Data Dictionary: ACS 2006 -- 2008 (3-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Universe: Universe: Foreign-born population
Variable Details
C05007. Place Of Birth By Year Of Entry By Citizenship Status For The Foreign-Born Population
Universe: Universe: Foreign-born population
C05007004 Entered U.S. 1990 to 1999
Aggregation method:
Addition
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2006-2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Place of Birth
The data on place of birth were derived from answers to Question 7. Respondents were asked to select one of two categories:
(1) in the United States, or
(2) outside the United States. In the American Community Survey, respondents selecting category
(1) were then asked to report the name of the state while respondents selecting category
(2) were then asked to report the name of the foreign country, or Puerto Rico, Guam, etc. In the Puerto Rico Community Survey, respondents selecting category
(1) were also asked to report the name of the state, while respondents selecting category
(2) were then asked to print Puerto Rico or the name of the foreign country, or U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, etc. People not reporting a place of birth were assigned the state or country of birth of another family member, or were allocated the response of another individual with similar characteristics. People born outside the United States were asked to report their place of birth according to current international boundaries. Since numerous changes in boundaries of foreign countries have occurred in the last century, some people may have reported their place of birth in terms of boundaries that existed at the time of their birth or emigration, or in accordance with their own national preference.
Nativity
Information on place of birth and citizenship status was used to classify the population into two major categories: native and foreign born.
Native
The native population includes anyone who was a U.S. citizen at birth. The native population includes those born in the United States, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas, or the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as those born abroad of at least one U.S. citizen parent. The native population is divided into the following groups: people born in the state in which they resided at the time of the survey; people born in a different state, by region; people born in Puerto Rico or one of the U.S. Island Areas; and people born abroad with at least one U.S. citizen parent. (See also "Citizenship Status.")
Foreign Born
The foreign-born population includes anyone who was not a U.S. citizen at birth. This includes respondents who indicated they were a U.S. citizen by naturalization or not a U.S. citizen. (See also "Citizenship Status".)
The foreign-born population is shown by selected area, country, or region of birth. The places of birth shown in data products were chosen based on the number of respondents who reported that area or country of birth.
Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the group quarters (GQ) population is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have place of birth distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the place of birth distribution. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.

Question/Concept History
The 1996-1998 American Community Survey question asked respondents to write in the U.S. state, territory, commonwealth or foreign country where this person was born. Beginning in 1999, the question asked "Where was this person born?" and provided two check-boxes, each with a write-in space.
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2006-2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Year of Entry
The data on year of entry were derived from answers to Question 9.

All respondents born outside the United States were asked for the year in which they came to live in the United States. This includes people born in Puerto Rico and U.S. Island Areas; people born abroad of an U.S. citizen parent or parents; and the foreign born. (See "Citizenship Status.") For the Puerto Rico Community Survey, respondents were asked for the year in which they came to live in Puerto Rico.
Limitation of the Data
Respondents were directed to indicate the year they entered the U.S. (or Puerto Rico, for the Puerto Community Survey) "to live." For respondents who have entered the U.S. (or Puerto Rico for the Puerto Rico Community Survey) multiple times, the interviewers were instructed to request the most recent year of entry. For respondents who either did not ask the interviewer for clarification or for those who mailed back the questionnaire without being interviewed in person, it was difficult to ensure that respondents interpreted the question as intended.

Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have year of entry distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the year of entry distribution. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.

Question/Concept History
Since 1996, the year of entry questions for the American Community Survey and for the Puerto Rico Survey were identical. An instruction was added beginning in 1999 to "Print numbers in boxes."
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2006-2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Citizenship Status (U.S. Citizenship Status)
The data on citizenship status were derived from answers to Question 8. The responses to this question were used to determine the U.S. citizen and non-U.S. citizen populations as well as to determine the native and foreign-born populations. Respondents were asked to select one of five categories:

(1) born in the United States,
(2) born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas,
(3) born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents,
(4) U.S. citizen by naturalization, or
(5) not a U.S citizen. Respondents indicating they are a U.S. citizen by naturalization are also asked to print their year of naturalization. People born in American Samoa, although not explicitly listed, are included in the second response category.

For the Puerto Rico Community Survey, respondents were asked to select one of five categories:
(1) born in Puerto Rico,
(2) born in a U.S. state, District of Columbia, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas,
(3) born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents,
(4) U.S. citizen by naturalization, or
(5) not a U.S. citizen. Respondents indicating they are a U.S. citizen by naturalization are also asked to print their year of naturalization. People born in American Samoa, although not explicitly listed, are included in the second response category.

When no information on citizenship status was reported for a person, information for other household members, if available, was used to assign a citizenship status to the respondent. All cases of nonresponse that were not assigned a citizenship status based on information from other household members were allocated the citizenship status of another person with similar characteristics who provided complete information. In cases of conflicting responses, place of birth information is used to edit citizenship status. For example, if a respondent states he or she was born in Puerto Rico but was not a U.S. citizen, the edits use the response to the place of birth question to change the respondents status to "U.S. citizen at birth."
U.S. Citizen
Respondents who indicated that they were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area (such as Guam), or abroad of American (U.S. citizen) parent or parents are considered U.S. citizens at birth. Foreign-born people who indicated that they were U.S. citizens through naturalization also are considered U.S. citizens.
Not a U.S. Citizen
Respondents who indicated that they were not U.S. citizens at the time of the survey.
Native
The native population includes anyone who was a U.S. citizen or a U.S. national at birth. This includes respondents who indicated they were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, a U.S. Island Area (such as Guam), or abroad of American (U.S. citizen) parent or parents.
Foreign born
The foreign-born population includes anyone who was not a U.S. citizen or a U.S. national at birth. This includes respondents who indicated they were a U.S. citizen by naturalization or not a U.S. citizen. The American Community Survey questionnaires do not ask about immigration status. The population surveyed includes all people who indicated that the United States was their usual place of residence on the survey date. The foreign-born population includes naturalized U.S. citizens, Lawful Permanent Residents (immigrants), temporary migrants (e.g., foreign students), humanitarian migrants (e.g., refugees), and unauthorized migrants (people illegally present in the United States).
Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations may have citizenship status distributions that are different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the citizenship status distribution. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.
Question/Concept History
In the 1996-1998 American Community Survey, the third response category was "Yes, born abroad of American parent(s)." However, since 1999 in the American Community Surveys and since the 2005 Puerto Rico Community Surveys, the response category was "Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents." In 2008, respondents who indicated that they were a U.S. citizen by naturalization were also asked to print their year of naturalization. Also in 2008, modifications in wording were made to both the third response category (changed from Yes, born abroad of American parent or parents." to "Yes, born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents.") and the fifth response category (changed from "No, not a citizen of the United States" to "No, not a U.S. citizen").