Data Dictionary: ACS 2008 (1-Year Estimates)
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Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Table: C14007G. School Enrollment By Level Of School For The Population 3 Years And Over (Two Or More Races) [7]
Universe: Two or more races population 3 years and over
Table Details
C14007G. School Enrollment By Level Of School For The Population 3 Years And Over (Two Or More Races)
Universe: Two or more races population 3 years and over
Relevant Documentation:
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
School Enrollment and Type of School
Data on school enrollment and grade or level attending were derived from answers to Question 10. People were classified as enrolled in school if they were attending a public or private school or college at any time during the 3 months prior to the time of interview. The question included instructions to "include only nursery or preschool, kindergarten, elementary school, home school, and schooling which leads to a high school diploma, or a college degree." Respondents who did not answer the enrollment question were assigned the enrollment status and type of school of a person with the same age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino origin whose residence was in the same or nearby area.
School enrollment is only recorded if the schooling advances a person toward an elementary school certificate, a high school diploma, or a college, university, or professional school (such as law or medicine) degree. Tutoring or correspondence schools are included if credit can be obtained from a public or private school or college. People enrolled in "vocational, technical, or business school" such as post secondary vocational, trade, hospital school, and on job training were not reported as enrolled in school. Field interviewers were instructed to classify individuals who were home schooled as enrolled in private school. The guide sent out with the mail questionnaire includes instructions for how to classify home schoolers.
Enrolled in Public and Private School
Includes people who attended school in the reference period and indicated they were enrolled by marking one of the questionnaire categories for "public school, public college," or "private school, private college, home school." The instruction guide defines a public school as "any school or college controlled and supported primarily by a local, county, state, or federal government." Private schools are defined as schools supported and controlled primarily by religious organizations or other private groups. Home schools are defined as "parental-guided education outside of public or private school for grades 1-12." Respondents who marked both the "public" and "private" boxes are edited to the first entry, "public."
Comparability
Data on school enrollment also are collected and published by other federal, state, and local government agencies. Because these data are obtained from administrative records of school systems and institutions of higher learning, they are only roughly comparable to data from population censuses and surveys. Differences in definitions and concepts, subject matter covered, time references, and data collection methods contribute to the differences in estimates. At the local level, the difference between the location of the institution and the residence of the student may affect the comparability of census and administrative data because census data are collected from and based on a respondents residence. Differences between the boundaries of school districts and census geographic units also may affect these comparisons.
Question/Concept History
Since 1999, the American Community Survey refers to "regular school or college," while the 1996-1998 American Community Survey did not restrict reporting to "regular" school, and contained an additional category for the "vocational, technical or business school."
Grade in Which Enrolled
From 1999-2007, in the American Community Survey, people reported to be enrolled in "public school, public college" or "private school, private college" were classified by grade or level according to responses to Question 10b, "What grade or level was this person attending?" Seven levels were identified: "nursery school, preschool;" "kindergarten;" elementary "grade 1 to grade 4" or "grade 5 to grade 8;" "high school grade 9 to grade 12;" "college undergraduate years (freshman to senior);" and "graduate or professional school ( for example: medical, dental, or law school )."

In 2008, the school enrollment questions had several changes. "Home school" was explicitly included in the "private school, private college" category. For question 10b the categories changed to the following "Nursery school, preschool," "Kindergarten," "Grade 1 through grade 12," "College undergraduate years (freshman to senior)," "Graduate or professional school beyond a bachelor's degree (for example: MA or PhD program, or medical or law school)." The survey question allowed a write-in for the grades enrolled from 1-12.

