Data Dictionary: ACS 2008 (1-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau
Table: T122. Poverty Status In The Past 12 Months (Two Or More Races) [3]
Universe: Two or More races Population for whom poverty status is determined
Table Details
T122. Poverty Status In The Past 12 Months (Two Or More Races)
Universe: Two or More races Population for whom poverty status is determined
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months
Poverty statistics in ACS products adhere to the standards specified by the Office of Management and Budget in Statistical Policy Directive 14. The Census Bureau uses a set of dollar value thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty. Further, poverty thresholds for people living alone or with nonrelatives (unrelated individuals) vary by age (under 65 years or 65 years and older). The poverty thresholds for two-person families also vary by the age of the householder. If a familys total income is less than the dollar value of the appropriate threshold, then that family and every individual in it are considered to be in poverty. Similarly, if an unrelated individual's total income is less than the appropriate threshold, then that individual is considered to be in poverty.
How the Census Bureau Determines Poverty Status
In determining the poverty status of families and unrelated individuals, the Census Bureau uses thresholds (income cutoffs) arranged in a two-dimensional matrix. The matrix consists of family size (from one person to nine or more people) cross-classified by presence and number of family members under 18 years old (from no children present to eight or more children present). Unrelated individuals and two-person families are further differentiated by age of reference person (RP) (under 65 years old and 65 years old and over).

To determine a person's poverty status, one compares the person's total family income in the last 12 months with the poverty threshold appropriate for that person's family size and composition (see example below). If the total income of that person's family is less than the threshold appropriate for that family, then the person is considered "below the poverty level,"together with every member of his or her family. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage, or adoption, then the person's own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold. The total number of people below the poverty level is the sum of people in families and the number of unrelated individuals with incomes in the last 12 months below the poverty threshold.

Since ACS is a continuous survey, people respond throughout the year. Because the income questions specify a period covering the last 12 months, the appropriate poverty thresholds are determined by multiplying the base-year poverty thresholds (1982) by the average of the monthly inflation factors for the 12 months preceding the data collection. See the table below titled "Poverty Thresholds in 1982," by "Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years (Dollars)," for appropriate base thresholds. See the table "The 2008 Poverty Factors" for the appropriate adjustment based on interview month.

For example, consider a family of three with one child under 18 years of age, interviewed in July 2008 and reporting a total family income of $14,000 for the last 12 months (July 2007 to June 2008). The base year (1982) threshold for such a family is $7,765, while the average of the 12 inflation factors is 2.19359. Multiplying $7,765 by 2.19359 determines the appropriate poverty threshold for this family type, which is $17,033. Comparing the familys income of $14,000 with the poverty threshold shows that the family and all people in the family are considered to have been in poverty. The only difference for determining poverty status for unrelated individuals is that the person's individual total income is compared with the threshold rather than the familys income.

For example, consider a family of three with one child under 18 years of age, interviewed in July 2008 and reporting a total family income of $14,000 for the last 12 months (July 2007 to June 2008). The base year (1982) threshold for such a family is $7,765, while the average of the 12 inflation factors is 2.19359. Multiplying $7,765 by 2.19359 determines the appropriate poverty threshold for this family type, which is $17,033. Comparing the familys income of $14,000 with the poverty threshold shows that the family and all people in the family are considered to have been in poverty. The only difference for determining poverty status for unrelated individuals is that the person's individual total income is compared with the threshold rather than the familys income.
The 2008 Poverty Factors:
Interview Month Poverty Factors
January 2.14841
February 2.15589
March 2.16297
April 2.17003
May 2.17705
June 2.18455
July 2.19359
August 2.20366
September 2.21330
October 2.22219
November 2.22879
December 2.23073


Poverty Thresholds in 1982, by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years Old (Dollars)
Size of family unit Related children under 18 years
None One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight or more
One person (unrelated individual)                  
Under 65 years 5,019                
65 years and over 4,626                
Two persons                  
Householder under 65 years 6,459 6,649              
Householder 65 years and over 5,831 6,624              
Three persons 7,546 7,765 7,772            
Four persons 9,950 10,112 9,783 9,817          
Five persons 11,999 12,173 11,801 11,512 11,336        
Six persons 13,801 13,855 13,570 13,296 12,890 12,649      
Seven persons 15,879 15,979 15,637 15,399 14,955 14,437 13,869    
Eight persons or more 17,760 17,917 17,594 17,312 16,911 16,403 15,872 15,738  
Nine persons or more 21,364 21,468 21,183 20,943 20,549 20,008 19,517 19,397 18,649


