.S. citizen parent. (See also "Citizenship Status.")

Foreign Born
The foreign-born population includes anyone who was not a U.S. citizen at birth. This includes respondents who indicated they were a U.S. citizen by naturalization or not a U.S. citizen. (See also Citizenship Status.) The foreign-born population is shown by selected area, country, or region of birth. The places of birth shown in data products were chosen based on the number of respondents who reported that area or country of birth.

Question/Concept History
The 1996-1998 American Community Survey question asked respondents to write in the U.S. state, territory, commonwealth or foreign country where this person was born. Beginning in 1999, the question asked "Where was this person born?" and provided two check-boxes, each with a write-in space.

Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the group quarters (GQ) population is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have place of birth distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the place of birth distribution. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.

Comparability
This data source is comparable to the decennial censuses. See the 2009 Code List for Place of Birth Code List.

Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2009 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Year of Entry
The data on year of entry were derived from answers to Question 9. This question was asked about Persons 1 through 5 in the ACS, and was restricted to those persons who on Question 8 answered that they were in citizenship categories (2) born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, (3) born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents, (4) U.S. citizen by naturalization, or (5) not a U.S citizen. All respondents born outside the United States were asked for the year in which they came to live in the United States. This includes people born in Puerto Rico and U.S. Island Areas; people born abroad of an U.S. citizen parent or parents; and the foreign born. (See Citizenship Status.) For the Puerto Rico Community Survey, respondents were asked for the year in which they came to live in Puerto Rico. The responses to this question indicate when persons born outside of the U.S. came to live in the United States.

Question/Concept History
Since 1996, the year of entry questions for the American Community Survey and for the Puerto Rico Survey were identical. An instruction was added beginning in 1999 to "Print numbers in boxes."

Limitation of the Data
Respondents were directed to indicate the year they entered the U.S. "to live." (or "to live" in Puerto Rico, for the Puerto Community Survey). For respondents who entered the U.S. (or entered Puerto Rico for the Puerto Rico Community Survey) multiple times, the interviewers were instructed to request the most recent year of entry. For respondents who entered multiple times and did not ask the interviewer for clarification or who mailed back the questionnaire without being interviewed in person, it is unclear which year of entry was provided (i.e. first or most recent). Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have year of entry distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the year of entry distribution. This is particularly true for areas with substantial GQ populations.

Comparability
Year of entry was comparable across ACS years. A note of caution when comparing ACS and Census 2000 year of entry data: Census 2000 represents data collected as of April 1, 2000 and thus the "2000" year of entry category accounts only for the first quarter (Jan-Mar) in 2000. In comparison, the ACS represents data collected throughout the entire year and thus the "2000" year of entry category accounts for the entire year of 2000. Derived Measures Census data products include various derived measures, such as medians, means, and percentages, as well as certain rates and ratios. Most derived measures that round to less than 0.1 are shown as zero.


Citizenship Status (U.S. Citizenship Status)
The data on citizenship status were derived from answers to Question 8. This question was asked about person's 1 through 5 in the ACS.

Respondents were asked to select one of five categories: (1) born in the United States, (2) born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, (3) born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents, (4) U.S. citizen by naturalization, or (5) not a U.S citizen. Respondents indicating they are a U.S. citizen by naturalization are also asked to print their year of naturalization. People born in American Samoa, although not explicitly listed, are included in the second response category.

For the Puerto Rico Community Survey, respondents were asked to select one of five categories: (1) born in Puerto Rico, (2) born in a U.S. state, District of Columbia, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, (3) born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents, (4) U.S. citizen by naturalization, or (5) not a U.S. citizen. Respondents indicating they are a U.S. citizen by naturalization are also asked to print their year of naturalization. People born in American Samoa, although not explicitly listed, are included in the second response category.

When no information on citizenship status was reported for a person, information for other household members, if available, was used to assign a citizenship status to the respondent. All cases of nonresponse that were not assigned a citizenship status based on information from other household members were allocated the citizenship status of another person with similar characteristics who provided complete information. In cases of conflicting responses, place of birth information is used to edit citizenship status. For example, if a respondent states he or she was born in Puerto Rico but was not a U.S. citizen, the edits use the response to the place of birth question to change the respondents status to "U.S. citizen at birth."

U.S. Citizen
Respondents who indicated that they were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area (such as Guam), or abroad of American (U.S. citizen) parent or parents are considered U.S. citizens at birth. Foreign-born people who indicated that they were U.S. citizens through naturalization also are considered U.S. citizens.

Not a U.S. Citizen
Respondents who indicated that they were not U.S. citizens at the time of the survey.

Native
The native population includes anyone who was a U.S. citizen or a U.S. national at birth. This includes respondents who indicated they were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area (such as Guam), or abroad of American (U.S. citizen) parent or parents.

Foreign born
The foreign-born population includes anyone who was not a U.S. citizen or a U.S. national at birth. This includes respondents who indicated they were a U.S. citizen by naturalization or not a U.S. citizen. The American Community Survey questionnaires do not ask about immigration status. The population surveyed includes all people who indicated that the United States was their usual place of residence on the survey date. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents (i.e. immigrants), temporary migrants (e.g., foreign students), humanitarian migrants (e.g., refugees), and unauthorized migrants (i.e. people illegally present in the United States). The responses to this question are used to determine the U.S. citizen and non-U.S. citizen populations as well as to determine the native and foreign-born populations.

Question/Concept History
In the 1996-1998 American Community Survey, the third response category was "Yes, born abroad of American parent(s)." However, since 1999 in the American Community Survey and since the 2005 Puerto Rico Community Survey, the response category was "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents." In 2008, respondents who indicated that they were a U.S. citizen by naturalization were also asked to print their year of naturalization. Also in 2008, modifications in wording were made to both the third response category (changed from "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents" to "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents") and the fifth response category (changed from "No, not a citizen of the United States" to "No, not a U.S. citizen").

Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have citizenship status distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the citizenship status distribution. This is particularly true for areas with substantial GQ populations.

Comparability
Citizenship can be compared both across ACS years and to Census 2000 data.