Limitation of the Data
Beginning in 2006, the population universe in the American Community Survey includes people living in group quarters. Data users may see slight differences in levels of school enrollment in any given geographic area due to the inclusion of this population. The extent of this difference, if any, depends on the type of group quarters present and whether the group quarters population makes up a large proportion of the total population. For example, in areas that are home to several colleges and universities, the percent of individuals 18 to 24 who were enrolled in college or graduate school would increase, as people living in college dormitories are now included in the universe.
Question/Concept History
The 1996-1998 American Community Survey used the educational attainment question to estimate level of enrollment for those reported to be enrolled in school, and had a single year write-in for the attainment of grades 1 through 11. Grade levels estimated using the attainment question were not consistent with other estimates, so a new question specifically asking grade or level of enrollment was added starting with the 1999 American Community Survey questionnaire.
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Age
The data on age were derived from answers to Question 4. The age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years at the time of interview. Both age and date of birth are used in combination to calculate the most accurate age at the time of the interview. Inconsistently reported and missing values are assigned or imputed based on the values of other variables for that person, from other people in the household, or from people in other households ("hot deck" imputation). Data on age are used to determine the applicability of other questions for a particular individual and to classify other characteristics in tabulations. Age data are needed to interpret most social and economic characteristics used to plan and analyze programs and policies. Therefore, age data are tabulated by many different age groupings, such as 5-year age groups.
Median Age
The median age is the age that divides the population into two equal-size groups. Half of the population is older than the median age and half is younger. Median age is based on a standard distribution of the population by single years of age and is shown to
the nearest tenth of a year. (See the sections on "Standard Distributions" and "Medians" under "Derived Measures.")
Age Dependency Ratio
The age dependency ratio is derived by dividing the combined under-18 and 65-and-over populations by the 18-to-64 population and multiplying by 100.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio
The old-age dependency ratio is derived by dividing the population 65 years and over by the 18-to-64 population and multiplying by 100.
Child Dependency Ratio
The child dependency ratio is derived by dividing the population under 18 years by the 18-to-64 population, and multiplying by 100.
Limitation of the Data
Caution should be taken when comparing population in age groups across time. The entire population continually ages into older age groups over time and babies fill in the youngest age group. Therefore, the population of a certain age is made up of a completely different group of people in 2000 and 2008. Since populations occasionally experience booms/increases and busts/decreases in births, deaths, or migration (for example, the postwar Baby Boom from 1946-1964), one should not necessarily expect that the population in an age group in Census 2000 should be similar in size or proportion to the population in the same age group in the 2008 ACS. For example, Baby Boomers were age 36 to 54 in Census 2000 while they were age 44 to 62 in the 2008 ACS. Therefore, the age group 55 to 59 would show a considerable increase in population when comparing Census 2000 data with the 2008 ACS data. Beginning in 2006, the population in group quarters (GQ) is included in the ACS. Some types of GQ populations have age distributions that are very different from the household population. The inclusion of the GQ population could therefore have a noticeable impact on the age distribution. This is particularly true for areas with a substantial GQ population.
Question/Concept History
The 1996-2002 American Community Survey question asked for month, day, and year of birth before age. Since 2003, the American Community Survey question asked for age, followed by month, day, and year of birth. In 2008, an additional instruction was provided with the age and date of birth question on the American Community Survey questionnaire to report babies as age 0 when the child was less than 1 year old. The addition of this instruction occurred after 2005 National Census Test results indicated increased accuracy of age reporting for babies less than one year old.
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Two or More Races
People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses. The race response categories shown on the questionnaire are collapsed into the five minimum races identified by the OMB, and the Census Bureau's "Some other race" category. For data product purposes, "Two or More Races" refers to combinations of two or more of the following race categories:
1. White
2. Black or African American
3. American Indian and Alaska Native
4. Asian
5. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
6. Some other race

There are 57 possible combinations (see below) involving the race categories shown above. Thus, according to this approach, a response of "White" and "Asian" was tallied as two or more races, while a response of "Japanese" and "Chinese" was not because "Japanese" and "Chinese" are both Asian responses.
Excerpt from: Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey 2008 Summary File: Technical Documentation.
 
Two or More Races (57 Possible Specified Combinations)
  1. White; Black or African American
  2. White; American Indian and Alaska Native
  3. White; Asian
  4. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific
  5. Islander
  6. White; Some other race
  7. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  8. Black or African American; Asian
  9. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  10. Black or African American; Some other race
  11. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  12. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  13. American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  14. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  15. Asian; Some other race
  16. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  17. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native
  18. White; Black or African American; Asian
  19. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  20. White; Black or African American; Some other race
  21. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  22. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  23. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  24. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  25. White; Asian; Some other race
  26. White; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  27. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  28. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  29. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  30. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  31. Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
  32. Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  33. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  34. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  35. American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  36. Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  37. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian
  38. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  39. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Some other race
  40. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  41. White; Black or African American; Asian; Some other race
  42. White; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  43. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  44. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  45. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  46. White; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  47. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  48. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  49. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  50. Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  51. American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  52. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  53. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Some other race
  54. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  55. White; Black or African American; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  56. White; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  57. Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
  58. White; Black or African American; American Indian and Alaska Native; Asian; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander; Some other race
Given the many possible ways of displaying data on two or more races, data products will provide varying levels of detail. The most common presentation shows a single line indicating "Two or more races." Some data products provide totals of all 57 possible race combinations, as well as subtotals of people reporting a specific number of races, such as people reporting two races, people reporting three races, and so on. In other presentations on race, data are shown for the total number of people who reported one of the six categories alone or in combination with one or more other race categories. For example, the category, "Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races" includes people who reported Asian alone and people who reported Asian in combination with White, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and/or Some other race. This number, therefore, represents the maximum number of people who reported as Asian in the question on race. When this data presentation is used, the individual race categories will add to more than the total population because people may be included in more than one category.