Individuals for Whom Poverty Status is Determined
Poverty status was determined for all people except institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. These groups were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating poverty rates.
Specified Poverty Levels
For various reasons, the official poverty definition does not satisfy all the needs of data users. Therefore, some of the data reflect the number of people below different percentages of the poverty thresholds. These specified poverty levels are obtained by multiplying the official thresholds by the appropriate factor. Using the previous example cited (a family of three with one related child under 18 years responding in July 2008), the dollar value of 125 percent of the poverty threshold was $ 21,291 ($ 17,033x 1.25).
Income Deficit
Income deficit represents the difference between the total income in the last 12 months of families and unrelated individuals below the poverty level and their respective poverty thresholds. In computing the income deficit, families reporting a net income loss are assigned zero dollars and for such cases the deficit is equal to the poverty threshold. This measure provides an estimate of the amount, which would be required to raise the incomes of all poor families and unrelated individuals to their respective poverty thresholds. The income deficit is thus a measure of the degree of the impoverishment of a family or unrelated individual. However, please use caution when comparing the average deficits of families with different characteristics. Apparent differences in average income deficits may, to some extent, be a function of differences in family size.
Aggregate Income Deficit
Aggregate income deficit refers only to those families or unrelated individuals who are classified as below the poverty level. It is defined as the group (e.g., type of family) sum total of differences between the appropriate threshold and total family income or total personal income. Aggregate income deficit is subject to rounding, which means that all cells in a matrix are rounded to the nearest hundred dollars. (For more information, see "Aggregate" under "Derived Measures.")
Mean Income Deficit
Mean income deficit represents the amount obtained by dividing the total income deficit for a group below the poverty level by the number of families (or unrelated individuals) in that group. (The aggregate used to calculate mean income deficit is rounded. For more information, see "Aggregate Income Deficit.") As mentioned above, please use caution when comparing mean income deficits of families with different characteristics, as apparent differences may, to some extent, be a function of differences in family size. Mean income deficit is rounded to the nearest whole dollar. (For more information on means, see "Derived Measures.")
Question/Concept History
Derivation of the Current Poverty Measure
When the original poverty definition was developed in 1964 by the Social Security Administration (SSA), it focused on family food consumption. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) used its data about the nutritional needs of children and adults to construct food plans for families. Within each food plan, dollar amounts varied according to the total number of people in the family and the family's composition, that is, the number of children within each family. The cheapest of these plans, the Economy Food Plan, was designed to address the dietary needs of families on an austere budget.

Since the USDAs 1955 Food Consumption Survey showed that families of three or more people across all income levels spent roughly one-third of their income on food, the SSA multiplied the cost of the Economy Food Plan by three to obtain dollar figures for total family income. These dollar figures, with some adjustments, later became the official poverty thresholds. Since the Economy Food Plan budgets varied by family size and composition, so too did the poverty thresholds. For two-person families, the thresholds were adjusted by slightly higher factors because those households had higher fixed costs. Thresholds for unrelated individuals were calculated as a fixed proportion of the corresponding thresholds for two-person families. The poverty thresholds are revised annually to allow for changes in the cost of living as reflected in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). The poverty thresholds are the same for all parts of the country; they are not adjusted for regional, state, or local variations in the cost of living .
Comparability
Because of differences in survey methodology (questionnaire design, method of data collection, sample size, etc.), the poverty rate estimates obtained from American Community Survey data may differ from those reported in the Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, and those reported in Census 2000. Please refer to http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/newguidance.html for more details.
Poverty Status of Households in the Past 12 Months
Since poverty is defined at the family level and not the household level, the poverty status of the household is determined by the poverty status of the householder. Households are classified as poor when the total income of the householder's family in the last 12 months is below the appropriate poverty threshold. (For nonfamily householders, their own income is compared with the appropriate threshold.) The income of people living in the household who are unrelated to the householder is not considered when determining the poverty status of a household, nor does their presence affect the family size in determining the appropriate threshold. The poverty thresholds vary depending upon three criteria: size of family, number of children, and, for one- and two- person families, age of the householder.
Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. The part of the group quarters population in the poverty universe (for example, people living in group homes or those living in agriculture workers dormitories) is many times more likely to be in poverty than people living in households. Direct comparisons of the data would likely result in erroneous conclusions about changes in the poverty status of all people in the poverty universe.
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Two or More Races
People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum races identified by the OMB, and the Census Bureau's "Some other race" category. For data product purposes, "Two or More Races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
1. White
2. Black or African American
3. American Indian and Alaska Native
4. Asian
5. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
6. Some other race

There are 57 possible combinations (see below) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of "White" and "Asian" was tallied as two or more races, while a response of "Japanese" and "Chinese" was not because "Japanese" and "Chinese" are both Asian responses.
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)
  1. White; Black or African American
  2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native
  3. White; Asian
  4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific
  5. Islander
  6. White; Some other race
  7. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  8. Black or African American; Asian
  9. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  10. Black or African American; Some other race
  11. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  12. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  13. American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  14. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  15. Asian; Some other race
  16. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  17. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  18. White; Black or African American; Asian
  19. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  20. White; Black or African American; Some other race
  21. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  22. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  23. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  24. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  25. White; Asian; Some other race
  26. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  27. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  28. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  29. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  30. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  31. Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
  32. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  33. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  34. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  35. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  36. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  37. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  38. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  39. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  40. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  41. White; Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
  42. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  43. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  44. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  45. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  46. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  47. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  48. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  49. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  50. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  51. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  52. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  53. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  54. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  55. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  56. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  57. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  58. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
Given the many possible ways of displaying data on two or more races, data products will provide varying levels of detail. The most common presentation shows a single line indicating "Two or more races." Some data products provide totals of all 57 possible race combinations, as well as subtotals of people reporting a specific number of races, such as people reporting two races, people reporting three races, and so on. In other presentations on race, data are shown for the total number of people who reported one of the six categories alone or in combination with one or more other race categories. For example, the category, "Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races" includes people who reported Asian alone and people who reported Asian in combination with White, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and/or Some other race. This number, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as Asian in the question on race. When this data presentation is used, the individual race categories will add to more than the total population because people may be included in more than one category.